POPLIN, a township in Rockingham county, was incorporated in 1764,and in 1810, contained 482 inhabitants; bounded N. by Epping, E. by Brentwood, S. by Hawke and Sandown, and W. by Chester and Raymond, comprising 9,702 acres. In the northwest part of the town is a small pond, and its southerly part is watered by Exeter fresh river. There is here a meeting-house, several mills, and a carding-machine. The inhabitants are principally of the methodist denomination.
PORTSMOUTH, the metropolis of New-Hampshire and its only seaport, lies on the southwest side of Piscataqua river. It was incorporated in 1633, and in 1810, it contained 6,934 inhabitants; bounded N. W. by Newington, N. E. by the river, S. E. and S. by Rye, and W. by Greenland and Newington. Its area is 10,350 acres. The northeastern boundary of Portsmouth is by the District of Maine, following the main channel of Piscataqua river. This line will include on Portsmouth side the following islands, viz. Goat’s, Pierce’s, Leach’s, Hospital, Shatley’s, and Salter’s. The compact part of this town contains about 225 acres, almost entirely surrounded by water, the distance being only 90 rods from the south millpond to the north pond. Into these ponds the tide flows, and
at their outlets are flood gates and mills. Portsmouth contains 927 dwelling-houses and 18 public buildings, viz. 3 congregational meeting-houses, 1 episcopal church, 1 meetinghouse for baptists, 1 for methodists, and 1 for universalists, an academy, 5 school-houses, a court-house, gaol, alms-house, and 2 markets. A female asylum was incorporated here in 1808, and there are also 4 incorporated banks and several insurance offices. An athenaeum was recently established and promises to be a respectable and useful institution. The houses erected in this town during the last ten years are generally of brick and of elegant architecture. In 1800, there were in this town 86 dwelling-houses of one story, 524 of two stories, and 21 of three stories, since which period the latter class have increased nearly one third in number and many have been erected of four stories. Portsmouth pier or wharf was built in 1795, by an incorporated company, 340 feet in length and of an average width of 60 feet. On this wharf was erected a handsome range of buildings 300 feet long, three stories high,and divided into fourteen stores. This range was destroyed by the great fire in 1813. A new market house was built in 1800, 80 feet long, 30 wide, and two stories high, the upper story of which is occupied as a town hall : a new fish market is also erected. Both of these markets are excellently supplied, especially the latter. The harbour of Portsmouth is in latitude 43° 5′ N. and in 70°4’W. long. from Greenwich: it is known to mariners by the following marks. Agamenticus, a remarkable mountain in the county of York, lies four leagues due N. Pidgeon hill on Cape Ann bears due S. 10 leagues, and the highest of the Isles of Shoals bears S. E. by S. distant S leagues from the entrance of the harbour. In the middle of the harbour’s mouth is Great-Island, on which stands the town of Newcastle, and on the northeast point of this island is the light-house. The following are directions for entering the harbour: ” Vessels coming from the east should keep in 12 fathoms water, till the light-house bears N. half a point E. or W. distant 3 miles to avoid a ledge of rocks which lie off the mouth of the harbour, then bear away for the light-house, keeping the western shore on board, and coming no nearer that shore than 9 fathoms, giving the light a proper birth and standing over to the northern shore of the river where they may anchor in 9 fathoms abreast of Sparhawk’s point. Ships coming from the southward should observe the same directions respecting the light and keep in 9 fathoms on the western shore.” Between the north side of Great Island and the Kittery shore is the main channel, about a mile wide and 9 or 10 fathoms deep. The anchorage is good, the shore is lined with rocks, and the harbour is landlocked on all sides and perfectly safe. The tide rises from 10 to 14 feet. The other entrance on the south side of Great-Island is called Little Harbour; the water here is shoal and the bottom sandy. Between the upper end of Great-Island and the town is a broad deep still water, called the pool, where the largest ships may ride very safely. This was the usual station for the mast ships, of which seven have been loading here at once. In this place the Astrea ship of war of 20 guns was burnt in 1744. Portsmouth has convenient wharves and good anchorage. The water is deep enough for the largest vessels, and the harbour has so many natural advantages and is so capable of defence, that it might be made a very safe and commodious naval depot. Ships of war have been built here at early and recent periods. The Falkland of 54 guns in 1690, Bedford Galley of 32 guns in 1696, as also the Raleigh of 32, and Ranger of 18. In 1782, the America of 74 guns was built here and was presented by Congress to the king of France. In 1814, the Washington of 74 guns was launched. In 1765, there were here 199 clearances and 115 entries from foreign ports. In 1790, and in 1791, the number of entries were 223, of which 34 were ships, 87 were brigs, 84 were schooners, and 18 were sloops. The number was afterwards much increased. In the year 1810, there belonged to this port 28 ships, 47 brigs, 10 schooners, 2 sloops, and 1 barge, all of them employed in foreign trade. There were also 20 fishing vessels and many coasters. This town is intersected by 32 streets, 40 lanes, 12 alleys, 4 roads, and 4 public squares. The principal streets are paved. The Portsmouth Aqueduct Company was incorporated in 1797, and in 1800, the town was supplied with excellent water for domestic uses, from a spring in Newington about 3 miles distant from Portsmouth pier. It is carried into almost every street in the town, and on the north side of the pier is a water-house and pump where ships can be supplied at 10 cents per hogshead. The greatest number of deaths in this town in any one of the last 15 years was 150, and the smallest number 100. The first meeting-house in Portsmouth was erected in 1640, and a Mr. Gibson was employed to preach in it. In 1664, another was erected. In 1671, Rev. J. Moody, the first ordained minister was settled here. Mr. Moody was indicted by Gov. Cranfield for refusing to administer the sacrament to him after the manner of the church of England. He was imprisoned and was afterwards conditionally discharged. Rev. Nathaniel
Rogers was ordained here in 1699; who was descended from John Rogers the celebrated martyr in the reign of queen Mary. He died in 1723, and was succeeded by Rev. Jabez Fitch who died in 1746.
Rev. Samuel Langdon was ordained here 1747, and was made president of Harvard college in 1774.
Rev. Joseph Buckminster, D.D. was ordained in this town in 1779, and died in 1812, aged 61. Rev. John Emerson was installed in the old parish in 1715. In 1732, the Rev. Mr. Shurtleff was ordained in the south meeting-house newly erected, and his successor Rev. Job Strong was ordained in 1749. Rev. Samuel Haven, D. D. was settled here in 1752, and died in 1806, aged 79. Dr. Haven and Dr.
Buckminster were among the most distinguished divines and eminent preachers and the most learned men of their country. Rev. T. Alden, was ordained colleague with Dr. Haven in 1799, and his successor is Rev. Nathan Parker the present minister. Queen’s chapel, now St. John’s church, was consecrated in 1734, and in 1792, an episcopalian society was incorporated here. Rev. A. Brown was settled over it in 1736, Rev. J. C. Ogden in 1786, Rev. J. Willard and C. Burroughs have succeeded, the letter of whom is the present pastor. In 1761, a meeting-house was built in this town by an independent congregational society, over whom Rev. L. Drown was settled, and was succeeded by Rev. J. Walton its present minister. Mr. Robert Sandiman came over to this country about the year 1764, and formed a society in this town, who afterwards built themselves a meeting-house. Mr.Sandiman died in Danbury in 1771. David Humphreys, Esq. has for many years officiated as teacher of this little flock. The society of universalists in Portsmouth was collected by the Rev. John Murray, who
first preached his doctrines here in 1776. In 1784, Rev. Noah Parker was settled over this society. Rev. J. Richards, his successor, was ordained in 1799, and was succeeded by the Rev. Hosea Ballou. Rev. Sebastian Streeter is the present minister. In 1802, a baptist society was formed in this town by Elder Elias Smith. The church was gathered in 1803, and now consists of 175 members. The methodists also have a small society in this town. The situation and climate of Portsmouth are salubrious. The annual average number of deaths for 25 years past has been about 120, except the year 1798, when the town was visited by the yellow fever and dysentery. This epidemic destroyed 107 persons between the 20th of July and the 6th of October of that year. Of these 55 died of the fever and 52 of the dysentery. In the year 1623, David Thompson, a scotchman, with several others from London landed at the mouth of Piscataqua river on its S. side, at a place which they called Little-harbour. Here they erected salt-works and a house, which they afterwards called Mason-hall. In 1631, Humphrey Chadbourne erected a house at Strawberry-bank. Several cannon also were placed during this year at the N. E. point of Great-Island. In 1632, the seacoast in this vicinity was alarmed by the piracies and depredation of Dixy Bull. In 1640, a grant of 50 acres of land was made to Thomas Walford and Henry Sherburne and their successors forever. In 1692, the small-pox raged with great violence in Portsmouth and Greenland, and few people being acquainted with its treatment, the mortality and sufferings were very great. In 1694, an attack was made upon the houses at Portsmouth plains by an Indian scouting party; 14 persons were killed on the spot, several others were _wounded, and a number taken prisoners. The houses also were plundered and burnt. In 1697, William Partridge a native of Portsmouth was appointed lieutenant-governor.
In 1705, the line of pickets, which enclosed Portsmouth, extended from the mill-pond on the S. side of the town to the creek on the S. side, and crossed the street a few rods W. of the present site of the court-house. Portsmouth has suffered in a remarkable manner by fire. On the 26th December, 1802, a fire broke out in one of the banks and destroyed 120 buildings, principally in Market and Daniel streets. On the 24th December, 1806, another conflagration destroyed about 20 buildings, including St. John’s church, but the most calamitous and destructive fire was on the 22d December, 1813. It swept over 15 acres and destroyed 173 buildings. These fires have been the cause of great improvements in the streets, the appearance, and police of the town.
POWOW RIVER, has its source in Kingston in Great pond and County pond, thence it passes the S. W. part of East-Kingston into Southampton, thence into Amesbury, where it takes an easterly course and passes again into Southampton, thence returning to Amesbury it empties into the Merrimack between Salisbury and Amesbury in Essex county, Mass. The falls on this river in Amesbury are remarkable. The water within the space of 50 rods falls 100 feet, carrying 1 bloomery, 5 saw-mills, 1 fulling-mill, and 1 snuff-mill, besides several other auxiliary mills. The rapidity of the falls, the continuity of the dams, the variety of the mills, and their mechanism, together with the irregularity of the houses, scenery, &c. give to this spot a singularly grotesque and romantic appearance and afford on the whole one of the most remarkable views in this country.
RAYMOND, in Rockingham county, was incorporated in 1764, and in 1810, contained 898 inhabitants; bounded N. by Nottingham and. Deerfield, E. by Epping and Poplin, S. by Chester, and W. by Candia and Chester, comprising 16,317 acres, of which 360 are water. Jones’ pond 250 rods long and 150 wide, and Governor’s pond 200 long and 100 wide are in this town, both of them emptying into Lamprey river. Exeter river passes the S. E. extremity and Petuckawav river the N. E. extremity of this town. There is here 1 meeting-house, 2 religious societies, 1 of them of congregationalists, over which the Rev. Mr. Stickney was settled. There are in Raymond, 3 grain-mills, 4 sawmills, and a fulling-mill.
RED HILL RIVER flows from Red hill pond in the town of Sandwich, and after a southerly course of about 6 miles fails into the N. E. arm of Winnipiseogee lake.
RICHMOND, a township in the S. part of Cheshire county, was incorporated in 1752, and in 1810, contained 1290 inhabitants; bounded N. by Swansey, E. by Fitzwilliam, S. by Massachusetts, and W. by Winchester, comprising 23,725 acres. Here are several ponds, the waters of which fall into Ashnelot, and one of them is the source of Miller’s river. Ashuelot turnpike passes thru this town. There are here two societies of baptists and one of Friends, and two meeting-houses in a small village near the centre of the town. There are also in Richmond 5 grain-mills, 5 saw-mills, 1 clothing-mill, and 1 carding-machine. Elders Bellew and Aldrich were first settled here, Elder Billings is the present pastor.
RINDGE, in the N.E. part of Cheshire county, was incorporated in 1760, and in 1810, contained 1226 inhabitants; bounded N.by Jaffrey and Sharon, E. by New-Ipswich, S. by Massachusetts, and W. by Fitzwilliam, comprising 23,838 acres, of which 660 are water. There are in this town 12 ponds, the largest of which (Menomonock pond) has about 200 acres. Of the others some contain 100 acres and others are smaller. The waters from some of them unite with the Menomonock, others
empty into Miller’s river and others into the Contoocook river. Red and yellow ochre, crystals, crystalline spars, aiad vitriol are found here. Rindge has a pleasant village lying on the turnpike, containing a congregational meeting-house, several mills, etc, Rev. Seth Dean was ordained here in 1765, and Rev. Seth Payson succeeded him in 1782, and is the present minister. In 1775, this town contained only 542 inhabitants.
ROCHESTER, in Strafford county, was incorporated in 1722, and contains 2118 inhabitants; bounded N. E. by Salmon fall river, which divides it from Lebanon, (in Maine,) S.E. by Somersworth and Dover, S. W. by Barrington, and N.W. by Farmington and Milton, comprising 26,609 acres. Cochecho river flows through this town from N. to S. and receives Isinglass river near Dover line. Near the centre of the town is a village called Norway plains, containing a meetinghouse, a court-house, about 40 dwelling-houses, and several stores. There are also in this town 4 grain-mills,4 saw-mills, 2 carding-machines, and a cotton factory. One term of the district court of common pleas is held here annually. Rev. Amos Maine was ordained in this town in 1737. His successors have been Rev. Messrs. Hill, Hall, and Haven, the latter of whom is the present pastor. In 1746, and in 1747, the Indians made excursions against this town in small parties, committing many depredations and some murders.
ROCKINGHAM COUNTY is bounded N. E. by Strafford county and Piscataqua river, E. about 14 miles by the sea, S. E. and S. by Massachusetts, and W. by Hillsborough county, comprising an area of 661, 646 acres of land and water. This county contains 46 townships, and according to the census of 1810, a population of 50,115 inhabitants, 8,404 of whom were legal voters. It has 80 meeting-houses, 6 academies, 132 grain-mills, 161 saw-mills, 38 clothing-mills, 5 cotton and 2 woolen factories, 26 carding-machines, 5 paper-mills, 4 oil-mills, and 130 trading stores exclusive of those in Portsmouth. In 1812, the returns of cattle and horses in this county were as follows; 19 stud-horses, 5,271 other horses, 205 of four years old, 334 of three years old, and 337 of two years old; 7,164 oxen, 3,335 of four years old, 16,913 cows, 8,433 of three years old cattle, and 9,019 of two years old. By the best estimates there were 61,340 sheep and 3,634 acres of orcharding.
The principal towns in this county are Portsmouth, Concord, Exeter, and Londonderry. In Portsmouth, as Well as in Exeter, there is a courthouse and a county gaol. The superior court is holden for this county at Portsmouth and Exeter alternately. The courts of common pleas are also holden in those towns alternately. Probate courts are holden in Portsmouth, Exeter, and Londonderry.
ROXBURY, in Cheshire county, was incorporated in 1812, and is bounded N. by Sullivan, E. by Nelson and Dublin, S. by Marlborough, and W. by Keene, comprising about 6000 acres. This town was incorporated subsequent to the last census and of course its population has not been estimated. There is here a meetinghouse, a grain-mill, a saw-mill, and a clothing-mill.
RUMNEY, in Grafton county, was incorporated in 1767, and contains 765 inhabitants; bounded N. E. by Ellsworth, E. by Campton, S. W. by Groton and Hebron, and N. W.by Wentworth, comprising an area of 22,475 acres. In the north part of the town is Stinson’s pond 400 rods long and 280 wide, from which flows a considerable stream called brook, emptying into Baker’s river. This river passes the southerly extremity of the town. Stinson’s mountain lies near the pond, and a part of Carr’s and several other mountains are in this town. There is here a meeting-house in which Rev., Thomas Niles was first settled. Elders C. Haines and Wilmouth have succeeded him, but at present it has no minister. Through this town on the south side of Baker’s river passes the great road from Plymouth to the Coos turnpike.
RYE, a township in Rockingham county, lying on the seacoast opposite to the Isles of Shoals, was incorporated in 1719, and contains 1020 inhabitants; bounded N. and N.W. by Portsmouth, N. E. by Little Harbour, E. by the sea, S. by Northampton, and W. by Greenland, comprising 7,780 acres. On the shore there are three very pleasant beaches, viz. Jenness’, Sandy, and Wallace’s. A bridge at Little Harbour unites the towns of Rye and Newcastle. The soil of this town is not naturally fertile, but it is made remarkably productive by the assistance of seaweed, which is ascertained to be an excellent manure. Rev. Nath’l Morrill was settled here in 1726, Rev. Samuel Parsons in 1736, and the present minister Rev. Huntington Porter in 1814. There is here 1 meetinghouse, 2 school-houses, 3 grain and 3 saw-mills. In the fall of 1814, a boat from a British fleet approached the shore at Rye, and on being fired upon by the inhabitants, it immediately returned with a loss; it is supposed, of several men.
SACO RIVER has its Source on the White mountains near what is called the notch, and in the vicinity of the source of the Lower Amonoosuck, which runs westerly into Connecticut river. Saco river flows in a southerly course down the mountains about 12 miles, then taking an easterly direction it enters the town of Bartlett, where it receives Ellis river, which rises in the easterly pass of the mountain near the source of Peabody river. Within the distance of half a mile from these mountains two large streams flow down the highest of the mountains, one of them into Ellis river. The former of these is Cutler’s river and the latter is New river. The latter made its appearance in October, 1775, during a long rain. In its course it broke down many rocks and trees and presented a wide spectacle of ruin. At its junction with Ellis river there is a noble cascade of 100 feet in height. Several, other branches of Saco river flow from other parts of the mountains. From Bartlett the course of the Saco is S. about 10 miles to the lower part of Conway, where it receives Swift river from Burton, thence in an easterly course it passes into Fryburgh and Brownsfield in Maine, and from thence to the sea it has a southeasterly course of about forty-five miles. This river rises and overflows very suddenly in rainy seasons and subsides very rapidly after the cessation of the rains. In the great flood of 1775, when the New river broke out, the banks of the Saco were overflowed very suddenly, and the waters were of a deep red colour for several days, probably from passing over iron ore. This appearance was superstitiously supposed to be that of blood, and was considered as ominous of public calamity. On the subsiding of the waters, it was observed, that the bed of the river in some places was widened and the course of several of its branches changed. In a great freshet it has risen 25 feet, but its common rise is about 10 feet.
SALEM NEW, generally called New-Salem, is in Rockingham county, was incorporated in 1750, and contains 1179 inhabitants; bounded N. by Londonderry, E. by Atkinson and the line of Massachusetts, 8. by this line and Pelham, and W. by Windham, comprising 15,600 acres. In this place are World’s pond, Captain’s pond, Policy pond, etc. all of which fall into Spiggot river. The soil here is well watered and fertile. The Londonderry turnpike passes through this town. Rev. A. Bailey was settled here in 1740, and Elder Samuel Fletcher in 1780. Rev. John Smith is the present pastor. There is here also a small society of methodists, another of baptists, a pleasant village of 12 or 14 houses, 4 grain-mills, 3 saw-mills, a woolen factory, a fulling-mill, and a carding-machine.
SALISBURY, a township in the N.E. part of Hillsborough county, formerly called Stephenstown, was incorporated in 1768, and contains 1913 inhabitants; bounded N. by Andover, E. by Merrimack river, which divides it from Northfield, S. by Boscawen and Warner, and W. by Kearsarge Gore and mountain, comprising an area of 28,600 acres. Blackwater river, a branch of the Contoocook passes the W. part of this town and forms several bays near the line of Andover. A toll bridge connects the N.E. part of this town with Sanbornton. There is a very flourishing village at Webster’s falls, near the mouth of Winnipiseogee river. A part of Kearsarge mountain is in Salisbury, and through this town passes the 4th N. H. turnpike from Dartmouth college to Concord. On this road in the S. part of the town is a flourishing village, containing 20 or 30 houses, stores, etc. There are in this town a congregational and baptist society, 2 handsome meeting-houses, an academy, several grain and saw-mills, a clothing-mill, wire-factory, oil-mill, 2 carding-machines, and 6 trading stores. Rev. J. Searle was ordained here in 1773. The present ministers are the Rev. T. Worcester and Elder 0. Robinson.
SALMON FALLS RIVER is the eastern and main branch of the Piscataqua (which see.)
SANBORNTON, in the S. W. part of Strafford county, was incorporated in 1770, and contains 2,884 inhabitants; bounded N. W. by New-Hampton, N. E. by Meredith, E. by the Great bay, which divides it from Gilford, S.E. by Gilmanton, S. by Winnipiseogee lake, and W. by Pemgeway river, which divides it from Salisbury, Andover, and New-Chester; this river unites with Winnipiseogee lake in the S. W. part of the town, at which place the confluent streams become the Merrimack river. The bays and rivers, which almost encircle this town measure nearly 30 miles,and the bay between this town and Meredith is 3 miles wide. Salmon brook pond is the only pond in this town, and is 130 rods long And 50 wide. Salmon brook mountain is in Sanbornton. Republican ridge connects this town with Salisbury and Union bridge unites it to Gilmanton. There are in this town 3 religious societies, 2 of baptists and 1 of congregationalists, each of them owning a handsome meeting-house. Rev. J. Woodman the first minister in this town was ordained in 1771. The present ministers are Rev. J. Bodwell, Elders Crocket and Cheney. Sanbornton has 11 grain-mills, 13 saw• mills, 3 clothing-mills, 2 carding-machines, 1 nail-factory, an oil-mill, a distillery. and 6 trading stores.
SANDOWN, in Rockingham county, was incorporated in 1756, and in 1810, contained 504 inhabitants; bounded N. by Chester and Poplin, E. by Hawke, S. by Hampstead, and W. by Chester and part of Londonderry, comprising 8,532 acres, of which 200 are water. The largest parts of Chub pond and of Angle pond are in this town, one on its eastern and the other on its northern line; the former is 140 rods wide and the latter 100, emptying itself into Exeter river, which passes through this town. Rev. Josiah Cotton the first minister here, was ordained in 1759, and was succeeded, for a short time by the Rev. S. Collins. The inhabitants are generally baptists and methodists. There is here a meeting-house and several mills.
SANDWICH, in the N. part of Strafford county, was incorporated in 1763, and contains 2,232 inhabitants; bounded N. by Sandwich mountains an unlocated tract, E. by Tamworth, S. by Moultonborough, and W. by Campton, Holderness and Thornton, comprising an area of 54,600 acres. Red Hill pond and Bear Camp pond are in this town, forming the sources of two rivers of the same names. In the northwest part of the town is part of Squam mountain and of Squam lake, (see Squaw:, lake.)
There are here three religious societies; one of baptists, one of methodists, and one of friends. Elder Quimby is a settled preacher here. There are in Sandwich 6 grain-mills, 6 saw-mills, 1 clothing-mill, 1 carding-machine, and 3 trading stores.
SAWYER’S LOCATION. (See Nash’s and Sawyer’s location.)
SEABROOK, in Rockingham county, is in the northeast extremity of the state. It was incorporated in 1768, and contains 774 inhabitants ; bounded N. by Hampton Falls, E. by the sea, S. by the line of Massachusetts dividing it from Salisbury, and W. by Southampton and part of Kensington, comprising an area of 3,307 acres. Gains’ brook waters the east part of the town and falls into the sea at Hampton. This part of the town is an extensive salt marsh. There are here two societies of congregationalists and one of friends, each having a meeting-house in a village of about 40 houses, etc. Rev. S. Perley was ordained here in 1765. The present pastor is Rev. E. Hull. Seabrook was formerly a part of Hampton. It is 9 miles from Exeter, the road passing through it from Portsmouth to Newburyport.
SHARON, in the west part of Hillsborough county, was incorporated in 1791, and contains 446 inhabitants; bounded N. by Peterborough, E. by Temple, S. by New-Ipswich and Rindge, and W. by Jaffrey, comprising an area of 10,000 acres. Several small streams rise in this town and fall into Contoocook river. On the line between this town and Rindge is a cragged mountain 200 feet higher than the surrounding country. The 3d N. H. turnpike passes over the southwest extremity of this town.
SHELBURNE, in Coos county, was incorporated in 1769, and contains 176 inhabitants; bounded N. by Success and Maynesborough, E. by the District of Maine, S. by unlocated lands, and W. by Durand, comprising 45,140 acres. Ameriscoggin river in its passage through this town into Maine, receives Peabody and Moose rivers and several smaller streams. Mount Moriahand some other large mountains are in Shelburne. There are here 2 grain and 2 sawmills:
SHOALS, ISLES OF, are seven in number and lie on the coast of New-Hampshire. The celebrated John Smith gave his own name to them, but the ingratitude of posterity has denied this small honour to his memory. Staten island belongs to New-Hampshire, and on this is the town of Gosport. The others are in the District of Maine. They are inhabited by about 100 fishermen and have a meeting-house, which serves as a land mark to seamen. There has also been erected here by charity a parsonage house. There is here good moorings and an artificial dock constructed by Mr. Haley. Vessels sometimes put in here in bad weather, but large ships cannot do this safely. From Star island to dry salvage rock the course is S. 4. W. 8 leagues to Portsmouth, N. N. W. 3 leagues to Newburyport bar, S. W. 7 leagues, N. lat. 42° 59′, W. long. 70° 33′. Rev. John Tuck was ordained here in 1732, and died in 1773, aged 77.
SIMS STREAM rises in the mountains in Columbia from several ponds and springs, and falls into the Connecticut river near the northwest extremity of the town.
SMITH’S RIVER rises in Orange and Grafton, near Isinglass mountain, and after an easterly course of 16 miles through Danbury and Alexandria, falls into the Pemigewasset river in the upper part of New-Chester. Its mouth is 20 yards wide.
SOCIETY LAND, in Hillsborough county, contains 199 inhabitants; bounded N. by Deering, E. by Francestown, S. by Greenfield, and W. by Contoocook river which divides it from Antrim: its area is 3,300 acres. Crotchet mountain lies on its south and east line.
SoOMERSWORTH, in the southeast extremity of Strafford county, was formerly a part of Dover. It was incorporated in 1754, and contains 878 inhabitants; bounded N. W. by Rochester, N. E. by Salmon fall river which divides it from Berwick, and S. and S.W. by Dover, comprising an area of 10,048 acres. There are in this town several ponds, such as Cole’s pond 150 rods long and half as wide; Humphreys pond on the line of Dover, 200 long and 120 wide. Dover turnpike passes through the southeast part of this town and over Quampegan bridge into Berwick. Somersworth has one meeting-house. The Rev. James Pike was settled here in 1730, and he has been succeeded by the Rev. P. Thurston. There are in this town 3 grain and 3 sawmills, 2 fulling-mills, and 1 trading store. The history of this town records a violent thunder storm in 1779, during which the meeting-house was consumed by lightning and its bell was melted and fell in a state of fusion.
SOUCOOK RIVER rises from three ponds in the southerly part of Gilmanton, one of which is Soon pond. The several branches unite in Loudon, and passing between Concord and Pembroke, fall into the Merrimack river below Garvin’s falls. On this stream is a large number of mills of various kinds.
SOUTHAMPTON, in Rockingham county, was incorporated in 1742, and contains 427 inhabitants; bounded N. by East-Kingston and Kensington, E. by Seabrook, S. by Amesbury, and W. by Newtown, comprising 9,400 acres. Powow river flows through this town and affords many valuable mill seats. There is here one meeting-house. Rev. William Parsons was settled in this town in 1743, and Rev. N. Noyes in 1763. Southampton was formerly a part of Hampton and granted by Massachusetts.
SOWHEGAN RIVER has the sources of its southerly branch in New-Ipswich, Temple, Wilton, and Lyndeborough. Another branch flows from New-Boston and Mount-Vernon, and passes through Milford and Amherst. The two branches unite in the town of Merrimack and fall into the river of that name opposite Litchfield.
SPIGOOT RIVER rises in Londonderry and Hampstead from island pond. After passing through Salem and receiving the waters of several ponds in that town, it falls into the Merrimack river between Methuen and Dracut in Massachusetts.
SPRINGFIELD, in Cheshire county, was incorporated in 1794, and contains 814 inhabitants; bounded N. E. by Grafton, S. E. by Wilmot and New-London, and W. bv Croydon and New-Grantham, comprising 28,350 acres, 200 of which are water. Stallion pond in this town is 230 rods long and 140 wide; Silly pond is 240 long and about 80 wide. A branch of Sugar river has its source here. Through the N. E. part of the town passes the 4th N.H. turnpike. Springfield is in the N. E. extremity of the county adjoining Hillsborough and Grafton counties. There are here 3 religious societies, 1 meeting-house, 11 mills, and 1 store.
SQUAM LAKE AND RIVER. This lake lies on the borders of Holderness, Moultonborough, Sandwich, and Centre-harbor. It is about 6 miles in length and nearly 5 miles wide, containing probably about 6,500 acres. It has several small islands, the largest of which is Fowler’s, 300′ rods long and 120 wide. This lake might easily communicate with Winnipiseogee lake, the distance between them being only 500 rods wide. The stream from Squam lake to Little Squam pond, (called Squam river) is 100 rods long, thence through the pond to its outlet is 400, thence to Pemigewasset river the distance is 1000 rods. The river and the pond are in Holderness.
STEWARTSTOWN is in the N. part of Coos county, and contains 176 inhabitants; bounded N. by college lands, E. by Dixville, S. by Colebrook, and W. by Vermont, comprising 27,381 acres. Dimond pond is in this town, forming the source of Dimond river. Bishop’s brook, Dead water river, and Mohawk river also have their sources here. Hall’s stream unites with the Contoocook in this town. On these several streams are numerous mills.
STODDARD, in Cheshire county, was incorporated in 1774, and contains 1139 inhabitants. It was formerly called Limerick, and is bounded N. by Washington, E. by Windsor and Antrim, S. by Nelson and Sullivan, and W. by Sullivan, Gilsum, and Marlow. It contains 35,925 acres, 1100 of which are water. There are here 17 ponds, all of which discharge their waters into Ashuelot and Contoocook rivers. A ridge of mountains extends more than half through this town. There are here 2 religious societies, 1 meetinghouse, 4 grain-mills, 3 sawmills, and 1 clothing-mill.
STRAFFORD COUNTY iS bounded W. and N. W. by Grafton county, N. by Coos county, E. by the District of Maine, and S. by Rockingham county, comprising 861,171 acres of land and water. This county contains 41,595 inhabitants, 6,828 of whom are legal voters. It has 32 townships, and in 1813, it had 50 meeting-houses, 1 academy, 920 grain-mills, 127 saw-mills, 32 clothing-mills, 4 oil-mills, 4 cotton-factories, 1 woolen-factory, 21 carding-machines, 10 distilleries, and 88 trading stores. In 1810, there were in this county 23 stud-horses, 4,444 other horses, 238 four years old, 312 three years old, and 495 two years old ; 5,685 oxen, 3,223 four years old; 12,874 cows, 8,682 three years old cattle, 9,395 two years old cattle, 1 mule, 1 jack, and 1,783 acres of orcharding. The principal towns in this county are Dover, Durham, Rochester, and Gilmanton. The superior court holds its sessions for this county at Dover, the common pleas are holden alternately at Rochester and Gilmanton, and the probate court is held also in these two towns. The county gaol is at Dover. Straffbrd sends 35 representatives to the state legislature.