Taken from The New Hampshire Gazetter 1817

GREENFIELD, a township in Hillsborough county, incorpo­rated in 1791, and containing in 1810, a population of 980.-it is bounded N. by a part of Hancock and Francestown, E. by Francestown and Lyndeborough, S. by Temple, and W. by Peterborough, and con­tains 16,904 acres, 187 of which are water. Contoocook river separates this town from Hancock. There is here one pond about 200 rods long and 100 wide, besides several oth­ers of less note. A part of Crotchet mountain rises from the north part of this town, and there is also a mountainous tract in the southerly part. Greenfield contains a congregational meeting-house, (in which Rev. J. Walker was, ordained in 1812,) several mills, and 2 stores.

GREENLAND, a township in Rockingham county, incorpo­rated in 1703, and now containing 592 inhabitants ; bound­ed N. by the Great Bay and Newington,. E: by Portsmouth and Rye, S. by Northampton, and W. by Stratham, compris­ing 6,335 acres. The land here which borders upon the bay is of an uncommonly good quality, and in a high state of cultivation. This part of the town is celebrated for produc­ing excellent cider, large quan­tities of which are sold here annually. The soil in other parts of the town is light and sandy but not unproductive. Rev. William Allen, the first settled minister in this town, was ordained in 1707, and died in 1760, at the age of 84. His successors have been the Rev. Messrs. M’Clintock, Neal, and Abbot. The latter gentleman is the present minister. There is here a spacious meeting­house for the congregationalists, and a very convenient one for the joint use of the metho­dists and baptists. There are also in this town 3 grist-mills, 2 saw-mills, and several trading shops.

GROTON, a township in Graf­ton county, incorporated in 1761. It was formerly called Cockermouth. Its population in 1810, was 549. It lies about 15 miles N. of Dartmouth col­lege, and is bounded N. E. by Rumney, S. E. by Hebron, S. W. by Orange, and W. by Dor­chester, and contains 16,531 acres. The northerly part of the town is watered by several branches of Baker’s river, and a number of streams which fall into New Found pond have their sources here. There is in Groton an iron furnace for casting hollow ware. This furnace is heated by wood, and the fire is kept alive by the action of air put in motion by the falling of water through a box, etc. The first minister in this town was the Rev. S. Perley, who was ordained in 1779, and was succeeded by the Rev. William Rolf, who is the pre­sent pastor. There is here 1 congregational and 1 baptist society, 1 meeting-house, 2 grain-mills, 4 saw-mills.

HALL’S STREAM rises in the highlands which separate Ver­mont from Lower Canada, and falls into Connecticut river at the N. W. extremity of Stewartstown.

HALE’S LOCATION iS situat­ed in Coos county, and is bounded N. and W. by ungranted lands, E. by Conway, and S. by Burton. It is 800 rods in length and 173 in width at its north, and 320 at its south extremity.

HAMPSTEAD, a township in Rockingham county, was in­corporated in 1749, and con­tained in 1810, a population of 733. It is bounded N. by Hawke and Sandown, S. E. by Plaistow, S. by Atkinson, and W. by Londonderry, and con­tains 10,623 acres, 400 of which are water. There is here Wash pond, containing about 200 acres, and a part of Island pond about the same size. The Rev. Henry True was settled here in 1752, and died in 1782. The Rev. John Kelly is the present minister. There is a pleasant village in this town comprising 10 or 12 dwelling-houses, a meeting-house, and several trading shops.

HAMPTON, a township in Rockingham county, lying on the seacoast. It was incorpo­rated in 1638, and contains a population of 990. It is bound­ed N. E. by Northampton, S. E. by the sea, S. W. by South Hampton, and N. W. by a part of Exeter, and contains 18,129 acres. Hampton was called by the Indians Winicowett. Its first minister was Stephen Bachelder, who was settled in 1638, and dismissed in 1641. His successors have been Timothy Dalton, John Wheelwright, (a brother of the celebrated Mrs. Hutchinson,) Seaborn Cotton, John Cotton, Nathaniel Gookin, Ward Cotton, Ebenezer Thayer, William Pidgeon, Jes­se Appleton, (now president of Bowdoin college,) and J. Webster, the present pastor. Hampton is a valuable and nourishing township, contain­ing two meeting-houses, and in its compact part, many hand­some buildings and several shops. An academy has re­cently been opened here, which has much promise of useful­ness. Between the years 1731 and 1791, there were in this town 884 deaths and 1725 births, of which latter 897 were males and 828 females. The largest number of deaths in any one year was 69, and the smallest number was 7. In the year 1737, 69 persons died here, 55 of them by the throat distem­per. On the same year there died of that disease, 99 in Portsmouth, 88 in Dover, 210 in Hampton falls, 127 in Exe­ter, 11 in Newcastle, 37 in Gosport, 44 in Rye, 18 in Greenland, 21 in Newington, 22 in Newmarket, 18 in Stratham, 113 in Kingston, 10 in Durham, and 22 in Chester, in all about one thousand deaths from July, 1736 to September 1737.
In the year 1754, the same disease again visited Hampton and carried off 55 persons. In the year 1638, the gener­al assembly authorized Mr. Dummer of Newbury, together With John Spencer to erect a house in Hampton, which was afterward called the bound house, although it was intend­ed as a mark of possession rather than of limit. This step having been taken toward population, a petition praying leave to settle here, was presented to the assembly by a number of persons chief­ly from Norfolk in England, and the prayer was granted. They commenced operations by laying out the township in­to 147 shares, and having form­ed a church, they chose Stephen Bachelder for their minister, with whom Timothy Dalton was afterwards associated. The original number of inhab­itants was 56, among whom were John Moulton, Christo­pher Hussey, William Sargeant, etc. In July, 1617, the Indians having commenced their work of depredation and death, the government ordered 200 friend­ly Indians and 40 English sol­diers under the command of Capt. Benjamin Swett of Hampton and Lieut. Richard­son to march to the falls of Taconee on Kennebeck river; in the course of the march, Swett discovered in the place now called Scarborough, three parties of Indians stationed on a plain. He separated his men in the same manner and pre­pared to attack them. The en­emy continued to retreat, till they had drawn our men about two miles from the fort, and then turning suddenly upon our youthful and unexperienced soldiers, they threw them into confusion. Swett, with a few of his most resolute companions fought bravely on his retreat, till he came near the fort where he was killed and 60 more left dead or wounded. On the 17th of August, 1703, a party of 30 Indians under Capt. Tour, killed 55 persons in Hampton, among whom was a widow Mussey, celebrated as a preacher among the quakers, by whom she was much lamented.

HAMPTON FALLS, formerly a part of Hampton, was incor­porated in 1712, and now con­tains 570 inhabitants; bounded N.E. by Hampton, S.E. by the salt marsh, S. by Seabrook, W. by Kensington, and N. W. by Exeter, and contains 7,400 a­cres. Theophilus Cotton, the first minister settled here, was or­dained in 1712, and died 1726. His successors have been Rev. Joseph Whipple, Jonah Bailey, Paine Wingate, Samuel Langdon, D. D., and the pressent minister, Rev. J. Abbot. There are here 2 meeting-houses, 1 for congregationalists and another for baptists, S grist-mills, 2 saw-mills, 1 clothing-mill, and 1 carding-ma­chine. From July 26, 1730 to September 26, 1736, there were 210 persons destroyed here by the throat distemper, 160 of whom were under the age of 10, 40 between the ages of 10 and 20, 9 above 20, and several more than 30 years old.

HANCOCK, a township in Hillsborough county, incorpo­rated in 1779, and now contain­ing 1184 inhabitants; bounded N. by Antrim, E. by Green­field, S. by Peterborough, and W. by the line of Cheshire county, which divides it from Nelson, comprising within the limits 19,372 acres. The south branch of Contoocook river separates this town from Greenfield. There is here a pleasant village, containing a­bout 15 dwelling houses, stores, etc. a meeting-house, a cot­ton and woolen factory, 5 grist-mills, 5 saw-mills, 2 cloth­ing-mills, and 1 carding-machine. Rev. Reid Page was ordained here in 1791, and is the present minister.

HANOVER, a township in Grafton county, incorporated in 1761, and now containing 2135 inhabitants; bounded N. by Lyme, E. by Canaan, S. by Lebanon, and W. by Connecti­cut river. It is about 6 miles square and contains 27,745 a­cres of land and water. In the river in front of the town there are three small islands, the largest of which is 75 rods long and 20 wide. Moose moun­tain extends across the town from N. to S. at a distance of 5 miles from the river. Graf­ton turnpike passes through the N.E. part of the town to Or­ford. At a short distance from the colleges there is a handsome bridge, which con­nects this town with Norwich. There are in Hanover 2 meet­ing houses, centrally situated near the colleges, and 4 relig­ious societies, 3 of which are of the congregational, and of the baptist denomination. The edifices of Dartmouth college are situated on a hand­some plain in this town, about half a mile from the river in latitude 43° 33′. This institu­tion derived its name from the right Hon. William, Earl of Dartmouth, who was one of its first and most generous bene­factors. It was founded by the pious and benevolent Dr. Eleazer Wheelock, who in 1769, obtained a royal charter, wherein ample privileges were granted and suitable provision was made for the education of Indian youth, in such a manner as should appear most expedi­ent for civilizing and christian­izing them, also for the instruc­tion of English youth in all the liberal arts and sciences. The institution, thus established, gradually grew into an use­ful and flourishing seminary. In 1754, Dr. Wheelock, having collected large donations from different parts of England, Scotland, and America, and es­pecially from Mr. Joshua Moor of Mansfield, established a school for the instruction of In­dian youth in Stockbridge, Massachusetts, to which he gave the name of Moor’s school. As the number of candidates for this school increased, it be­came necessary to erect suitable buildings. That part of the country, where it was first established, having become populous, a removal was de­termined on. When this in­tention became publicly known, proposals were made by many private and public characters in several of the neighbouring col­onies. The prudent foresight of the founder, sanctioned by the advice of the trustees in England in whose hands the donations were lodged, and at the head of whom was the Earl of Dart­mouth, induced him to accept proposals, which were made by the governor of New-Hamp­shire and other gentlemen in this state. The town of Han­over was accordingly fixed upon as the most convenient situ­ation for the school. His ex­cellency governor Wentworth soon annexed a charter for an university, December 13,1769, which received the name of Dartmouth college from its principal benefactor. The college received large donations of land including the whole township of Landaff, be­sides many other wild tracts in different situations, amounting in the whole to 44,000 acres. A valuable lot of 500 acres in Hanover was selected as the site of the school and college. Besides these donations of land, the sum of 340 pounds sterling was subscribed to be paid in labour, provisions, and materi­als for building. In September, 1770, Dr. Wheelock removed his family and school into the wilderness. At first their accommodations were similar to those of other new settlers. They erected log-houses, which they occupi­ed till better edifices could be prepared. The number of scholars at that time was 24, 6 of whom were Indians. In 1771, the first commence­ment was held, and degrees were conferred on four stu­dents, one of whom was John Wheelock, the son and succes­sor of the founder. The funds of this institution consist chiefly of lands, which are increasing in value with the growth of the country. The annual revenue from these lands is not far from $2000 and that arising from tuition has been $2100. The number of students has generally averaged 100. A grammar school con­sisting of about 50 or 60 schol­ars is annexed to the college. The immediate instruction and government of the college is entrusted to the president, (who is also professor of his­tory,) a professor of mathematics and natural philosophy, a professor of languages, a professor of divinity, and two tutors. During the forty-three years since the college was founded, it has conferred de­grees upon 1163 students, of whom 330 have been clergy­men. The whole number of students during that period has been 1387, of whom 225 have died. There is attached to this sem­inary a handsome library and a complete philosophical apparatus. In 1786, a new college was erected three stories high, and 150 by 50 feet, containing 36 rooms for students. There are several other buildings be­longing to the institution. In consideration of the present con­test, which is now pending on the con­cerns of this institution, a particular ac­count of its present government is omitted. In 1815, the trustees removed from office the president (Hon. John Wheelock) and appointed Rev. Fran­cis Brown as his successor. In the course of the same year the legislative and executive government of New-Hampshire erected a new board of trustees and appointed a new set of executive officers, to whom the old trustees and the old officers refuse to surrender the property or the instruc­tion of the college, until it shall be ju­dicially decided, whether the legislature have any power to make the above interference. The students generally have followed the old government al­though the new-officers have taken possession of the public rooms, the li­brary, apparatus, etc. The old gov­ernment consist of president Brown, and professors Adams and Shurtleff. The new officers are the Rev..William Allen (acting President,) and profess­ors Dean and Carter. We express no opinion on the merits of the unhappy controversy which has produced this singular situation of the college. It is ardently hoped, that the questions Pending will soon be decided and the institution resume its former useful­ness and prosperity. Hon. John Wheel­ock died in April, 1817.Commencement is holden on the first Wednesday of Au­gust. There are three vaca­tions, the first from commence­ment three and a half weeks, another from the first Monday of January, eight and a half weeks. The medical depart­ment here is respectable and extremely useful. It was es­tablished in 1798. For the lectures on anatomy the pro­fessor is furnished with valuable preparations, and in the chemical department there is a well furnished laboratory. The lectures on anatomy, surgery, chymistry, materia medica, and the theory and practice of physic commence on the first Wednesday of October and continue eight weeks. There are about 4000 volumes in the college library, and about 2000 in the libraries formed by the students. Moor’s Indian school is con­nected with the college, having the same trustees and president. Its annual revenue is from 1400 to $600.

HAVERHILL, a township on Connecticut river in Grafton county, incorporated in 1713, and containing in 1810 a pop­ulation of 1105; bounded N. E. by Bath, E. by Coventry, S.W. by Piermont, and W. by Connecticut river, containing 34,340 acres. Sugar loaf moun­tain lies on the eastern side of the town bordering on Coventry. Oliverian river passes through the southerly extremi­ty of Haverhill and falls into Connecticut river at the com­pact village. Fisher’s brook passes above the centre of the town and falls into the river at the Great Oxbow or little lend. There have been three bridges thrown from this town to New­bury, (Vt.) There is a hand­some village in the southwest part of the town, containing 50 or 60 dwelling-houses, an elegant meeting-house, a court­house, a county-prison, an academy, 2 smaller meeting-houses, 3 grain-mills, 5 saw-mills, 1 clothing mill, a carding-machine, and an oil-mill. Iron ore is found in this town and also a quarry of free-stone suitable for hearths and chim­ney pieces. The superior court hold its sessions here for the county of Grafton.

HAWKE, a township in Rock­ingham county, incorporated in 1769, and now containing 412 inhabitants: bounded N. by Poplin, E. by Kingston, S. by Hampstead, and W. by Sandown, extending over 7000 acres. Exeter river passes over the N. W. extremity of the town, and a part of Chub pond lies in that part of the town which borders on Sandown. Hawke was formerly a part of Kingston. The Rev. John Page was settled here in 1763, and died in 1783, at the age of 43. There is here an ancient meeting-house and sev­eral mills.

HEBRON, a township in Graf­ton county, containing a popu­lation of 563. Its shape is ir­regular and is bounded N. by a part of Rumney, E. and N. E. by Plymouth, S. E. by Bridgewater and a part of Alexandria, S.W. by Orange, and N. W. by Groton. It contains 13,350 acres, 1500 of which are water. Hebron has 1 meet­ing-house, several school-hous­es, mills, and a distillery.

HENNIKER, a township in Hillsborough county, situated on the banks of Contoocook river, containing in 1810, a population of 1608, and bound­ed N.W. by Warner and the S. E. extremity of Bradford, N. E. by Hopkinton, S. E. by Weare and the N. part of Deering, and S.W. by Hillsbo­rough, comprising an area of 26,500 acres, 135 of which are water. There are only two consid­erable ponds in this town, Long pond, 270 rods long and 80 wide, and Round pond. Contoocook river passes through the town from W. to E. On the banks near the centre of the town is a pleasant village, containing about 25 dwelling-houses, 2 meeting-houses for congregationalists, and 1 for quakers, 1 oil-mill, and 1 distillery. In another part of the town there is 1 meeting-house, 4 grist-mills, 6 saw-mills, 1 clothing-mill, and 1 carding-machine. Rev. Jacob Rice was ordained here in 1769, and his successor Rev. Moses Sawyer is still in office.

HILLSBOROUGH, a township in the county of that name, in­corporated in 1772, and now containing 1592 inhabitants; bounded N. by Bradford, E. by Henniker, S. by Deering and Antrim, and W. by Wind­sor and a part of Washington, comprising an area of 27,320 acres, 500 of which are water. There are several ponds in this town, the largest of which, Lion pond, is about 300 rods long and 200 wide. Contoocook river waters this town, and the 4th N. H. turnpike passes through it. There is here a small village, containing 10 or 12 dwelling-houses, 4 grist-mills, 6 saw-mills, 1 facto­ry, 1 carding-machine, and 1 distillery. The Rev. J. Barnes was ordained here in 1773, Rev. Stephen Chapin and Seth Chapin the present minister have been his successors.

HILTON’S POINT on Piscataqua river forms the S. E. ex­tremity of the town of Do­ver where. the main river is formed by the junction Newichawannock and Cochecho rivers with the southern and western branches. From this point to the sea the distance is 7 miles, and the course S.to S.E. The current is here so rapid that it never freezes.

HINSDALE lies in the S.W. extremity of Cheshire county, and is bounded S. by Connect­icut river which separates it from Vernon (Vt.,) N. and E. by Chesterfield. Its southern line extends to Massachusetts and adjoins North­field. Its area is 14,000 acres. Hinsdale was incorporated in 1753, and in 1810, it con­tained 740 inhabitants. Ashuelot river forms its junction here with the Connecticut. The 6th N. H. turnpike passes through this plane to Brattleborough (Vt.) West river moun­tain rises from the bank of the river, near the borders of Ches­terfield. This town was for­merly called Fort Dummer, and its situation is pleasant. There is here a baptist and a congregational meeting-house, several mills, and a few stores. Fort Dummer was built in 1740, at the expense of Massa­chusetts, and there was also an­other fort here, called Hinsdale and Bridgeman fort. On the 26th of June, 1746, a party of Indian’s attacked Bridgeman fort, killed one per­son and captured several oth­ers. The inhabitants dared not go to mill without a guard, and several of them under the command of captain Willard discovered a party of the enemy in ambush near the mill, whom they put to flight with the loss of their packs. On the 8th of December, 1747, Hinsdale fort was bravely defended by four families, a fort was burnt and several persons were killed and others taken prisoners. In July, 1775, Mr. How and Mr. Grout of this town were attacked from an ambush, and How was killed. The Indians proceeded to the fort, where the families of these men resided. The people within, hearing their approach and being anxious to learn the cause of the firing they had just heard, impatiently opened their doors upon the savages, whom in the dusk of the evening they mistook for their friends. The families consisting of 14 per­sons were made prisoners, a­mong whom was the wife of How. (See Belknap, Vol. III.)

HOLLIS, a township in Hills­borough county, incorporated in 1746, and containing in 1810, a population of 1529 ; bounded N. by Amherst and Milford, E. by Dunstable, S. by the line of the state, W. by Brookline, comprising 19,620 acres. There are here several ponds, viz. Flint’s, Penechunck, Long, and Rocky ponds, averaging from 3 to 600 acres each. Nissitisset river crosses its S. W. extremity, and Nashua river its S. E. on which are two falls of eleven feet each. There is here a small village contain­ing a congregational meeting-house. Rev. Daniel Emer­son was settled here in 1743, and died in 1810, aged 86. Rev. Eli Smith, his successor, is the present pastor. There are in this town many valuable mill seats and several mills.

HOPKINTON, a township in Hillsborough county, incorpo­rated in 1765, aid now contain­ing 2216 inhabitants; bounded N. by Boscawen and Warner, E. by Concord, S. by Bow, Dunbarton, and Weare, and W. by Henniker, comprising 26,967 acres. Contoocook river has a serpentine course through this town and receives Blackwater and Warner riv­ers. There is in this town a handsome village containing about 50 dwelling-houses, a con­gregational meeting-house, several stores, mechanic shops, etc. There is also in other parts of the town a baptist and sev­eral other meeting-houses. The soil in Hopkinton is generally of an excellent quality. Rev. Stephen Scales was ordained here in 1757, and removed in 1770, his successors have been Rev. Elijah Fletcher, Jacob Cram, and Ethan Smith the present pastor. Elder Abner Jones was ordained over the baptist church in 1814. Hop­kinton is upon the whole a handsome and flourishing town. One term of the supe­rior court and one of the common pleas is held here annu­ally. On the 27th of April, 1746, a party of Indians entered one of the garrisoned houses in this town, the door having been ac­cidentally left open. Eight of the people were carried off, and several of them died in captivity.

INDIAN STREAM rises in the high lands which divide this state from Lower Canada, and is undoubtedly the most north­ern branch of Connecticut riv­er. From its source to Stewartstown, a distance of S0 miles, its course is direct.

ISINGLASS RIVER has its source in Bow pond on the county line between North­wood and Barrington, receives the waters of several ponds in Barrington and falls into Cochecho river at the south part of Rochester.

ISRAEL’S RIVER receives a southerly branch which flows from the northern side of the White hills and the township of Durand, and a northerly branch from Kilkenny and Northumberland. These branches, unite at Lancaster in a main stream which falls into Connecticut river, on the wes­terly side of Lancaster village. This is a beautiful stream, and bordered with highly cultivat­ed lands.

JAFFREY, a township in Ches­hire county, incorporated is 1773, and containing in 1810, a population of 1336; bounded N. by Dublin, E. by Cheshire county line, which separates it from Sharon and Peterbor­ough, S. by Rindge and Fitzwilliam, and W. by a part of Fitzwilliam and Marlborough, comprising an area of 25,600 acres, of which 987 are water. The north boundary of the town crosses the Grand Mo­nadnock mountain, which is more than 2000 feet in height. Long pond in the north part of the town is 400 rods long and 140 wide. Gilmore pond is 300 long and 180 wide. The 3d N. H. turnpike passes through this town, and near it is a min­eral spring about one mile S.E. of the Grand Monadnock. A company has been incorporat­ed for the management of its waters. Red ochre has been found near the spring, and in its vicinity have been discover­ed black lead, copper, alum, sulphur, and an ore yielding from the action of a common forge, a copper coloured metal. On the N.W. side of the moun­tain a have has been discover­ed, difficult of access, although it has an area. 80 feet square. Here is found also that rare and valuable tree, the moun­tain ash. A company was incorporated in this town in 1813, for the manufactory of cotton and woolen goods, their fac­tory is situated on the turn­pike. It is the uppermost fac­tory on Contoocook river, and is intended to employ 1000 cotton spindles. There are several mills in its vicinity. Another company has been incorporated in this town for manufacturing the various kinds of crockery and earthen ware. Belonging to this com­pany is an extensive mine of white clay in the town of Monkton (Vt.) whence it is trans­ported to Jaffrey. This clay has been analyzed and compared by skilful chemists with that from which the European white ware is made and no difference in quality has been discovered. The practicabili­ty of the above plan has been fully ascertained by the pro­gress already made in the manufacture. Rev. Laban Ains­worth, was ordained here in 1782, and is still in office. There are here a baptist and a congregational society, for each of which there is a meeting­house.

JEFFERSON, a township in Coos county formerly called Dartmouth, lying on the banks of Israel’s river, which passes from its southern to its wes­tern extremity. It was incor­porated in 1765, and now con­tains about 200 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Barker’s location and a part of Lan­caster, E. by Kilkenny, S. by ungranted lands and Bretton Woods, and W. by Bretton Woods and Whitefield, comprising. 26,076 a­cres, 300 of which are wa­ter. Pondcherry pond in this town is 200 rods in diameter, and forms the source of one of the branches of John’s river. Pondcherry bay is about 200 rods long and 100 wide. In the N. E. part of the town lies Funny mountain and in the S. W. part is Pondcherry moun­tain. The Jefferson turnpike passes through this place to Lancaster. There are here 2 grain-mills and 1 saw-mill.

JOHN’S RIVER has the source of its most southerly branches in Bretton Woods, Whitefield, and Dalton, of its middle branch in Pondcherry pond, and of its northern, in Martin’s meadow in Lancaster. These branches unite in the upper part of Dalton in a main stream, which falls into the Connecticut river at the upper bar of the 15 miles falls. The mouth is here 30 yards wide.

KEARSARGE MOUNTAIN, in Coos county, lies on the divid­ing line between Bartlett and Chatham. This is the third range of mountains in the state. Its height has not been ascer­tained. A gentleman, who resides in the neighbourhood of this range observes, that in Octo­ber, 1812, he went in company with two of his neighbours to view the mountain, which lies on the north of Conway, and while ascending was astonish­ed at the singular appear­ance of the stones, which form the body of the mountain as well is of those which lie on its surface. They all appear to have been once in a fluid state, or to have composed the bot­tom of some sea. The large masses, as well as the de­tached pieces, were full of small pebbles of all sizes, forms, and colours, confusedly thrown together and cemented. The small stones retain their per­fect shape in the solid mass of which they form a part. The whole appearance in short, in­dicated, that these pebbles were once in a separate state and were consolidated by some unknown cause.

KEARSARGE MOUNTAIN, in Hillsborough county, lies part­ly in Kearsarge Gore and part­ly in Sutton. Its easterly ex­tremity extends to New-Salis­bury and Andover. This is one of the second range in the state.

KEARSARGE GORE, in Hills­borough county, lies on the southerly side of Kearsarge mountain. It contains 152 in­habitants, and is bounded N. by Wilmot, E. by Salisbury, S. by Warner, and W. by Sutton, comprising an area of 428 acres. In the year 1807, that part of Kearsarge Gore together with a part of New-London was incorporated into a town by the name of Wilmot.

KEENE, one of the princi­pal townships in the county of Cheshire, was incorporat­ed in 1752, and in 1810, con­tained 1646 inhabitants; bound­ed N. by Gilsum, Surry, and Westmoreland, E. by Surry and Roxbury, S. by Swansey, and W. by Chesterfield and Westmoreland, and contains 23,843 acres.
Ashuelot river passes through this town and receives here the eastern branch of Beaver brook. The 3d N. H. turn­pike has its course through here, and meets the branch and Chester turnpikes and several other principal roads. Keene contains a very handsome vil­lage of about 60 dwelling houses, a meeting-house, bank, court-house, gaol, and several stores, etc. About a mile from the village, a canal is cut from Ashuelot river, on which is a woolen factory, an oil-mill, and several other mills. The Rev. Jacob Bacon was settled here in 1738, and has been succeeded by the Rev. Messrs. Carpenter, Sumner, and Hall, the latter of whom died in 1814. This town was formerly called Upper Ashuelot. In 1746, the Indians commenced their depredations here, and in the course of the next year they formed a plan to surprise the fort in this place. In the evening they concealed themselves in a swamp, where they intended to lie till the people should go out to their work the next morning, when they were to rush in and surprise the fort. Ephraim Dounan who happened to go out very early discovered the ambush and gave the alarm. He brave­ly defended himself against 2 Indians, from one of whom he took a gun and a blanket, which he carried to the fort. The Indians succeeded in burn­ing several houses and barns, and from the bones found a­mong the ashes, it was ascer­tained that several of the ene­my were destroyed in the flames. John Bullard and Na­than Blake were taken captive and carried to Canada where Blake remained 2 years. He died in Keene 1811, at the age of 99. He was one of the first settlers of this place, to which he moved in 1736, from Wrentham, (Mass.) He married a second wife at the age of 94. Two of his broth­ers lived to the age of 90, and a sister to 100.

KENSINGTON, a township in Rockingham county, incorpo­rated in 1737, and now con­taining 781 inhabitants; bound­ed N. by Exeter, E. by Hamp­ton Falls, S. by Southampton, and W. by East-Kingston. Kensington was formerly a part of Hampton. Rev. Joseph Fogg was settled in this town at the time of its incorporation and died in 1800. There are here two religious societies and two meeting-houses.

KILKENNY, a township in Coos county, of an irregular form and mountainous surface, incorporated in 1774, and now containing only 28 inhabitants; bounded N. E. by Durand, Mainsborough, Paulsburg, and Dummer, N. and S. by ungranted lands, and W. by Bar­ker’s location, Jefferson, Lan­caster, and Piercy, and con­tains 15,906 acres. A branch of Nashes stream crosses the northerly extremity of this town and Israel’s river its southern.

KINGSTON, a township in Rockingham county, incorpo­rated 1694, and now contain­ing a population of 746; bound­ed N. by Brentwood, E. by East-Kingston, S. by Newton and Plaistow, and W. by Hampstead and Hawke, con­taining 12,188 acres, of which 800 are water. Great pond, containing about 500 acres, and about 300 acres of County pond are in this town. In these ponds Powow river has its source.
Rev. Ward Clark was set­tled here in 1725, and died in 1737. Rev. Messrs. Secomb, Tappan, and Thayer have been his successors. A post road leading from Boston to Ports­mouth passes through this town. There is here an ex­tensive plain on which stands a commodious meeting-house.

LAMPREY RIVER has its source in the town of North­wood, on the W. side of Saddleback mountain. Taking a south­erly course, it passes into Deer­field and receives the waters of Martin’s pond, and in Candia a stream called Second riv­er falls into it. Thence it pass­es into Raymond, where it re­ceives a western branch. Thence taking a southerly di­rection, it unites with the wa­ters of Jones’ pond in Deer­field, and thence as it flows on through Epping, it receives Petuckaway river, and after a bend to the N. E. it receives North river. After a course thence through Lee to Dur­ham, it unites with Piscasick river from Newmarket. It meets the tide water about two miles above the Great bay.

LANCASTER, a township in Coos county, on the eastern bank of Connecticut river, in­corporated in 1763, and con­taining in 1810, a population of 717 inhabitants. It is bound­ed N. E. by Northumberland and Kilkenny, S. E. by Bar­ker’s location and a part of Whitefield, S. W. by Dalton, and W. by Connecticut river, containing 23,480 acres. It lies about 50 miles above Han­over. In this town is Martin’s meadow pond, about 260 rods long and 150 wide, and also Martin’s meadow hill on the north side of the pond. The village is about one mile dis­tant from the river, and con­tains a meeting-house, court­house, gaol, etc. Through this village passes Israel’s river which falls into the Connecticut at the Great Oxbow. In­dian brook waters the other extremity of the town. Lan­caster is united by a bridge with Guildhall (Vt.) There are here several grain-mills and saw-mills, an oil-mill, a clothing-mill, and a carding-machine, a nail-factory, and 2 distilleries. The Rev. J. Willard is the minister here.

LANDAFF, in Grafton coun­ty was incorporated in 1794, and now contains 650 inhabit­ants. It is bounded N. E. by Concord (Vt.) and a part of Franconia, E. by Lincoln and a part of Peeling, S. W. by Coventry, and W. by Bath, comprising 29,200 acres. Through this town passes the Wild Amonoosuck river, on the north bank of which it is contemplated to extend the Bath turnpike. Over the west extremity of Landaff the Great Amonoosuck passes. Landaff mountain, Cobble mountain, and Bald head mountain are in this town. Landaff was granted to Dartmouth college in 1769. There is here a methodist meeting-house, 2 corn-mills, and 2 saw-mills, 2 distil­leries, and 4-shops. The first ordained minister of the town was Elder Royse. The centre of Landaff is about 9 miles E. from Connecticut river.

LANGDON, a township in Cheshire county, 5 miles east from Connecticut river, incor­porated in 1787, and now con­taining 632 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Charleston, E. by Acworth and Alstead, S. by Acworth and Walpole, and W. by Charleston, com­prising 9,891 acres. The Ches­hire turnpike leading from Walpole to Charleston passes through this town. Cold river flows through Langdon and here receives its northern branch, which passes through U­nity, Acworth, and Charleston.

LEBANON, a township lying in the S. W. part of Cheshire county, incorporated in 1761, and now containing 1808 in­habitants; bounded N.by Han­over, S. E. by Enfield, S. by the line of Cheshire county, which separates it from Plain­field, and W. by Connecticut river which separates it from Hartford (Vt.) its area is 22,998 acres. The Croydon turnpike and the 4th N. H. turnpike pass through this town to Lyman’s bridge. At this place White river empties itself into the Connecticut. Here also the White river turnpike meets the two roads above mentioned. Mascomy river flows through Lebanon from a pond of the same name on the borders of Enfield. There are here 2 re­ligious societies and 1 meeting­house for the congregationalists, over whom Rev. J.Porter was ordained in 1772. Leba­non contains 8 grist-mills, 9 saw-mills, 3 clothing-mills, 1 distillery, and 4 shops.

LEE, a township in the south part of the county of Strafford, incorporated in 1766, and now containing a population of 1329 inhabitants; bounded N. by Madbury, E. by Durham, S. by Newmarket and Epping, and W. by Nottingham and Barrington, comprising an a­rea of 11,467 acres, 165 of which are water. In the north part of the town lies Wheelwright pond, containing about 165 acres, and forming the principal source of Oyster river. From the N. W. extremity of Newmarket, Lamprey river enters Lee, and after a serpentine course of about seven miles it passes into Durham. Anoth­er part of the town is watered by Little river and North riv­er. Through the north part of Lee the N. H. turnpike passes from Portsmouth to Concord. There is here a Friend’s meeting-house and another for
the baptists; several grist and saw-mills, 1 clothing-mill, a carding-machine, and several shops. Lee was formerly a part of Durham and Dover. The first settled minister here was Elder S. Hutchins, who has been succeeded by Elder Elias Smith, and the present pastor Elder J. Osborn.

LEMPSTER, a township in Cheshire county, incorporated in 1761, and containing in 1810, a population of 845 inhabi­tants. It is bounded N. by Unity, E. by Goshen and Washington, S. by Marlow, and W. by Acworth, compris­ing an area of 21,410 acres. Near the border of Washing­ton is a pond about 320 rods long and 80 wide, arid another lying partly in Marlow 420 long and 70 wide, besides several others of a smaller size. Lempster is also watered by Sugar river and two branches of Cold river. The easterly part of the town is mountainous, over which part passes the 2d N. H. turnpike from
Amherst to Claremont. In this town also the Charleston turnpike branches off. There are here 7 school-houses, and 1 congregational meeting­house. Rev. E. Fisher was the first and only minister ever settled in this town. He was ordained in 1787, and is still in office. In 1812, eighteen persons died in this town, and twelve of them of the spotted fever. In 1813, five others died of that disease. This fever first appeared in Lempster on the 20th of March, 1812, and con­tinued spreading its malignant contagion till the 3d of April. In 1813, it again appeared a­bout the middle of April, and in June it assumed the form, of the mild typhus. In 1803, twenty-four children died here in two months of the scarlatina anginosa.

LINCOLN, a mountainous township in Grafton county, incorporated in 1764, and now containing 100 inhabitants; bounded N. by Franconia, E. by ungranted lands, S. by Peeling, and W. by Landaff, comprising an area of 32,456 acres. In this town is situated the Hay-Stack mountain, which is said to be the highest land in the state excepting the White mountains. There are also several other lofty eminences in this town. Through the centre of Lin­coln passes Pemigewasset riv­er in a northerly direction. The waters descending from the mountains here flow partly into the Merrimack and partly into the Connecticut. In the north part of this town there are two large gulfs, made by an extraordinary discharge of water from the clouds in 1774.

LITCHFIELD, a small town­ship in Hillsborough county, lying on the east side of Mer­rimack river opposite to the town of Merrimack. It was incorporated in 1749, and con­tained in 1810, 382 inhabitants. It is bounded E. by London­derry and Nottingham West, S. by Nottingham West, and W. by the Merrimack. In this town are Cromwell’s falls and ferry, Thornton’s and Reed’s ferries, and Moor’s falls. At Thornton’s ferry the Mer­rimack is 50 rods wide, and in other points about 28. There are in this town several mills and one meeting-house. Rev. Samuel Cotton was ordained
here in 1765, and removed in 1781. His successors have been Rev. Messrs. Rand and Kennedy, and another gentle­man lately ordained.

LITTLETON, a township in the northern extremity of Graf­ton county, incorporated in 1784, and now containing 876 inhabitants. It is bounded N. E. by Dalton, S. E . by- Beth­lehem, S. W. by Concord and Lyman, and W. by Connecti­cut river, which separates it from Waterford and Concord in Vermont. Its area is 24, 217 acres. Littleton extends on the banks of the Connecticut about 14 miles. It is connected with Concord, (Vt.) by a handsome bridge. The southern part of the town is watered by the Amonoosuck river. There are here several mountains, viz. Bluberry, Black, and Iron moun­tains. There are in this town several mills, a meeting-house, and about a dozen dwelling-houses.

LITTLE HARBOUR. (See Newcastle.)

LONDONDERRY, a large and respectable town in Rocking­ham county, was incorporated in 1722, and contained in 1810, a population of 2766 inhabi­tants. It is hounded N. by Chester and Manchester, E. by Hampstead, Sandown, and Atkinson, S. by Salem, Wind­ham, and Nottingham West, and W. by Litchfield, comprising an area of 44,100 acres. Derry pond in this town is the principal source of Beaver’ river. Several other small ponds in the west part of the town empty themselves into this river. A turnpike passes here leading to Chester. There are in Londonderry 2 presbyterian meeting-houses, an acade­my, 5 grist-mills, S saw-mills, 2 clothing-mills, 2 carding-ma­chines, and 6 trading stores. The first minister here was the Rev. James M’Gregore, who was ordained in 1719, when the town was called Nuffield. He died in 1729. Rev. M. Clark was his successor, who died soon after his settlement. Rev. Alexander Thompson was ordained in 1734, and died in 1791, at the age of 81. His successors have been the Rev. Messrs. Brown and Parker, the latter of whom is the pre­sent pastor. Over the second parish the Rev. D. M’Gregore was ordained in 1737, and died in 1777. He was succeeded by Rev. William Morrison in 1783, who still continues in office. Londonderry was settled in 1718, by a company from Ire­land, of whom the following is a brief history. A compa­ny of Scotch presbyterians had been settled in the province of Ulster, in the reign of James I. They had borne a large part of the sufferings which were the common lot of Pro­testants at that unhappy period, and were thereby inspired with an ardent thirst for civil and religious liberty. A young man of the name of Holmes, son of a clergy­man, had traveled to Ameri­ca, and carried home such a favourable report of the coun­try, as induced his father with three other presbyterian min­isters, viz. James M’Gregore, William Cornwell, and Will­iam Boyd, and a large part of their congregations to emigrate into this country. Having con­verted their property into mo­ney, they embarked in five ships on the 14th of October, 1718, of whom about one hun­dred families arrived in Bos­ton. Sixteen of these families soon determined to settle cn a tract of land of which they heard good reports, which was then called Nuffield, and now Londonderry. Early in the spring the men left their fami­lies in Haverhill, (Mass.) and erected some huts near a brook, which falls into Beaver river. On the evening after their ar­rival (April 11th, 1718,) at this spot, a sermon was preached by Mr. M’Gregore under a large oak tree, which to this day is regarded by the poster­ity with real veneration. On the first administration of the sacrament here, there were two ministers and sixty-five com­municants. The majority of these first settlers had resided in or near Londonderry in Ire­land, where they had endured the sufferings of a memorable siege. John Barr, William Caldwell, and Abraham Blair, with several others, who had suffered in that siege, and em­barked for America, were, by a special order of king William, exempted from taxes in every part of the British dominions. The first settlers in this town lived :to the average of 80, many to 90, and others to 100. The spotted fever prevailed here in 1814, and carried off 52 persons.

LOUDON, a township in Rock­ingham county, incorporated in 1673, and now containing a population of 148 inhabitants. It is bounded N. E. by Gilmanton, S. E. by Pittsfield and Chichester, S. W. by Concord, and N. W. by Canterbury, comprising 28,257 acres. Suncook river, flowing from Gilmanton, passes through the western part of this town: Into this river are emptied the waters of crooked pond, Rol­lins’ pond, and several others which fit in this town. In Loudon there are 2 meet­ing-houses, 5 grist-mills, 2 carding-machines, 3 distilleries, and 4 trading shops. Rev. J. Tucker was ordained here in 1789. This town was formerly a part of Canterbury.

LOVEWELL,’S POND is at the head of the westerly branch of Salmon falls river, in the town of Wakefield.

LYMAN, a township in Graf­ton county, about 13 miles above Haverhill, incorporated in 1761, and containing 948 inhabitants; bounded N. E. by Littleton, S. E. by Concord, S. W. by Bath, and N. W. by Connecticut river, which di­vides it from Barnet in Ver­mont. The soil and productions of Lyman are similar to those of other towns in the northern part of the state. The pine and hemlock indicate the most valuable qualities in the soil. Over Indoes falls in this town a bridge has been erected. Two miles above this spot is Ste­phen’s ferry. Burnham’s riv­er has its source in this town, and falls into the Amonoosuck at Concord. Lyman mountain, which is in fact a continuation of Gardner’s mountain, ex­tends from Landaff through this town in a north and south direction. On its summit is a pond 100 rods long and 80 wide, which forms the princi­pal source of Burnham’s river. Copper and emery mixed with iron ore have been found in this town, In the year 1812, the spotted fever prevailed in Lyman: it attacked 70 persons, of whom only one died. It is a remarkable fact, that of the three first families who settled in this town there were twenty sons, of whom seventeen are now living here. One of the twenty died by casualty and the other two live elsewhere.
There are in Lyman 3 grist­mills, 3 saw-mills, 2 clothing-mills, 1 carding-machine,2 dis­tilleries, and an oil-mill.