GREENFIELD, a township in Hillsborough county, incorporated in 1791, and containing in 1810, a population of 980.-it is bounded N. by a part of Hancock and Francestown, E. by Francestown and Lyndeborough, S. by Temple, and W. by Peterborough, and contains 16,904 acres, 187 of which are water. Contoocook river separates this town from Hancock. There is here one pond about 200 rods long and 100 wide, besides several others of less note. A part of Crotchet mountain rises from the north part of this town, and there is also a mountainous tract in the southerly part. Greenfield contains a congregational meeting-house, (in which Rev. J. Walker was, ordained in 1812,) several mills, and 2 stores.
GREENLAND, a township in Rockingham county, incorporated in 1703, and now containing 592 inhabitants ; bounded N. by the Great Bay and Newington,. E: by Portsmouth and Rye, S. by Northampton, and W. by Stratham, comprising 6,335 acres. The land here which borders upon the bay is of an uncommonly good quality, and in a high state of cultivation. This part of the town is celebrated for producing excellent cider, large quantities of which are sold here annually. The soil in other parts of the town is light and sandy but not unproductive. Rev. William Allen, the first settled minister in this town, was ordained in 1707, and died in 1760, at the age of 84. His successors have been the Rev. Messrs. M’Clintock, Neal, and Abbot. The latter gentleman is the present minister. There is here a spacious meetinghouse for the congregationalists, and a very convenient one for the joint use of the methodists and baptists. There are also in this town 3 grist-mills, 2 saw-mills, and several trading shops.
GROTON, a township in Grafton county, incorporated in 1761. It was formerly called Cockermouth. Its population in 1810, was 549. It lies about 15 miles N. of Dartmouth college, and is bounded N. E. by Rumney, S. E. by Hebron, S. W. by Orange, and W. by Dorchester, and contains 16,531 acres. The northerly part of the town is watered by several branches of Baker’s river, and a number of streams which fall into New Found pond have their sources here. There is in Groton an iron furnace for casting hollow ware. This furnace is heated by wood, and the fire is kept alive by the action of air put in motion by the falling of water through a box, etc. The first minister in this town was the Rev. S. Perley, who was ordained in 1779, and was succeeded by the Rev. William Rolf, who is the present pastor. There is here 1 congregational and 1 baptist society, 1 meeting-house, 2 grain-mills, 4 saw-mills.
HALL’S STREAM rises in the highlands which separate Vermont from Lower Canada, and falls into Connecticut river at the N. W. extremity of Stewartstown.
HALE’S LOCATION iS situated in Coos county, and is bounded N. and W. by ungranted lands, E. by Conway, and S. by Burton. It is 800 rods in length and 173 in width at its north, and 320 at its south extremity.
HAMPSTEAD, a township in Rockingham county, was incorporated in 1749, and contained in 1810, a population of 733. It is bounded N. by Hawke and Sandown, S. E. by Plaistow, S. by Atkinson, and W. by Londonderry, and contains 10,623 acres, 400 of which are water. There is here Wash pond, containing about 200 acres, and a part of Island pond about the same size. The Rev. Henry True was settled here in 1752, and died in 1782. The Rev. John Kelly is the present minister. There is a pleasant village in this town comprising 10 or 12 dwelling-houses, a meeting-house, and several trading shops.
HAMPTON, a township in Rockingham county, lying on the seacoast. It was incorporated in 1638, and contains a population of 990. It is bounded N. E. by Northampton, S. E. by the sea, S. W. by South Hampton, and N. W. by a part of Exeter, and contains 18,129 acres. Hampton was called by the Indians Winicowett. Its first minister was Stephen Bachelder, who was settled in 1638, and dismissed in 1641. His successors have been Timothy Dalton, John Wheelwright, (a brother of the celebrated Mrs. Hutchinson,) Seaborn Cotton, John Cotton, Nathaniel Gookin, Ward Cotton, Ebenezer Thayer, William Pidgeon, Jesse Appleton, (now president of Bowdoin college,) and J. Webster, the present pastor. Hampton is a valuable and nourishing township, containing two meeting-houses, and in its compact part, many handsome buildings and several shops. An academy has recently been opened here, which has much promise of usefulness. Between the years 1731 and 1791, there were in this town 884 deaths and 1725 births, of which latter 897 were males and 828 females. The largest number of deaths in any one year was 69, and the smallest number was 7. In the year 1737, 69 persons died here, 55 of them by the throat distemper. On the same year there died of that disease, 99 in Portsmouth, 88 in Dover, 210 in Hampton falls, 127 in Exeter, 11 in Newcastle, 37 in Gosport, 44 in Rye, 18 in Greenland, 21 in Newington, 22 in Newmarket, 18 in Stratham, 113 in Kingston, 10 in Durham, and 22 in Chester, in all about one thousand deaths from July, 1736 to September 1737.
In the year 1754, the same disease again visited Hampton and carried off 55 persons. In the year 1638, the general assembly authorized Mr. Dummer of Newbury, together With John Spencer to erect a house in Hampton, which was afterward called the bound house, although it was intended as a mark of possession rather than of limit. This step having been taken toward population, a petition praying leave to settle here, was presented to the assembly by a number of persons chiefly from Norfolk in England, and the prayer was granted. They commenced operations by laying out the township into 147 shares, and having formed a church, they chose Stephen Bachelder for their minister, with whom Timothy Dalton was afterwards associated. The original number of inhabitants was 56, among whom were John Moulton, Christopher Hussey, William Sargeant, etc. In July, 1617, the Indians having commenced their work of depredation and death, the government ordered 200 friendly Indians and 40 English soldiers under the command of Capt. Benjamin Swett of Hampton and Lieut. Richardson to march to the falls of Taconee on Kennebeck river; in the course of the march, Swett discovered in the place now called Scarborough, three parties of Indians stationed on a plain. He separated his men in the same manner and prepared to attack them. The enemy continued to retreat, till they had drawn our men about two miles from the fort, and then turning suddenly upon our youthful and unexperienced soldiers, they threw them into confusion. Swett, with a few of his most resolute companions fought bravely on his retreat, till he came near the fort where he was killed and 60 more left dead or wounded. On the 17th of August, 1703, a party of 30 Indians under Capt. Tour, killed 55 persons in Hampton, among whom was a widow Mussey, celebrated as a preacher among the quakers, by whom she was much lamented.
HAMPTON FALLS, formerly a part of Hampton, was incorporated in 1712, and now contains 570 inhabitants; bounded N.E. by Hampton, S.E. by the salt marsh, S. by Seabrook, W. by Kensington, and N. W. by Exeter, and contains 7,400 acres. Theophilus Cotton, the first minister settled here, was ordained in 1712, and died 1726. His successors have been Rev. Joseph Whipple, Jonah Bailey, Paine Wingate, Samuel Langdon, D. D., and the pressent minister, Rev. J. Abbot. There are here 2 meeting-houses, 1 for congregationalists and another for baptists, S grist-mills, 2 saw-mills, 1 clothing-mill, and 1 carding-machine. From July 26, 1730 to September 26, 1736, there were 210 persons destroyed here by the throat distemper, 160 of whom were under the age of 10, 40 between the ages of 10 and 20, 9 above 20, and several more than 30 years old.
HANCOCK, a township in Hillsborough county, incorporated in 1779, and now containing 1184 inhabitants; bounded N. by Antrim, E. by Greenfield, S. by Peterborough, and W. by the line of Cheshire county, which divides it from Nelson, comprising within the limits 19,372 acres. The south branch of Contoocook river separates this town from Greenfield. There is here a pleasant village, containing about 15 dwelling houses, stores, etc. a meeting-house, a cotton and woolen factory, 5 grist-mills, 5 saw-mills, 2 clothing-mills, and 1 carding-machine. Rev. Reid Page was ordained here in 1791, and is the present minister.
HANOVER, a township in Grafton county, incorporated in 1761, and now containing 2135 inhabitants; bounded N. by Lyme, E. by Canaan, S. by Lebanon, and W. by Connecticut river. It is about 6 miles square and contains 27,745 acres of land and water. In the river in front of the town there are three small islands, the largest of which is 75 rods long and 20 wide. Moose mountain extends across the town from N. to S. at a distance of 5 miles from the river. Grafton turnpike passes through the N.E. part of the town to Orford. At a short distance from the colleges there is a handsome bridge, which connects this town with Norwich. There are in Hanover 2 meeting houses, centrally situated near the colleges, and 4 religious societies, 3 of which are of the congregational, and of the baptist denomination. The edifices of Dartmouth college are situated on a handsome plain in this town, about half a mile from the river in latitude 43° 33′. This institution derived its name from the right Hon. William, Earl of Dartmouth, who was one of its first and most generous benefactors. It was founded by the pious and benevolent Dr. Eleazer Wheelock, who in 1769, obtained a royal charter, wherein ample privileges were granted and suitable provision was made for the education of Indian youth, in such a manner as should appear most expedient for civilizing and christianizing them, also for the instruction of English youth in all the liberal arts and sciences. The institution, thus established, gradually grew into an useful and flourishing seminary. In 1754, Dr. Wheelock, having collected large donations from different parts of England, Scotland, and America, and especially from Mr. Joshua Moor of Mansfield, established a school for the instruction of Indian youth in Stockbridge, Massachusetts, to which he gave the name of Moor’s school. As the number of candidates for this school increased, it became necessary to erect suitable buildings. That part of the country, where it was first established, having become populous, a removal was determined on. When this intention became publicly known, proposals were made by many private and public characters in several of the neighbouring colonies. The prudent foresight of the founder, sanctioned by the advice of the trustees in England in whose hands the donations were lodged, and at the head of whom was the Earl of Dartmouth, induced him to accept proposals, which were made by the governor of New-Hampshire and other gentlemen in this state. The town of Hanover was accordingly fixed upon as the most convenient situation for the school. His excellency governor Wentworth soon annexed a charter for an university, December 13,1769, which received the name of Dartmouth college from its principal benefactor. The college received large donations of land including the whole township of Landaff, besides many other wild tracts in different situations, amounting in the whole to 44,000 acres. A valuable lot of 500 acres in Hanover was selected as the site of the school and college. Besides these donations of land, the sum of 340 pounds sterling was subscribed to be paid in labour, provisions, and materials for building. In September, 1770, Dr. Wheelock removed his family and school into the wilderness. At first their accommodations were similar to those of other new settlers. They erected log-houses, which they occupied till better edifices could be prepared. The number of scholars at that time was 24, 6 of whom were Indians. In 1771, the first commencement was held, and degrees were conferred on four students, one of whom was John Wheelock, the son and successor of the founder. The funds of this institution consist chiefly of lands, which are increasing in value with the growth of the country. The annual revenue from these lands is not far from $2000 and that arising from tuition has been $2100. The number of students has generally averaged 100. A grammar school consisting of about 50 or 60 scholars is annexed to the college. The immediate instruction and government of the college is entrusted to the president, (who is also professor of history,) a professor of mathematics and natural philosophy, a professor of languages, a professor of divinity, and two tutors. During the forty-three years since the college was founded, it has conferred degrees upon 1163 students, of whom 330 have been clergymen. The whole number of students during that period has been 1387, of whom 225 have died. There is attached to this seminary a handsome library and a complete philosophical apparatus. In 1786, a new college was erected three stories high, and 150 by 50 feet, containing 36 rooms for students. There are several other buildings belonging to the institution. In consideration of the present contest, which is now pending on the concerns of this institution, a particular account of its present government is omitted. In 1815, the trustees removed from office the president (Hon. John Wheelock) and appointed Rev. Francis Brown as his successor. In the course of the same year the legislative and executive government of New-Hampshire erected a new board of trustees and appointed a new set of executive officers, to whom the old trustees and the old officers refuse to surrender the property or the instruction of the college, until it shall be judicially decided, whether the legislature have any power to make the above interference. The students generally have followed the old government although the new-officers have taken possession of the public rooms, the library, apparatus, etc. The old government consist of president Brown, and professors Adams and Shurtleff. The new officers are the Rev..William Allen (acting President,) and professors Dean and Carter. We express no opinion on the merits of the unhappy controversy which has produced this singular situation of the college. It is ardently hoped, that the questions Pending will soon be decided and the institution resume its former usefulness and prosperity. Hon. John Wheelock died in April, 1817.Commencement is holden on the first Wednesday of August. There are three vacations, the first from commencement three and a half weeks, another from the first Monday of January, eight and a half weeks. The medical department here is respectable and extremely useful. It was established in 1798. For the lectures on anatomy the professor is furnished with valuable preparations, and in the chemical department there is a well furnished laboratory. The lectures on anatomy, surgery, chymistry, materia medica, and the theory and practice of physic commence on the first Wednesday of October and continue eight weeks. There are about 4000 volumes in the college library, and about 2000 in the libraries formed by the students. Moor’s Indian school is connected with the college, having the same trustees and president. Its annual revenue is from 1400 to $600.
HAVERHILL, a township on Connecticut river in Grafton county, incorporated in 1713, and containing in 1810 a population of 1105; bounded N. E. by Bath, E. by Coventry, S.W. by Piermont, and W. by Connecticut river, containing 34,340 acres. Sugar loaf mountain lies on the eastern side of the town bordering on Coventry. Oliverian river passes through the southerly extremity of Haverhill and falls into Connecticut river at the compact village. Fisher’s brook passes above the centre of the town and falls into the river at the Great Oxbow or little lend. There have been three bridges thrown from this town to Newbury, (Vt.) There is a handsome village in the southwest part of the town, containing 50 or 60 dwelling-houses, an elegant meeting-house, a courthouse, a county-prison, an academy, 2 smaller meeting-houses, 3 grain-mills, 5 saw-mills, 1 clothing mill, a carding-machine, and an oil-mill. Iron ore is found in this town and also a quarry of free-stone suitable for hearths and chimney pieces. The superior court hold its sessions here for the county of Grafton.
HAWKE, a township in Rockingham county, incorporated in 1769, and now containing 412 inhabitants: bounded N. by Poplin, E. by Kingston, S. by Hampstead, and W. by Sandown, extending over 7000 acres. Exeter river passes over the N. W. extremity of the town, and a part of Chub pond lies in that part of the town which borders on Sandown. Hawke was formerly a part of Kingston. The Rev. John Page was settled here in 1763, and died in 1783, at the age of 43. There is here an ancient meeting-house and several mills.
HEBRON, a township in Grafton county, containing a population of 563. Its shape is irregular and is bounded N. by a part of Rumney, E. and N. E. by Plymouth, S. E. by Bridgewater and a part of Alexandria, S.W. by Orange, and N. W. by Groton. It contains 13,350 acres, 1500 of which are water. Hebron has 1 meeting-house, several school-houses, mills, and a distillery.
HENNIKER, a township in Hillsborough county, situated on the banks of Contoocook river, containing in 1810, a population of 1608, and bounded N.W. by Warner and the S. E. extremity of Bradford, N. E. by Hopkinton, S. E. by Weare and the N. part of Deering, and S.W. by Hillsborough, comprising an area of 26,500 acres, 135 of which are water. There are only two considerable ponds in this town, Long pond, 270 rods long and 80 wide, and Round pond. Contoocook river passes through the town from W. to E. On the banks near the centre of the town is a pleasant village, containing about 25 dwelling-houses, 2 meeting-houses for congregationalists, and 1 for quakers, 1 oil-mill, and 1 distillery. In another part of the town there is 1 meeting-house, 4 grist-mills, 6 saw-mills, 1 clothing-mill, and 1 carding-machine. Rev. Jacob Rice was ordained here in 1769, and his successor Rev. Moses Sawyer is still in office.
HILLSBOROUGH, a township in the county of that name, incorporated in 1772, and now containing 1592 inhabitants; bounded N. by Bradford, E. by Henniker, S. by Deering and Antrim, and W. by Windsor and a part of Washington, comprising an area of 27,320 acres, 500 of which are water. There are several ponds in this town, the largest of which, Lion pond, is about 300 rods long and 200 wide. Contoocook river waters this town, and the 4th N. H. turnpike passes through it. There is here a small village, containing 10 or 12 dwelling-houses, 4 grist-mills, 6 saw-mills, 1 factory, 1 carding-machine, and 1 distillery. The Rev. J. Barnes was ordained here in 1773, Rev. Stephen Chapin and Seth Chapin the present minister have been his successors.
HILTON’S POINT on Piscataqua river forms the S. E. extremity of the town of Dover where. the main river is formed by the junction Newichawannock and Cochecho rivers with the southern and western branches. From this point to the sea the distance is 7 miles, and the course S.to S.E. The current is here so rapid that it never freezes.
HINSDALE lies in the S.W. extremity of Cheshire county, and is bounded S. by Connecticut river which separates it from Vernon (Vt.,) N. and E. by Chesterfield. Its southern line extends to Massachusetts and adjoins Northfield. Its area is 14,000 acres. Hinsdale was incorporated in 1753, and in 1810, it contained 740 inhabitants. Ashuelot river forms its junction here with the Connecticut. The 6th N. H. turnpike passes through this plane to Brattleborough (Vt.) West river mountain rises from the bank of the river, near the borders of Chesterfield. This town was formerly called Fort Dummer, and its situation is pleasant. There is here a baptist and a congregational meeting-house, several mills, and a few stores. Fort Dummer was built in 1740, at the expense of Massachusetts, and there was also another fort here, called Hinsdale and Bridgeman fort. On the 26th of June, 1746, a party of Indian’s attacked Bridgeman fort, killed one person and captured several others. The inhabitants dared not go to mill without a guard, and several of them under the command of captain Willard discovered a party of the enemy in ambush near the mill, whom they put to flight with the loss of their packs. On the 8th of December, 1747, Hinsdale fort was bravely defended by four families, a fort was burnt and several persons were killed and others taken prisoners. In July, 1775, Mr. How and Mr. Grout of this town were attacked from an ambush, and How was killed. The Indians proceeded to the fort, where the families of these men resided. The people within, hearing their approach and being anxious to learn the cause of the firing they had just heard, impatiently opened their doors upon the savages, whom in the dusk of the evening they mistook for their friends. The families consisting of 14 persons were made prisoners, among whom was the wife of How. (See Belknap, Vol. III.)
HOLLIS, a township in Hillsborough county, incorporated in 1746, and containing in 1810, a population of 1529 ; bounded N. by Amherst and Milford, E. by Dunstable, S. by the line of the state, W. by Brookline, comprising 19,620 acres. There are here several ponds, viz. Flint’s, Penechunck, Long, and Rocky ponds, averaging from 3 to 600 acres each. Nissitisset river crosses its S. W. extremity, and Nashua river its S. E. on which are two falls of eleven feet each. There is here a small village containing a congregational meeting-house. Rev. Daniel Emerson was settled here in 1743, and died in 1810, aged 86. Rev. Eli Smith, his successor, is the present pastor. There are in this town many valuable mill seats and several mills.
HOPKINTON, a township in Hillsborough county, incorporated in 1765, aid now containing 2216 inhabitants; bounded N. by Boscawen and Warner, E. by Concord, S. by Bow, Dunbarton, and Weare, and W. by Henniker, comprising 26,967 acres. Contoocook river has a serpentine course through this town and receives Blackwater and Warner rivers. There is in this town a handsome village containing about 50 dwelling-houses, a congregational meeting-house, several stores, mechanic shops, etc. There is also in other parts of the town a baptist and several other meeting-houses. The soil in Hopkinton is generally of an excellent quality. Rev. Stephen Scales was ordained here in 1757, and removed in 1770, his successors have been Rev. Elijah Fletcher, Jacob Cram, and Ethan Smith the present pastor. Elder Abner Jones was ordained over the baptist church in 1814. Hopkinton is upon the whole a handsome and flourishing town. One term of the superior court and one of the common pleas is held here annually. On the 27th of April, 1746, a party of Indians entered one of the garrisoned houses in this town, the door having been accidentally left open. Eight of the people were carried off, and several of them died in captivity.
INDIAN STREAM rises in the high lands which divide this state from Lower Canada, and is undoubtedly the most northern branch of Connecticut river. From its source to Stewartstown, a distance of S0 miles, its course is direct.
ISINGLASS RIVER has its source in Bow pond on the county line between Northwood and Barrington, receives the waters of several ponds in Barrington and falls into Cochecho river at the south part of Rochester.
ISRAEL’S RIVER receives a southerly branch which flows from the northern side of the White hills and the township of Durand, and a northerly branch from Kilkenny and Northumberland. These branches, unite at Lancaster in a main stream which falls into Connecticut river, on the westerly side of Lancaster village. This is a beautiful stream, and bordered with highly cultivated lands.
JAFFREY, a township in Cheshire county, incorporated is 1773, and containing in 1810, a population of 1336; bounded N. by Dublin, E. by Cheshire county line, which separates it from Sharon and Peterborough, S. by Rindge and Fitzwilliam, and W. by a part of Fitzwilliam and Marlborough, comprising an area of 25,600 acres, of which 987 are water. The north boundary of the town crosses the Grand Monadnock mountain, which is more than 2000 feet in height. Long pond in the north part of the town is 400 rods long and 140 wide. Gilmore pond is 300 long and 180 wide. The 3d N. H. turnpike passes through this town, and near it is a mineral spring about one mile S.E. of the Grand Monadnock. A company has been incorporated for the management of its waters. Red ochre has been found near the spring, and in its vicinity have been discovered black lead, copper, alum, sulphur, and an ore yielding from the action of a common forge, a copper coloured metal. On the N.W. side of the mountain a have has been discovered, difficult of access, although it has an area. 80 feet square. Here is found also that rare and valuable tree, the mountain ash. A company was incorporated in this town in 1813, for the manufactory of cotton and woolen goods, their factory is situated on the turnpike. It is the uppermost factory on Contoocook river, and is intended to employ 1000 cotton spindles. There are several mills in its vicinity. Another company has been incorporated in this town for manufacturing the various kinds of crockery and earthen ware. Belonging to this company is an extensive mine of white clay in the town of Monkton (Vt.) whence it is transported to Jaffrey. This clay has been analyzed and compared by skilful chemists with that from which the European white ware is made and no difference in quality has been discovered. The practicability of the above plan has been fully ascertained by the progress already made in the manufacture. Rev. Laban Ainsworth, was ordained here in 1782, and is still in office. There are here a baptist and a congregational society, for each of which there is a meetinghouse.
JEFFERSON, a township in Coos county formerly called Dartmouth, lying on the banks of Israel’s river, which passes from its southern to its western extremity. It was incorporated in 1765, and now contains about 200 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Barker’s location and a part of Lancaster, E. by Kilkenny, S. by ungranted lands and Bretton Woods, and W. by Bretton Woods and Whitefield, comprising. 26,076 acres, 300 of which are water. Pondcherry pond in this town is 200 rods in diameter, and forms the source of one of the branches of John’s river. Pondcherry bay is about 200 rods long and 100 wide. In the N. E. part of the town lies Funny mountain and in the S. W. part is Pondcherry mountain. The Jefferson turnpike passes through this place to Lancaster. There are here 2 grain-mills and 1 saw-mill.
JOHN’S RIVER has the source of its most southerly branches in Bretton Woods, Whitefield, and Dalton, of its middle branch in Pondcherry pond, and of its northern, in Martin’s meadow in Lancaster. These branches unite in the upper part of Dalton in a main stream, which falls into the Connecticut river at the upper bar of the 15 miles falls. The mouth is here 30 yards wide.
KEARSARGE MOUNTAIN, in Coos county, lies on the dividing line between Bartlett and Chatham. This is the third range of mountains in the state. Its height has not been ascertained. A gentleman, who resides in the neighbourhood of this range observes, that in October, 1812, he went in company with two of his neighbours to view the mountain, which lies on the north of Conway, and while ascending was astonished at the singular appearance of the stones, which form the body of the mountain as well is of those which lie on its surface. They all appear to have been once in a fluid state, or to have composed the bottom of some sea. The large masses, as well as the detached pieces, were full of small pebbles of all sizes, forms, and colours, confusedly thrown together and cemented. The small stones retain their perfect shape in the solid mass of which they form a part. The whole appearance in short, indicated, that these pebbles were once in a separate state and were consolidated by some unknown cause.
KEARSARGE MOUNTAIN, in Hillsborough county, lies partly in Kearsarge Gore and partly in Sutton. Its easterly extremity extends to New-Salisbury and Andover. This is one of the second range in the state.
KEARSARGE GORE, in Hillsborough county, lies on the southerly side of Kearsarge mountain. It contains 152 inhabitants, and is bounded N. by Wilmot, E. by Salisbury, S. by Warner, and W. by Sutton, comprising an area of 428 acres. In the year 1807, that part of Kearsarge Gore together with a part of New-London was incorporated into a town by the name of Wilmot.
KEENE, one of the principal townships in the county of Cheshire, was incorporated in 1752, and in 1810, contained 1646 inhabitants; bounded N. by Gilsum, Surry, and Westmoreland, E. by Surry and Roxbury, S. by Swansey, and W. by Chesterfield and Westmoreland, and contains 23,843 acres.
Ashuelot river passes through this town and receives here the eastern branch of Beaver brook. The 3d N. H. turnpike has its course through here, and meets the branch and Chester turnpikes and several other principal roads. Keene contains a very handsome village of about 60 dwelling houses, a meeting-house, bank, court-house, gaol, and several stores, etc. About a mile from the village, a canal is cut from Ashuelot river, on which is a woolen factory, an oil-mill, and several other mills. The Rev. Jacob Bacon was settled here in 1738, and has been succeeded by the Rev. Messrs. Carpenter, Sumner, and Hall, the latter of whom died in 1814. This town was formerly called Upper Ashuelot. In 1746, the Indians commenced their depredations here, and in the course of the next year they formed a plan to surprise the fort in this place. In the evening they concealed themselves in a swamp, where they intended to lie till the people should go out to their work the next morning, when they were to rush in and surprise the fort. Ephraim Dounan who happened to go out very early discovered the ambush and gave the alarm. He bravely defended himself against 2 Indians, from one of whom he took a gun and a blanket, which he carried to the fort. The Indians succeeded in burning several houses and barns, and from the bones found among the ashes, it was ascertained that several of the enemy were destroyed in the flames. John Bullard and Nathan Blake were taken captive and carried to Canada where Blake remained 2 years. He died in Keene 1811, at the age of 99. He was one of the first settlers of this place, to which he moved in 1736, from Wrentham, (Mass.) He married a second wife at the age of 94. Two of his brothers lived to the age of 90, and a sister to 100.
KENSINGTON, a township in Rockingham county, incorporated in 1737, and now containing 781 inhabitants; bounded N. by Exeter, E. by Hampton Falls, S. by Southampton, and W. by East-Kingston. Kensington was formerly a part of Hampton. Rev. Joseph Fogg was settled in this town at the time of its incorporation and died in 1800. There are here two religious societies and two meeting-houses.
KILKENNY, a township in Coos county, of an irregular form and mountainous surface, incorporated in 1774, and now containing only 28 inhabitants; bounded N. E. by Durand, Mainsborough, Paulsburg, and Dummer, N. and S. by ungranted lands, and W. by Barker’s location, Jefferson, Lancaster, and Piercy, and contains 15,906 acres. A branch of Nashes stream crosses the northerly extremity of this town and Israel’s river its southern.
KINGSTON, a township in Rockingham county, incorporated 1694, and now containing a population of 746; bounded N. by Brentwood, E. by East-Kingston, S. by Newton and Plaistow, and W. by Hampstead and Hawke, containing 12,188 acres, of which 800 are water. Great pond, containing about 500 acres, and about 300 acres of County pond are in this town. In these ponds Powow river has its source.
Rev. Ward Clark was settled here in 1725, and died in 1737. Rev. Messrs. Secomb, Tappan, and Thayer have been his successors. A post road leading from Boston to Portsmouth passes through this town. There is here an extensive plain on which stands a commodious meeting-house.
LAMPREY RIVER has its source in the town of Northwood, on the W. side of Saddleback mountain. Taking a southerly course, it passes into Deerfield and receives the waters of Martin’s pond, and in Candia a stream called Second river falls into it. Thence it passes into Raymond, where it receives a western branch. Thence taking a southerly direction, it unites with the waters of Jones’ pond in Deerfield, and thence as it flows on through Epping, it receives Petuckaway river, and after a bend to the N. E. it receives North river. After a course thence through Lee to Durham, it unites with Piscasick river from Newmarket. It meets the tide water about two miles above the Great bay.
LANCASTER, a township in Coos county, on the eastern bank of Connecticut river, incorporated in 1763, and containing in 1810, a population of 717 inhabitants. It is bounded N. E. by Northumberland and Kilkenny, S. E. by Barker’s location and a part of Whitefield, S. W. by Dalton, and W. by Connecticut river, containing 23,480 acres. It lies about 50 miles above Hanover. In this town is Martin’s meadow pond, about 260 rods long and 150 wide, and also Martin’s meadow hill on the north side of the pond. The village is about one mile distant from the river, and contains a meeting-house, courthouse, gaol, etc. Through this village passes Israel’s river which falls into the Connecticut at the Great Oxbow. Indian brook waters the other extremity of the town. Lancaster is united by a bridge with Guildhall (Vt.) There are here several grain-mills and saw-mills, an oil-mill, a clothing-mill, and a carding-machine, a nail-factory, and 2 distilleries. The Rev. J. Willard is the minister here.
LANDAFF, in Grafton county was incorporated in 1794, and now contains 650 inhabitants. It is bounded N. E. by Concord (Vt.) and a part of Franconia, E. by Lincoln and a part of Peeling, S. W. by Coventry, and W. by Bath, comprising 29,200 acres. Through this town passes the Wild Amonoosuck river, on the north bank of which it is contemplated to extend the Bath turnpike. Over the west extremity of Landaff the Great Amonoosuck passes. Landaff mountain, Cobble mountain, and Bald head mountain are in this town. Landaff was granted to Dartmouth college in 1769. There is here a methodist meeting-house, 2 corn-mills, and 2 saw-mills, 2 distilleries, and 4-shops. The first ordained minister of the town was Elder Royse. The centre of Landaff is about 9 miles E. from Connecticut river.
LANGDON, a township in Cheshire county, 5 miles east from Connecticut river, incorporated in 1787, and now containing 632 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Charleston, E. by Acworth and Alstead, S. by Acworth and Walpole, and W. by Charleston, comprising 9,891 acres. The Cheshire turnpike leading from Walpole to Charleston passes through this town. Cold river flows through Langdon and here receives its northern branch, which passes through Unity, Acworth, and Charleston.
LEBANON, a township lying in the S. W. part of Cheshire county, incorporated in 1761, and now containing 1808 inhabitants; bounded N.by Hanover, S. E. by Enfield, S. by the line of Cheshire county, which separates it from Plainfield, and W. by Connecticut river which separates it from Hartford (Vt.) its area is 22,998 acres. The Croydon turnpike and the 4th N. H. turnpike pass through this town to Lyman’s bridge. At this place White river empties itself into the Connecticut. Here also the White river turnpike meets the two roads above mentioned. Mascomy river flows through Lebanon from a pond of the same name on the borders of Enfield. There are here 2 religious societies and 1 meetinghouse for the congregationalists, over whom Rev. J.Porter was ordained in 1772. Lebanon contains 8 grist-mills, 9 saw-mills, 3 clothing-mills, 1 distillery, and 4 shops.
LEE, a township in the south part of the county of Strafford, incorporated in 1766, and now containing a population of 1329 inhabitants; bounded N. by Madbury, E. by Durham, S. by Newmarket and Epping, and W. by Nottingham and Barrington, comprising an area of 11,467 acres, 165 of which are water. In the north part of the town lies Wheelwright pond, containing about 165 acres, and forming the principal source of Oyster river. From the N. W. extremity of Newmarket, Lamprey river enters Lee, and after a serpentine course of about seven miles it passes into Durham. Another part of the town is watered by Little river and North river. Through the north part of Lee the N. H. turnpike passes from Portsmouth to Concord. There is here a Friend’s meeting-house and another for
the baptists; several grist and saw-mills, 1 clothing-mill, a carding-machine, and several shops. Lee was formerly a part of Durham and Dover. The first settled minister here was Elder S. Hutchins, who has been succeeded by Elder Elias Smith, and the present pastor Elder J. Osborn.
LEMPSTER, a township in Cheshire county, incorporated in 1761, and containing in 1810, a population of 845 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Unity, E. by Goshen and Washington, S. by Marlow, and W. by Acworth, comprising an area of 21,410 acres. Near the border of Washington is a pond about 320 rods long and 80 wide, arid another lying partly in Marlow 420 long and 70 wide, besides several others of a smaller size. Lempster is also watered by Sugar river and two branches of Cold river. The easterly part of the town is mountainous, over which part passes the 2d N. H. turnpike from
Amherst to Claremont. In this town also the Charleston turnpike branches off. There are here 7 school-houses, and 1 congregational meetinghouse. Rev. E. Fisher was the first and only minister ever settled in this town. He was ordained in 1787, and is still in office. In 1812, eighteen persons died in this town, and twelve of them of the spotted fever. In 1813, five others died of that disease. This fever first appeared in Lempster on the 20th of March, 1812, and continued spreading its malignant contagion till the 3d of April. In 1813, it again appeared about the middle of April, and in June it assumed the form, of the mild typhus. In 1803, twenty-four children died here in two months of the scarlatina anginosa.
LINCOLN, a mountainous township in Grafton county, incorporated in 1764, and now containing 100 inhabitants; bounded N. by Franconia, E. by ungranted lands, S. by Peeling, and W. by Landaff, comprising an area of 32,456 acres. In this town is situated the Hay-Stack mountain, which is said to be the highest land in the state excepting the White mountains. There are also several other lofty eminences in this town. Through the centre of Lincoln passes Pemigewasset river in a northerly direction. The waters descending from the mountains here flow partly into the Merrimack and partly into the Connecticut. In the north part of this town there are two large gulfs, made by an extraordinary discharge of water from the clouds in 1774.
LITCHFIELD, a small township in Hillsborough county, lying on the east side of Merrimack river opposite to the town of Merrimack. It was incorporated in 1749, and contained in 1810, 382 inhabitants. It is bounded E. by Londonderry and Nottingham West, S. by Nottingham West, and W. by the Merrimack. In this town are Cromwell’s falls and ferry, Thornton’s and Reed’s ferries, and Moor’s falls. At Thornton’s ferry the Merrimack is 50 rods wide, and in other points about 28. There are in this town several mills and one meeting-house. Rev. Samuel Cotton was ordained
here in 1765, and removed in 1781. His successors have been Rev. Messrs. Rand and Kennedy, and another gentleman lately ordained.
LITTLETON, a township in the northern extremity of Grafton county, incorporated in 1784, and now containing 876 inhabitants. It is bounded N. E. by Dalton, S. E . by- Bethlehem, S. W. by Concord and Lyman, and W. by Connecticut river, which separates it from Waterford and Concord in Vermont. Its area is 24, 217 acres. Littleton extends on the banks of the Connecticut about 14 miles. It is connected with Concord, (Vt.) by a handsome bridge. The southern part of the town is watered by the Amonoosuck river. There are here several mountains, viz. Bluberry, Black, and Iron mountains. There are in this town several mills, a meeting-house, and about a dozen dwelling-houses.
LITTLE HARBOUR. (See Newcastle.)
LONDONDERRY, a large and respectable town in Rockingham county, was incorporated in 1722, and contained in 1810, a population of 2766 inhabitants. It is hounded N. by Chester and Manchester, E. by Hampstead, Sandown, and Atkinson, S. by Salem, Windham, and Nottingham West, and W. by Litchfield, comprising an area of 44,100 acres. Derry pond in this town is the principal source of Beaver’ river. Several other small ponds in the west part of the town empty themselves into this river. A turnpike passes here leading to Chester. There are in Londonderry 2 presbyterian meeting-houses, an academy, 5 grist-mills, S saw-mills, 2 clothing-mills, 2 carding-machines, and 6 trading stores. The first minister here was the Rev. James M’Gregore, who was ordained in 1719, when the town was called Nuffield. He died in 1729. Rev. M. Clark was his successor, who died soon after his settlement. Rev. Alexander Thompson was ordained in 1734, and died in 1791, at the age of 81. His successors have been the Rev. Messrs. Brown and Parker, the latter of whom is the present pastor. Over the second parish the Rev. D. M’Gregore was ordained in 1737, and died in 1777. He was succeeded by Rev. William Morrison in 1783, who still continues in office. Londonderry was settled in 1718, by a company from Ireland, of whom the following is a brief history. A company of Scotch presbyterians had been settled in the province of Ulster, in the reign of James I. They had borne a large part of the sufferings which were the common lot of Protestants at that unhappy period, and were thereby inspired with an ardent thirst for civil and religious liberty. A young man of the name of Holmes, son of a clergyman, had traveled to America, and carried home such a favourable report of the country, as induced his father with three other presbyterian ministers, viz. James M’Gregore, William Cornwell, and William Boyd, and a large part of their congregations to emigrate into this country. Having converted their property into money, they embarked in five ships on the 14th of October, 1718, of whom about one hundred families arrived in Boston. Sixteen of these families soon determined to settle cn a tract of land of which they heard good reports, which was then called Nuffield, and now Londonderry. Early in the spring the men left their families in Haverhill, (Mass.) and erected some huts near a brook, which falls into Beaver river. On the evening after their arrival (April 11th, 1718,) at this spot, a sermon was preached by Mr. M’Gregore under a large oak tree, which to this day is regarded by the posterity with real veneration. On the first administration of the sacrament here, there were two ministers and sixty-five communicants. The majority of these first settlers had resided in or near Londonderry in Ireland, where they had endured the sufferings of a memorable siege. John Barr, William Caldwell, and Abraham Blair, with several others, who had suffered in that siege, and embarked for America, were, by a special order of king William, exempted from taxes in every part of the British dominions. The first settlers in this town lived :to the average of 80, many to 90, and others to 100. The spotted fever prevailed here in 1814, and carried off 52 persons.
LOUDON, a township in Rockingham county, incorporated in 1673, and now containing a population of 148 inhabitants. It is bounded N. E. by Gilmanton, S. E. by Pittsfield and Chichester, S. W. by Concord, and N. W. by Canterbury, comprising 28,257 acres. Suncook river, flowing from Gilmanton, passes through the western part of this town: Into this river are emptied the waters of crooked pond, Rollins’ pond, and several others which fit in this town. In Loudon there are 2 meeting-houses, 5 grist-mills, 2 carding-machines, 3 distilleries, and 4 trading shops. Rev. J. Tucker was ordained here in 1789. This town was formerly a part of Canterbury.
LOVEWELL,’S POND is at the head of the westerly branch of Salmon falls river, in the town of Wakefield.
LYMAN, a township in Grafton county, about 13 miles above Haverhill, incorporated in 1761, and containing 948 inhabitants; bounded N. E. by Littleton, S. E. by Concord, S. W. by Bath, and N. W. by Connecticut river, which divides it from Barnet in Vermont. The soil and productions of Lyman are similar to those of other towns in the northern part of the state. The pine and hemlock indicate the most valuable qualities in the soil. Over Indoes falls in this town a bridge has been erected. Two miles above this spot is Stephen’s ferry. Burnham’s river has its source in this town, and falls into the Amonoosuck at Concord. Lyman mountain, which is in fact a continuation of Gardner’s mountain, extends from Landaff through this town in a north and south direction. On its summit is a pond 100 rods long and 80 wide, which forms the principal source of Burnham’s river. Copper and emery mixed with iron ore have been found in this town, In the year 1812, the spotted fever prevailed in Lyman: it attacked 70 persons, of whom only one died. It is a remarkable fact, that of the three first families who settled in this town there were twenty sons, of whom seventeen are now living here. One of the twenty died by casualty and the other two live elsewhere.
There are in Lyman 3 gristmills, 3 saw-mills, 2 clothing-mills, 1 carding-machine,2 distilleries, and an oil-mill.