CHESTERFIELD, a township in Cheshire county. It was incorporated in 1752, and in 1810, its population amounted to 1830. It is situated on Connecticut river opposite to Dummerston in Vermont. It is bounded N. by Westmoreland, S. E. by Swansey and a part of Keene, S. by Winchester and Hinsdale, and W. by Connecticut river. This town contains a pond of 526 acres, called Spofford’s pond, and in the S. W. part of the town is a part of West river mountain. The soil of this town is of various qualities, and its surface is rough. It produces different kinds of grain, and is well suited to grass, pasturing, etc. The Rev. Abraham Wood, a congregational minister, was ordained in this town Dec. 31st, 1772, and is still settled there. This town contains a baptist society, which however is destitute of a public house of worship. The village here is small, but it contains an academy, which is supported by its tuition money, subscriptions, and yearly donations. Its average number of students is 40. There is also a cotton factory in this town, which was incorporated in 1809, and has in operation 844 spindles. Besides this, there are 2 distilleries, 4 grist-mills, 7 saw-mills, 2 mills for dressing cloth, 2 carding-machines, 5 shops, and 10 school-houses. West river mountain, which is partly in this town, is of some note. In the year 1730, the garrison at fort Dummer was frequently alarmed by explosions heard from this mountain, attended by the emission of columns of smoke. Similar phenomena have been noticed at various subsequent periods. There are two places about this mountain where the rocks bear evident traces of having been heated and calcined.
CHICHESTER, a township in Rockingham county, is bounded N. E. by Pittsfield and Epsom, S. W. by Pembroke, and N. W. by Loudon and a part of Concord. It was incorporated in 1727, and contains 11,978 acres and 951 inhabitants. Suncook river flows through the easterly part of this town, into which river a small stream falls from the western side of the town. In this town are water mills. The New-Hampshire turnpike passes through here to Concord. The settlement of this town was commenced by Mr. Paul Morrill in the year 1758. The soil of Chichester is excellently adapted to the cultivation of rye, corn, and wheat. The only high ground of importance here is Bear hill, situated in the N. part of the town, the sides of which are covered with a rich and cultivated soil. In 1801, a turnpike was cut through the woods which then covered this spot. There were at that time no houses here, nor had agriculture commenced its progress. Since that time 12 dwelling-houses have been erected within the space of 2 miles. The land is now divided into lots and fenced,and a large portion of it is already improved and well cultivated, There is only one religious society in this town, and of this the Rev. Josiah Carpenter is the minister. He is a congregationalist and was ordained in 1791, and is the only minister ever settled here. Besides the meeting-house there are 5 school-houses. In various parts of the town are still to be seen traces of Indian settlements. Marks of corn plantations, and the ruins of wigwams were easily discovered on the banks of Suncook river, and several Indian hatchets were ploughed up near the present site of the meetinghouse by one of the first settlers, captain Samuel Langmaid.
CLAREMONT, a township on Connecticut river in the county of Cheshire. It was incorporated in 1764, and in 1810, it contained 2,094 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Cornish, E. by Newport, S. by Unity and Charleston, and W. by the river. There are here 2 ferries across the Connecticut extending to Weathersfield in Vermont, called Ashley’s and Sumner’s ferries. Hubbard’s island, just below Ashley’s ferry is 240 rods long and 40 wide. Sugar river passes through this town and supplies many valuable mill seats, on which are erected 3 grain-mills, 3 saw-mills, and 3 mills for dressing cloth, 1 carding-machine, 1 paper-mill, and 1 oil-mill. The second New-Hampshire turnpike passes from Amherst through this town. There is 1 congregational and 1 episcopalian society in this place, over the former of which Rev. S. Farley, and over the latter Rev. C. Barber are ordained. Their predecessors were the Rev. G. Wheaton, A. Hibbert, and R. Cassit. Besides these two societies, the methodists have here a public house of worship.
CLEAR STREAM RIVER rises in the mountains on the W. side of the town of Dixville, near the northerly extremity of Millfield. Passing thence through the centre of the town of Errol, it falls into Andriscoggin river three miles S. of Umbagog lake.
COCHECHO or DOVER-RIVER has its source among a number of small ponds in the town of New-Durham. It thence takes a southerly direction through the towns of Farmington and Rochester, where it unites with its southern branch, called Isinglass river. From this place the main stream passes through Dover, where it falls into Newichawannock or Salmon falls river, thence to Hilton’s point where the southern branch meets it. From this junction to the sea, which is 8 miles distant, the course of this river is rapid and never freezes.
COLEBROOK, a township in Coos county. It was incorporated in 1770, and now contains 325 inhabitants. It lies on Connecticut river 40 miles N. of Lancaster. It is bounded N. by Stewartstown, E. by Dixville, S. by Columbia, and W. by the river, and contains 25,056 acres. This town is watered by Mohawk river and Beaver brook. It has 1 meeting-house and an ordained minister. It contains a grain-mill, a saw-mill, 2 mills for dressing cloth, 1 carding-machine, 1 oil-mill, a distillery, and 1 retail store.
COLD RIVER. rises in Cold-pond in Acworth, whence its most northerly branch flows, and its most southerly flows from Alstead. These branches unite in Walpole, where the main stream falls into Connecticut river.
COLLEGE LANDS, a tract of land granted to the trustees of Dartmouth college by the state legislature in 1789. It lies on Connecticut river N. of Stewartstown and contains 40,960 acres. Two streams called Dead water and Cedar stream pass through this tract. It lies 130 miles N., 9° W. from Portsmouth. In 1807, the legislature made to the college another grant of land lying on the easterly border of the state containing 23,040 acres, equal to 6 square miles. This tract lies N. 5° W., 123 miles from Portsmouth.
COLUMBIA, a township in Coos county. Bounded N. by Colebrook, E. by Dixville and Erving’s location, S. by unappropriated lands and Stratford, and W. by Connecticut river. It contains 32,800 acres. Sims stream and Cole brook rise in this town and empty themselves here into Connecticut river. Roaring brook falls into the same river near the lower extremity of this town. There are here several mountains of a considerable size, and a number of small ponds. This town contains 1 grist-mill, 2 sawmills, 1 mill for dressing cloth, 1 trading store, and 1 distillery. This place was formerly called Cockburn.
CONCORD is in Rockingham county. It lies on both sides of Merrimack river, was incorporated in 1765, and now contains 2,393 inhabitants. It is bounded as follows, beginning at the junction of the Suncook and Merrimack, it runs up the Suncook to Loudon, thence N. 47° W. 810 rods, and N. 211° W. 700 rods to Canterbury, thence on the same course 191 rods, thence S. 72°, W. 1370 rods across the junction of the two rivers, and by Boscawen to Hopkinton, thence S. 20° W. 2279 rods to Bow, thence on the same course binding on Bow 32 rods,thence N. 70° E. 1222 rods to Merrimack river, thence down said river to the boundary first mentioned. It contains 40,919 acres, 1710 of which are water. There are four ponds in this town, Turkey pond, the source of Turkey river, containing about 1000 acres, Long pond containing about 420, Turtle pond containing about 240, and Horse-shoe pond containing about 50 acres, the waters of which fall into the Merrimack. The Rev. Timothy Walker was ordained in this town in 1730, and died in 1782, aged 78 years. The Rev. Israel Evans was ordained here in 1789, and removed soon afterwards. The Rev. Dr. Asa McFarland is the present minister. Concord is pleasantly situated on the banks of the Merrimack about 8 miles above Hookset falls. The state legislature have for many years held all its sessions here, and from its central situation and thriving back country, Concord will probably be made the permanent capital of the state. Proposals are already made for erecting a state house here. One handsome toll-bridge across the Merrimack connects this town with Pembroke, another crosses the river near the northerly extremity of the town, over which the N. H. turnpike passes. The Indian name of this town was Penacook. When granted by Massachusetts it was called Rumford. The compact part of the town which lies principally on the main-street contains about 200 dwelling houses, a spacious meetinghouse, 3 printing-offices, 20 stores, and several mechanics shops. The village in the N. E. part of the town contains 28 dwelling-houses, 2 stores; a distillery, and several mills. The whole town contains 5 grain-mills, 8 saw-mills, 4 mills for dressing cloth, 2 carding-machines, and a nail-factory. The N. H. state prison is in this town. It is strongly built of stone, and in November 1816, it contained 30 prisoners. The first settlement of this town commenced in 1685. Jonathan Tyng with 19 other persons purchased of the Indians a tract of land on both sides of the Merrimack river, 6 miles in breadth from Souhegan river to Winnipiseogee lake, and, Mason by deed confirmed the purchase. In August of the same year the Indians gathered their corn and removed their families. By this conduct they gave considerable alarm to their English neighbours. In 1746, a party of Indians lay in ambush in this town with an intention to attack the people while at public worship, but observing them go armed to their devotions they waited till the next morning, at which time they killed 5 and took 2 prisoners. In 1747, July 28th, the Indians again appeared in this place and made some depredation among the cattle. They were pursued by 50 of the English, and they retreated with great precipitation,leaving their packs and blankets behind them. One man, only was wounded in the arm. About the same time a person was killed there who had just returned from Cape-Breton after an absence of two years.
On the 20th of March, 1772, died in this town Benjamin Rolfe. He was one of the first who adventured their lives in a land of savages with the intention of forming an English settlement at Concord, then called Penacook and at a distance of nearly 40 miles from any civilized habitation. Benjamin Thompson (better known to the world under the title of Count Rumford) settled in this town in the early part of his life. The town was then called Rumford. Here he married Miss Rolfe. In 1775, he went to England, and was employed as clerk in the office of lord George Germaine, who was then one of the secretaries of state, and who eventually procured for him a colonels commission. While serving in the British army he discovered such talents for projecting military improvements, so much mental activity and enterprise, and such acute discernment in practical philosophy, that his celebrity extended through foreign countries, and attracted the attention of the reigning duke of Bavaria, who offered Col. Thompson a preferment in his service, which he accepted in 1784. Raised by this prince-to the rank of Lieut. Gen. of horse he soon signalized himself by introducing a new system of discipline and economy among the troops under his command. During a residence of several years in Bavaria, he was conspicuous for his unwearied and successful efforts to ameliorate the condition of the poor and particularly to annihilate the evil of common beggary by providing the beggars, (a class of people with which that country swarmed) with employment and the cheapest aliment. All this time his active and sagacious mind suggested a variety of improvements favourable to manufactures, domestic economy, and comfort. He particularly improved the construction of chimneys and stoves, and made many interesting and beneficial experiments on heat, cookery, and food. On his leaving the German service the duke of Bavaria created him a count, his title by his own choice, was taken from the town (Rumford) where he spent his youth. After leaving Bavaria count Rumford passed most of his time in Great Britain, where he received the honour of knighthood and enjoyed an uncommon share of public and private respect. By steadily directing his extraordinary talents to the promotion of the daily comfort and general welfare of the human family he made every civilized being his debtor, and, while he has reflected signal honour upon his native land, his well merited fame has extended itself over a large portion of the globe. He died in Autencil in France in the year 1814, aged sixty.
CONCORD in Grafton county, was incorporated in 1768, and was formerly called Gunthwait. It is a flourishing town. Its population has nearly doubled within the last 10 years, and in 1810, it amounted to 1126. The value of property here has increased with the same rapidity. It is bounded N.E. by Littleton and Bethlehem, S. E. by Franconia, S. W. by Landaff, and N.W. by Lyman, and contains 29,130 acres. There are here several ponds, viz. Minks, Straters, etc. Two branches of the Great Amonoosuck meet in this town and pass through it. An iron factory lies on the eastern border of the town, adjacent to Franconia. Large quantities of lime-stone are found here, and large kilns are already erected, in which are burnt 400 hogsheads yearly. All the iron ore, which supplies two furnaces, is dug from a quarry situated in the S.E. part of the town, about 4 miles distant from the furnaces. There are in this town 1 meeting-house, 3 corn-mills, 5 saw-mills, 1 mill for dressing cloth, and an oil-mill. There is here a freewill baptist church, over which Elder J. Quimby was ordained September, 1800.
CONNECTICUT RIVER has its source among the high lands, which separate the United States from Lower Canada. One of the principal parent streams of this river is called Indian stream, which runs nearly in a straight line from its source to its junction with the main branch. The most northerly branch is called Hall’s stream, which, with Perry’s stream and several others from the west, form in conjunction one grand river near the 50th degree of N. latitude on land granted to Dartmouth college. It has been surveyed about 30 miles beyond the 45th degree of N. latitude to the head of its northwestern branch, and is settled nearly all the distance to its source. Its general course S. S.W. along the western border of New-Hampshire, (between that state and Vermont) about 170 miles, it then passes into Massachusetts. Connecticut river in its course between New-Hampshire and Vermont from the 45th degree of latitude passes between Stewartstown in New-Hampshire and Canaan in Vermont, thence between Colebrook and Lexington. Here the river bends considerably to the E. as if to give place to Monadnock mountain, which lies on Lexington shore in Vermont. It receives Mohawk river opposite to this mountain, and Jacob’s brook a few miles below. Here the river again takes a westerly inclination and flows between Columbia and Minchead to Stratford opposite Brunswick in Vermont. At this place Nohegan river falls into the Connecticut from the upper extremity of Brunswick, and Pauls stream from the lower corner of the same town. The river here bends to the east on the border of Northumberland, where it receives the upper Amonoosuck, at a great bend opposite the lower extremity of Maidstone. From this point its course is very crooked to the upper part of Lancaster, where there is a bridge leading to Guildhall in Vermont. Five or six miles below this, Israel river empties itself, passing from Lancaster village falls, 3 miles above the Catbow. At Catbow the river inclines to the west, and passes between Dalton to Lunenburgh, where the 15 miles falls commence. At this place John’s river empties itself from Dalton, and Neal’s brook from Lunenburgh. Here the river makes a westerly bend, receiving Mile’s river and passing between Littleton and Concord, where there is a bridge built over the falls. It has thence a southerly course between Bath and Rigate, where the Great Amonoosuck empties itsalf at the lower extremity of Bath opposite the mouth of Wells river, which passes from Newbury, Vermont. Between Haverhill and Newbury, the river is crooked, passing under three bridges, and receiving Oliverian river from the east and a small stream from the west at the Great Ox-bow. As it thence flows between Piermont and Bradford, it receives two large mill-streams and Wait’s river from the latter place, and two small mill-streams from the former. It thence passes on through Orford and Fairlee, Lyme and Thelford to Grant’s island near the line of Windsor county, Vermont. A bridge over the falls just below Dartmouth college unites the towns of Hanover and Norwich, and another bridge four or five miles below, near the mouth of Mascoma river from New-Hampshire and White river from Vermont, connects the towns of Lebanon, N. H. and Hartford, Vt. Between Plainfield and Hartland is a small island called Hart’s island, where Queechy river and Lull’s brook empty themselves from Vermont. From Hart’s island the river keeps nearly a straight course between Cornish and Windsor, till it reaches the mouth of Sugar river at Claremont. Two very good millstreams empty themselves from Windsor and several from Weathersfield opposite Claremont. The mouth of Sugar river is several miles below Ascutney mountain. As the river flows on between Charleston and Springfield, it receives Black river from the’ latter town and Williams river from Rockingham. It thence passes between Walpole and the lower part of Rockingham, where the great falls commence, now known by the appellation of Bellows’ falls. The width of the river above them is at some point 22 rods, at others not more than 16. The average depth of the channel is about 25 feet, and is generally well supplied with water. It is said, however, that in September, 1792, after a severe drought, the waters of this river passed within a space of twelve feet wide and two and a half feet deep. A large rock here divides the stream into two channels, each about ninety feet wide. When the water is low, the eastern channel is dry, being crossed by a bar of solid rock. At such times the whole stream falls into the western channel, where it is contracted to the breadth of fifteen feet, and flows with astonishing rapidity. There are several pitches within the distance of half a mile above each other, the largest of which is that, where the rock divides the stream. Not withsonding the violence of the current here, the salmon pass up the falls and are taken many miles above, but the shad do not pass beyond the falls. In 1784, a bridge of timber, constructed by Col. Hale was projected over these falls 365 feet in length. This bridge was supported by the great central rock, and under it the highest floods pass without doing injury. The river from this place flows along the lower extremity of Walpole, front which town Cold river empties itself, and from Westminster, which lies opposite, Sexton river falls in with several other small streams. It thence passes “Westmoreland which lies opposite to Putnam and Dummerston, thence it flows by Chesterfield situated opposite to Brattleborough, where it receives Wantoostilqueck or West river. Between Hinsdale in New-Hampshire and Hinsdale in Vermont is a remarkable bend, where Ashuelot river empties itself. The Connecticut a few miles below this point passes over. the S. line of New-Hampshire into Massachusetts. Its passage through the county of Hampshire waters some of the most pleasant towns in the commonwealth, such as Springfield, Hadley, Northampton, etc. It thence enters the limits of Connecticut, passes over Enfield falls, thence to Windsor, where it receives Windsor ferry river, thence to Hartford, where it meets the tide and flows in a crooked channel into Long Island sound. At the distance of 130 miles from its mouth, its width is from 80 to 100 rods. The whole length of this beautiful river is bordered on each of its banks with some of the most flourishing towns in the United States. Throughout its whole course, it preserves a distance of between 80 and 100 miles from the sea. The whole distance of this magnificent stream from its mouth to its source is above 300 miles. The celebrated American poet, Barlow, thus compliments it; No watery gleams through happier villas shine—Nor drinks the sea a lovelier wave than thine.
CONTOOCOOK, a very considerable river in Hillsborough county. Its most southerly branch has its rise near the Great Monadnock mountain in Jaffrey and Rindge, and its most northerly branch flows from Danbury, Wilmot, etc. at a distance of more than fifty miles from each other. These streams after receiving tribute from almost every pond and spring in Dublin, Peterborough, Nelson, Stoddard, Washington, Fishersfield, Bradford, Hillsborough, Antrim, Warner, Sutton, New-London, Salisbury, Boscawen, and several other towns, form a junction in the northerly corner of Hopkinton. The main stream passing easterly from this place 8 or 9 miles falls into the Merrimack between Concord and Boscawen. The Contoocook is a very rapid river and at a distance of 10 or 12 miles from its mouth is 100 yards wide. Just before it empties itself into the Merrimack it branches itself and forms an island, which has some celebrity as being the spot where a Mrs. Dustin performed a very heroic exploit. This woman had been captured by the Indians in Haverhill, Massachusetts, and carried to this island. The Indians, 8 or 10 in number, being fatigued and apprehending no danger laid themselves down to sleep. The woman seized one of their tomahawks and with it killed and scalped the whole party, took their canoe and returned down the river to Haverhill. She afterwards carried the scalps to Boston and was liberally rewarded.
CONWAY, a township situated in the N. E. corner of Strafford county. It was incorporated in 1715, and 1810 it contained 1080 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Chatham and Bartlett, E. by the line of the District of Maine, which separates it from Fryburgh, S. by Eaton, and W. by Burton and Hale’s grant, containing 34,728 acres. It was called by the Indians, Pigwacket. A small part of Walker’s pond and Little Pigwacket pond lie in this town. The latter is about 175 rods in diameter. Saco river passes through this town, where it receives Swift river and several other small streams. The Rev. Mr. Porter was ordained here in 1778, and still continues the minister of the place. Conway has 3 religious societies and 2 meeting-houses. It contains 4 corn-mills, 5 saw-mills, 1 mill for dressing cloth, 2 carding-machines, 3 distilleries, and 3 retail stores.
COOS County is bounded S. by the counties of Grafton and Strafford, E. by the. District of Maine, N. by Lower Canada, and W. by Connecticut river. It is composed of 22 towns, 5 locations, and a large tract of unlocated land. In 1810 it contained 3,991 inhabitants, of which 628 were rateable polls. It contained at that time 262 horses, 37 four years old, 47 three years old, 49 two years old; 503 oxen, 231 four years old, 1,383 cows, 637 three years old cattle, and 674 two years old; 13 males, and 1 jack. This county comprises 128,662 acres of land and water S. of latitude 45° and N. of that latitude it contains 160,353 acres. Lancaster is the shire town of this county, and was incorporated as early as 1763. The county prison is here, and an academy which was incorporated in 1808. Coos county has 12, meeting-houses, 20 grist anills, 27 sawmills, 5 mills for dressing cloth, 3 carding machines, 11 stores, and 6 distilleries, etc. It sends 27 members to the state legislature. The superior court for the county of Grafton and this county is held at Haverhill and Plymouth alternately on the 4th Tuesday of December, and the court of common pleas is held at Lancaster on the 4th Tuesday of May.
CORNISH, a township in Cheshire county was incorporated in 1763, and its population in 1810, amounted to 1600. It is bounded N. by Plainfield, E. by Croydon, S. by Claremont, and W. by Connecticut river, which separates it from Windsor in Vermont. It contains 23,160 acres. A bridge crosses the Connecticut from this town to Windsor. The line adjoining Croydon passes over Croydon mountain. Governor’s mountain is situated nearly between the bridge and the road to Croydon. In this town are a congregationalist, baptist, and episcopalian society, and a meetinghouse for each. In 1768, the Rev. J. Welman was ordained here and removed in 1785. The Rev. J. Rowel and P. Kindreck are the present ministers. This town contains 4 grain-mills, 10 saw-mills, 2 mills for dressing cloth, 2 carding-machines,and 4 stores.
COVENTRY, a township in Grafton county, bounded N. by Landaff, E. by Peeling, S. by Warner, and W. by Haverhill, containing 33,290 acres. It was incorporated in 1764, and its number of inhabitants in 1810, was 162. Moose-hillock and Owl-head mountains are in this town. Branches and Oliverian brook, Baker’s river, and Wild Amonoosuck take their rise here. Coventry contains 2 grist-mills and 1 saw-mill.
CROYDON, a township in the county of Cheshire, was incorporated in 1713. Its number of inhabitants is 862. It is bounded N. by New-Grantham and a corner of Springfield, E. by Springfield and Wendall, S. by Newport, and W. by Cornish, and contains 26,000 acres. Croydon mountain extends in a northeasterly direction through this town from its southwestern extremity. On this mountain are two small ponds. Its soil is moist and rocky, and produces excellent grass, besides wheat, rye,corn, etc. The principal articles which this town sends to market, are beef, pork, butter, cheese, etc. Croydon turnpike passes nearly through the centre of this town. There are several small ponds in this town, which supply some of the minor branches of Sugar river, on which streams are erected 4 corn-mills, 5 sawmills, 1 mill for dressing cloth, and a carding-machine. There is in this town a house of public worship in which a congregational minister officiates.
DALTON, a township in Coos county, containing 235 inhabitants. It is bounded N.W. by Connecticut river at the great falls opposite Lunenburgh in Vermont, N. E. by Lancaster and Whitefield, S.E. by White-field, and S.W. by Littleton or the Grafton line. It contains 16,455 acres. John’s river crosses the northerly part of the town, and Blake’s pond forms its E. corner bound. Dalton contains a meeting-house, 3 corn-mills, 2 saw-mills, and 1 mill for dressing cloth.
DANBURY, situated in Grafton county 6 or 8 miles from Merrimack river. It was incorporated in 1795, and contains 315 inhabitants. It is bounded N.E. by Alexandria, S. E. by New-Chester, S. W. by the line of Hillsborough county which separates it from Wilmot, and N. W. by a corner of Orange. It contains 19,031 acres. Smith’s river waters this town and the Grafton turnpike leads through its western extremity to Orford bridge.
DEERFIELD, a township in Rockingham county, incorporated in 1766. In 1810 it contained 1851 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Northwood, S. by Candia, E. by Nottingham, and W. by Allenstown and Epsom, and contains 23, 254 acres. Pleasant pond is situated in the northerly part of this town and is about a mile in length and half a mile in width. There are here several other smaller ponds, one of which is the source of the western branch of Lamprey river, the northern branch of which passes from Northwood and unites with the western near the centre of Deerfield. The soil of this town is for the most part fertile, producing the various kinds of grain and grass in abundance. Eliphalet Smith was the first ordained minister in this town and removed soon after the revolutionary war. His successor was the Rev. Timothy Upham, who died in the year 1811, and was succeeded by the Rev. Nathaniel Wells. There is also a baptist church increasing in numbers under the pastoral care of Elder Peter Young. Each of these societies has its house of public worship. At the part of this town called the parade there is a pleasant village of 15 or 20 houses, a small academy, several stores, mechanics shops, etc. Deerfield contains 4 grain-mills, 4 saw-mills, 2 mills for dressing cloth, 1 carding-machine, 1 oil-mill, and 13 schoolhouses. The average yearly number of deaths in this town since 1802, has been about 20. The present year an epidemic fever prevailed of which about 20 persons died. Formerly, moose were plenty in and about this town. In 1767, Mr. Josiah Prescott killed four within a short time near the same spot.
DEAD RIVER rises in the northerly part of a tract of land granted to Gilmanton and Atkinson academies. After passing through those lands in a number of streams and also through lands granted to Dartmouth college, it unites with Dimond river and falls into the Margalla way river on the easterly side of the state, near the S. E. extremity of Wentworth’s location.
DEERING, a township in Hillsborough county, incorporated in 1779. Its population in 1810 was 1363. It is bounded N. by Henniker and Hillsborough., E. by Weare, W. by the southerly branch of Contoocook river which divides this town from Antrim, and S. by Francestown and Greenfield. It contains 20,057 acres. Pecker’s pond, in this town, is 180 rods long and 50 wide and forms the source of the northerly branch of Piscataquog river. The 2d New-Hampshire turnpike passes through the southwesterly part of this town. The Rev. William Sleigh is the settled minister of the place. There is here 1 meeting-house, 2 corn-mills, 1 saw-mill, 1 clothing-mill, 2 carding-machines, 1 distillery, and 2 trading shops.
DIMOND RIVER. Its westerly branch has its rise in a pond of that name in Stewartstown. Thence its course is through Dixville, and after receiving some tributary streams from the lands granted to Dartmouth college, it empties itself into Dead river which flows from the easterly part of those lands.
DIXVILLE, a township in Coos county, incorporated in 1805, and in 1810, containing 12 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by the college lands and lands granted to Gilmanton and Atkinson academies, E. by the second grant to Dartmouth college and Wentworth’s location, S. by Millsfield and Erving’s location, and W. by Columbia, Colebrook, and Stewartstown. It contains 31,023 acres. Near its western border is a ridge of mountains, from which flow several ponds forming the sources of two rivers, viz. Clear stream and Dimond river. This town contains a grist-mill and a saw-mill.
DORCHESTER, a township in Grafton county, incorporated in 1761, and containing 537 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Wentworth, E. by Groton, S. by Dame’s Gore,which separates it from Canaan , and W. by Lyme, and contains 23,617 acres. There are two large ponds in this town, viz. Slown’s pond, which is 500 rods long and 450 wide, and Fowler’s pond, which is 300 rod’s long and 250 wide. The southerly branch of Baker’s river flows through the eastern part of this town, and a branch
of the Mascoma passes its western part. A large mountain lies near its S.E. extremity, and another called Smart’s mountain in the N. W. part of the town. Dorchester contains 3 mills.
DOVER, a considerable township in Strafford county, situated at the head of the tide on Cochecho. It was incorporated in 1633, and in 1810 it contained 2,228 inhabitants. It is bounded N. E. by Somersworth, S.E. by Piscataqua river, S.W. by Madbury, and N. W. by Rochester and a corner of Barrington ; it comprises 15,112 acres. Cochecho river flows through the whole length of this town, and Bellamy bank through its S. E. extremity. A turnpike road passes from the compact part of this town through Somersworth to Berwick in Maine. The Indians called this place Winichahanat and Cochecho, and the first settlers named it Northam. Its public buildings consist of two houses for public worship, one for congregationalists and one for quakers, a court-house, printing-office, and a bank, which was incorporated in 1803. There is a handsome village, containing about 70 houses, 18 stores, several offices, and mechanic shops. A packet boat, while the river is open, passes from this town to Portsmouth, every day except Sundays. Dover contains 3 grain-mills, 2 saw-mills, 2 mills for dressing cloth, 2 carding-machines, an oil-mill, and a woolen factory. The Revs. John Reyner, John Pike, Nicholas Seaver, Jonathan Cushing, Jeremiah Belknap have successively been the ministers of this place. The Rev. J. W. Clary is their present pastor. Edward and William Hilton came over from London and commenced the settlement of this township in 1623. In 1630, they obtained a patent from the council at Plymouth conveying to them that place on the Piscataqua, known by the name of Hilton’s point, together with a tract 3 miles wide extending up the S. side of the river as far as Swamscot falls (now Exeter.) Within this tract are now comprised the towns of Dover, Durham, Stratham, a part of Newington and Greenland. In 1633, that beautiful neck of land (now Dover) was surveyed and incorporated. A meeting-house was at the same time erected there and surrounded with intrenchments, the traces of which are still visible. In the year 1675, immediately after the invasion of Durham, a large body of the eastern Indians negotiated a peace with Maj. Waldron at Dover, but, as the war had not ceased in the south, many of the Indians from that quarter mingled with their brethren of the east, and under the false appearances of friendship contrived to sow the seeds of fresh hostilities. In a short time captains Joseph Syll and William Hawthorne were ordered to march eastward in pursuit of these insidious enemies. On their march they arrived at Dover on the 6th of September, 1676, where they found 400 Indians assembled at the house of Maj. Waldron, most of whom were of the peace party and they regarded him as a benefactor and friend. The two captains would have attacked this body immediately, having orders to seize all Indians who had joined in the war. Maj. Waldron dissuaded them from this, and planned the following stratagem. He proposed to the whole Indian party a training and sham fight after the English custom. He then formed another party consisting of his own men and those under Capt. Frost of Kittery. Having diverted the Indians a short time and permitted them to fire the first volley, he made a dexterous movement and before they could understand his intentions surrounded their whole body, seized and disarmed them without shedding blood on either side. They were immediately separated. Wonolancet, with the Penacook tribe who had made peace the preceding winter, were amicably dismissed, but the strange Indians (as they were called,) to the number of 200 were secured and sent to Boston. Seven or eight of them who had been guilty of former murders were hanged, and the rest were sold as slaves in foreign parts. The Indians who were discharged by Waldron, regarded his conduct as a breach of faith and swore against him eternal and implacable revenge. In 1689, after a lapse of 13 years since Waldron’s stratagem, during which time the 400 Indians who were dismissed had not suffered their rage against him to cool, and many of those, who had been sold’ into slavery, having escaped and returned home with a burning thirst for revenge, entered into a confederacy to surprise the major and his neighbours, with whom the former party had been living on terms of peace and friendship. In that part of Dover situated near the first falls in the river Cochecho, there were five garrisoned houses, Waldron’s, Otis’, and Heard’s, the two others (Coffin’s and his sons) were on the south side of the river. These houses were surrounded with timber walls, the gates of which as well as the doors of the houses were secured with bolts and bars. The Indians, as they passed through the town, trading with the inhabitants, scrutinized with attention those wooden fortifications. Some intimations of mischievous plots had been given by certain squaws, but in such an ambiguous manner as not to be comprehended. Many of Waldron’s men had early apprehensions, but he laughed at their fears and told them to ” plant their pumpkins and he would take care of the Indians.” The very evening before the alarm he was informed by a young man, that the town was full of Indians and the people very uneasy, but he answered,” that the Indians behaved very well and that there was no danger.” The plot which was concerted was, that two squaws should go to each of the garrisoned houses and ask leave to lodge by the fire, and that in the night, when all the men were asleep, they should open the doors and gates and give the signal by, a whistle, upon which the strange Indians, who were within hearing were to rush in and gratify their long meditated revenge. The plan having been thus arranged, on the evening of the 27th of June two squaws applied to each of the garrisons for lodging, as was not unusual in time of peace, and they were admitted to all but young Coffin’s house. They were taught by their own request how to open the doors in case they should wish to go out during the night. Mesandowit was then in Waldron’s garrison and hospitably entertained there as he had often been before. The squaws told the major that a number of Indians were coming to trade with him the next day; and Mesandowit, while at supper, in his usual familiar manner said, ” Brother Waldron what should you do, if the strange Indians should come.” The major carelessly replied that he would assemble one hundred men by the motion of his hand. In this unsuspecting confidence the family retired to rest. In the stillness of midnight the gates were opened and the signal was given. The Indians immediately entered, stationed a guard at Waldron’s door, and rushed into his apartment, which was one of the inner rooms. Awakened by the tumult the major sprang from his bed, and though now burdened with the weight of 80 yearns. he retained so much of youthful vigour as to drive them with his sword through two or three doors, but as he was returning for his other arms, they levelled him with a blow from behind which left him senseless. Having dragged him into his hall, they placed him in an elbow chair upon a long table, and insultingly asked him, ” who shall be the judge of Indians now.” They then compelled the people in the house to provide them food, and when they had finished their repast they cruelly inflicted gashes on different parts of Waldron’s body, saying,” we thus cross out our account;” till at last exhausted with loss of blood he was falling from the table, when one of the Indians, holding his own sword under him, in this manner relieved him from his sufferings. They also put to death his son in law Abraham Lee, but made captive his daughter and several others, and then having plundered the house set it on fire. Otis’ garrison,which was next to Waldron’s, met the same fate. Otis himself with
several others were put to death, and his wife and children were taken prisoners. Heard’s garrison was saved by the barking of a dog at the moment the Indians were entering. Elder Wentworth was awakened by the noise. He repelled those who first entered, and falling upon his back, he kept the door closed with his feet, till he had given the alarm. Two balls were fired through the door, but missed him. Coffin’s house was also attacked, but as the Indians had no particular enmity against him they spared him and his family and contented themselves with pillage. Having found a bag of money they compelled him to throw it in handfulls on the floor, while they amused themselves in a scramble for it. They then proceeded to the house of his son who had refused to admit the squaws, and promising him quarter they summoned him to surrender. He withstood their offers and resolved to defend his house, but the Indians brought forward his father and threatened to put him to death. Filial affection overwhelmed his courage and he surrendered. They put both families into a deserted house, intending to make prisoners of them, but they all escaped while the Indians were engaged in their work of plunder. In this affair 23 people were killed and 29 made captive. Five or six dwelling-houses together with the mills were burned, and so rapid were the Indians in their operations, that they escaped with their prisoners and booty before the people could collect from the town to oppose them; as they passed by Heard’s garrison in their retreat, they fired upon it, but the people within having resolved to defend it, and the enemy being in haste it was saved. The preservation of its owner was still more remarkable. Elizabeth Heard with her three sons and a daughter and several other persons were returning in the night from Portsmouth. They passed up the river in their boats unperceived by the Indians who then had possession of the garrisons. Apprehending danger from some noise, which they heard, they landed and bent their steps to Waldron’s garrison, where they observed lights, which they supposed were held out to those who were seeking refuge. They knocked and entreated admission, but no answer being given, one of the party ascended the wall, and to his astonishment and alarm, saw an Indian stationed with his gun at the door of the house. Mrs. Heard in the agony of fright lost all power to escape, but she implored her children to flee and save themselves, they left her with heavy hearts. She soon recovered herself and crept into some bushes and there lay concealed till daylight, at which time she perceived an Indian approaching toward her with a pistol in his hand, who looked in her face and went away. He immediately returned and looked at her again. She then spoke to him, but without making any answer, he went off and she saw no more of him. She continued in her concealment till the conflagration was over and the Indians were gone. She then went to her house and found it safe. This wonderful preservation of Mrs. Heard was a remarkable display of the power of gratitude in an Indian. At the time of Waldron’s stratagem in 1675, a young Indian escaped and took refuge in her house. In return for her kindness in concealing him he promised that he would never in any future war, injure her or any of her family. This Indian was known to be the one who found her concealed on this eventful night. On the 25th of January, 1691, a young man in the woods near Dover was fired upon by a party of Indians. Lieut. Wilson immediately assembled a body of 18 men and went in pursuit of the aggressors. He succeeded in his search and killed or wounded the whole party except one. This caused a temporary terror among the Indians, but its effects soon ceased. On the 26th of July, 1696, the people of Dover were attacked as they were returning from public worship. Three of them were killed and three carried to Penobscot, who afterwards escaped and returned home. In August, 1704, a man by the name of Giles was killed, and the people were again waylaid on their return from meeting. In 1706, William Pearl and Nathaniel Tibbets were killed, and in 1710, Jacob Garland met the same fate. In the spring of 1711, this town was again attacked by the Indians, and several people as they were returning from meeting fell into an ambush. John Horn was wounded and Humphrey Fass. was taken prisoner; but by the resolute courage of Lieut. Heard he was recovered from the hands of the enemy. In Apri1,1712, ensign Tuttle was killed, and in the July following an ambush was discovered, but the enemy escaped. While the people were absent in pursuit of them, two children of John Waldron’s were taken and we re cruelly put to death. Although there was no man at the time in Heard’s garrison, a woman who was stationed as guard called for help with such a resolute and commanding voice that the Indians supposed the men were near and they therefore departed without doing farther mischief. On the 29th of August,1723, the Indians again made their appearance at Dover, where they surprised the house of Joseph Ham, whom they put to death, and three of whose children they carried off. In May, 1724, a party of 13 Mohawks marked the house of a Quaker by the name of Hanson for plunder, and they lay several days in ambush waiting for the favourable moment of attack. While Hanson with his eldest daughter were absent at a Quaker meeting and his two eldest sons were working in a distant field, the Indians entered his house, killed and scalped two small children, and made captive his wife, her infant and its nurse, two daughters and a son. The next spring Hanson redeemed his wife, the three young children_ and the nurse, but could not obtain his daughter, although he was permitted to visit her. He made a second attempt in 1727, but died at Crown Point on his journey to Canada. The girl afterwards married a Frenchman and never returned. In September, 1725, while the people were absent at work in a neighbouring field, a party of Indians concealed themselves in a barn in preparation for an attack. Two women passed by the barn at that moment, and had just arrived at the garrison, when the Indians commenced firing. They killed two men of the name of Evans and wounded another slightly in his breast. The Indians, supposing from the copiousness of his bleeding that he was dead, proceeded to strip and scalp him. He bore this operation without betraying any signs of life, and thus he continued the appearance of death while they struck him many blows with their guns and departed, supposing that they had despatched him. He then arose and walked back naked and bleeding to the garrison. Fainting with his wounds, he dropped at the feet of one of his friends who met him and who carried him to his house: He recovered and lived fifty years afterwards. The Indians also at that time carried off to Canada a lad of the name of Evans, who was afterwards redeemed. A female of the name of Christina, who was born at Dover in the year 1688, was carried captive with her mother to Canada soon after the destruction of Dover by the Indians. In Canada she was educated in the Roman Catholic faith, and she was there married. Upon the death of her husband she became very anxious to revisit the land of her nativity, and an exchange of prisoners taking place in 1714, she returned and married Capt. Thomas Baker, then of Northampton. She renounced the Catholic religion and removed to Dover, where she lived a bright example of piety, and died on the 23d of February, 1773. The number of her posterity of three generations was 72, of whom 57 survived her. On the 25th of June, 1773, died the Hon. George Guage in the 72d year of his age. Having distinguished himself as a philanthropist and patriot in the most important public stations, he received the highest honours in the gift of his country. He was several times a member of the general assembly of the province, and a colonel of the 2d regiment of militia, which was particularly exposed during the war. On the establishment of the county of Strafford, he was appointed the first judge of probate a few months before his death. In May, 1770, died Friend Joseph Estes in the 74th year of his age, who for a period of 40 years was a public speaker in the quaker meetings at Dover and elsewhere. He was universally respected and lamented. In 1772, died Howard Henderson at the advanced age of more than 100 years. He was present at the capture of Gibraltar from the Spaniards in 1704. The annual average number of deaths in this town front 1767 to 1815, has been 19. The largest number was 50 and the smallest 8. During the above period thirty died between the ages of 70 and 80, six between 90 and 100, and one over 100.
DUBLIN, a township in Cheshire, incorporated in 1761, and now containing 1184 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Nelson and Hancock, S. by Jaffrey, E. by Peterborough, and W. by Marlborough and a part of Roxbury, and contains 26,560 acres, 600 of which are water. Centre pond, a few rods S. W. of the meeting-house, is 300 rods in length and 160 in width. Worth pond is about 400 rods long and 140 wide. There are also several smaller ponds in this place. A branch of the Ashuelot river and two branches of the Contoocook have their rise in Dublin. The former falls into the Connecticut, and the latter into the Merrimack. In the southerly part of this town is situated the grand Monadnock mountain. Dublin has 6 corn-mills, 8 sawmills, 1 mill for dressing cloth, 1 carding-machine, a- distillery, and 11 school-houses. The first minister here was the Rev. Joseph Farrar, a congregationalist, who was ordained on the 10th of June, 1772, and dismissed in June, 1776. Rev. Edward Sprague, the present minister, was settled over the same church in1777. There is also a baptist church here, over which Elder Elijah Willard was ordained in 1794. Each of these societies has a meeting-house. Dublin is composed of two small villages besides many scattered houses. Dummert, a township in Coos county. It was incorporated in 1773, and now contains only 20 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Millsfield, E. by Cambridge, S. by Paulsburgh, and W. by Kilkenny and some un-granted lands, and contains 27,562 acres. The Ameris-coggin and Amonoosuck rivers both pass through this town. There is here 1 saw-mill and 1 grist-mill.
DUMMER FORT. (See Hinsdale.)
DUNBARTON, a township of an elevated situation in Hillsborough county, bounded N. and N. E. by Hopkinton and Bow, E. by Merrimack river, S. by Goffstown, and W. by Weare, containing 20,966 acres. It was incorporated in 1765, and in 1810 its population was 1256. There are here four small ponds, viz. Purga-tory,Woodbury, Long, and Gorham ponds ; the waters of all which fall into the Merrimack. This town is connected with Chester by a bridge thrown over the Isle of Hookset Falls, by which the Londonderry turnpike passes the river. The Rev. W. Harris was ordained here in 1789, and is the present minister. There arc in this town 1 meeting-house, 2 gristmills, and 7 saw-mills.
DUNSTABLE,B township lying in the southeasterly extremity of Hillsborough county. It was incorporated in 1746, and in 1810 it contained 1049 inhabitant’s. It is bounded N. by Merrimack, E. by Merrimack river, which separates it from Nottingham West, S. by the state line, which divides it from Dunstable in Massachusetts, and W. by Hollis, and comprises 18,878 acres. At this place Nashua river empties itself into the Merrimack, forming an island and the place called Nashua mouths. Pennychuck brook constitutes the northern boundary of the town. The former ministers in this place have been the Rev. Messrs. Swan and Kidder. At present the Rev. Mr. Sperry is settled here. The principal village consists of 8 or 10 dwelling-houses and 2 stores. About a mile below at the place called the harbour there are nearly as many more buildings. In former years this town among others suffered from the Indian parties, who were prowling upon our frontiers. Two men having been missed from this town, a scouting party consisting of 11 were despatched in search of them. They were attacked by the Indians and 9 of them were killed, and the surviving 2 escaped badly wounded. At a subsequent period another party from this town fell into an ambush, but the enemy not having an equal force retreated leaving 1 killed and 4 wounded. In 1724, a volunteer company under the command of Capt. Lovell was raised from this town and became alike remarkable for its success and its misfortunes. Its first expedition was to the northward of lake Winnipiseogee where they killed 1 of the enemy and made 1 prisoner. In 1725, Capt. Lovell marched from Dunstable with the design of attacking the villages of Pigwacket on the upper part of the river Saco, where a formidable tribe had once inhabited and now occasionally resided. Lovell had with hires 46 men including a chaplain and a surgeon. Two of them having lamed themselves, returned home,and another falling sick,his companions built a stockadefort on the west side of the great Ossipee pond and left him at this place with the surgeon and 8 others for a guard. The remaining 34 now pursued their march northward about ’22 miles from the fort to a pond,.on the east side of which they encamped. Early the next day, while at their morning devotions, they, heard the report of a gun and discovered a single Indian more than a mile distant stand on a point of land which projected into the pond. They had been alarmed the preced-_ ing night by noises, which they supposed came from the enemy, and their suspicions were now confirmed. They believed that the Indian they saw was stationed to decoy them, and that the body of his companions was in their front. A consultation was held and they resolved to march forward, and by surrounding the pond to command the point where they observed the Indian. In preparation for action they threw off their packs and were obliged to leave them without a guard. In their march they crossed a carrying place, through which two parties continuing 41 Indians, commanded by Paps and Waha, who had been scouting down Saco river and were now returning to their lower village. Having discovered Lovell’s track, they followed it till they came to the packs, which they seized, and upon counting them found the force of their enemies to be smaller than their own. They accordingly stationed themselves in ambush in preparation to attack. The Indian, who had been seen on the point and was now returning to the village by another path met Lovell’s party and was fired upon. He returned the fire and wounded Lovell ‘and one of his companions- with small shot. Lieut.Wyman then levelled at him and killed him and took his scalp. Discovering no other signs of the enemy, Lovell’s party then returned to the spot where they had left their packs. While they were searching for them, the Indians rose from their ambush and rushed upon them with a frightful yelling. A brisk firing then ensued en both sides. Capt. Lovell with eight others were killed, and Lieut. Farwell was wounded. Several of the Indians fell also ; but as they were superior in number to Lovell’s party and their intention being discovered, the latter retreated with the hope of sheltering themselves behind a rocky point and a few large trees on the shore. In this forlorn condition they took their station. On their right was a brook at that time unfordable ; on their left was the point of rocks ; their front was partly covered by a deep bog, and the pond was in their rear. The enemy immediately opened a galling fire upon their front and flanks, and could they have used this advantage skilfully they might have killed or captured the whole of our party, who were destitute of provisions and cut off from retreat. Under the command of Lieut. Wyman they continued their fire and retained their courage the whole day, in the course of which their chaplain,Jonathan Erie, ensign Robbins, with one other person were mortally wounded. The Indians made signs to them to surrender by holding up ropes, endeavouring at the same time to intimidate them by horrid yells. Our people were resolved to die rather than surrender, and by a welt directed fire the ranks of the enemy were thinned and their yells became fainter. At the close of the day the Indians abandoned their advantageous ground carrying with them their killed and wounded and leaving the bodies of Lovell and his companions unscalped. The surviving remnant of our brave countrymen found three of their number unable to move from the spot and eleven others of the wounded, who had still strength enough to march, and nine only who were uninjured. It was an agonizing necessity to abandon their dying companions, but there was no alternative. Ensign Robbins desired that his gun might he left charged by his side, so that if the enemy should return, he might sacrifice at least one more of them to his revenge. On the rising of the moon they departed from this fatal spot and directed their march toward the fort where the surgeon and the guard had been left. To their astonishment they found the place deserted. On the commencement of the action, one man, (whose name has not been suffered to disgrace the history of this affair) fled to die fort,where in the language of Job’s messenger, he informed the guard of Lovell’s death and the defeat of his party, upon which they made the best of their way home, leaving behind them a quantity of provisions which was a seasonable relief to the retreating survivors. Lieutenant Farwell and the chaplain who kept the journal of the march, perished in the woods from an unavoidable want of attention to their wounds. The remaining few after a long series of hardships, arrived at their homes at different times. They were received with joy and recompensed for their sufferings and their valour by public gratitude and affection. A generous provision was made for the widows and children of the slain. Capt. Tyng of Dunstable, immediately collected a company, marched to the place of the engagement, and having found the bodies of the killed, buried them and carv,d thNir names on the surrounding trees. The Indians, among many oth, ers, lost Pagus their chief. The place where the action was fought was Pigwacket, now the south part of the town of Fryburgh.
DURAND, a small township in Coos county containing 62 inhabitants. Bounded N. by Mainsboro’, E. by Shelburne, S.by the White mountains, and W. by Kilkenny. It contains 25,672 acres. One branch of Moose river and several branches of the Amonoosuck and Israel rise in this town.