Taken from The New Hampshire Gazetter 1817
A TOPOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION OF EACH COUNTY, TOWN, OR TOWNSHIP, AND LOCATION IN THE STATE; AND ALSO OF ITS LAKES, RIVERS, PONDS, AND MOUNTAINS, TOGETHER WITH MANY OTHER SUBJECTS.
ACWORTH, a post-township of Cheshire county, bounded on the N. by Unity, E. by Lempster, S. by Alstead and Marlow, W. by Charleston and Langdon, containing 24,846 acres. It was incorporated in 1776, and has 1523 inhabitants. Cold-pond, extending about a mile on the line of Unity, from 60 to 100 rods in width, and Mitchell’s pond, 120 rods long and 80 wide, are its only ponds of note. Cold river takes its rise and name from one of the above mentioned pools in the N.E. corner of this town. Acworth has two religious societies ; 1 meeting-house for the congregational order, 1 grain-mill,, 5 saw-mills, 2 mills for dressing cloth, 2 carding machines, and 1 trading store. Rev. Thomas Archibald was settled in the ministry here in 1789. Rev. Phinehas Cook is the present minister of the gospel. Charleston turnpike road passes through here. Acworth is 73 miles N. W. by W. from Portsmouth.
ADAMS, a township of Coos county, situated on the E. side of the White Mountains; bounded N. by unlocated lands, E. by Chatham, S. by Bartlett, and W. by said mountains, containing 31,968 acres of land and water. In 1800, its population was 180, and in 1810, 250 souls. Two branches of Ellis’ river pass through this town, coming from the N. and uniting on its S. border near Spruce mountain so called. Mountain pond brook crosses the S. E. corner of Adams, taking its rise from a pool in Chatham, and falling into the Saco river in the town of Bartlett. Black, Boldface, and Thorn mountains are its three elevations of note. It has 1 grain and 2 saw-mills.
ALEXANDRIA, a township of Grafton county, incorporated in 1782, and containing 409 inhabitants, is bounded on the N. W. by Orange ; N. E. by Bridgewater, S. E. by New-Chester, and on the S. W. by Danbury. Its N. corner is situated in Newfound pond on Hebron line. It contains about 14,000 acres of land. Smith’s river flows through the S., and several smaller streams cross the N. end of this town. Prior to 1790, Rev. Enoch Whipple was settled here. At present there are two religious societies without an ordained minister. It has 1 grain-mill, 4 saw-mills, and 1 mill for dressing cloth.
ALLENSTOWN, in Rockingham county, situated on the E. side of the river Suncook, has 346 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Epsom, E. by Deerfield, S. by Chester, and W. by Suncook river. Its W. corner is on the river Merrimack, 52 rods opposite the township of Bow. The Suncook is the line of division between Allenstown and Pembroke, the former of which extends over an area of 12,225 acres of land, its growth of wood principally pine, the soil being light and weak ; there are, notwithstanding, some excellent farms here. Catamount hill or mountain is the highest land in this town. Allenstown has 2 grain-mills and 4 saw-mills. Buckstreet bridge connects this town with Pembroke. Allenstown, hitherto, has been destitute of a settled minister or meeting-house. A house of public worship, however, has been recently erected. It has 3 school-houses, and winters 536 sheep.
ALSTEAD, a township of Cheshire county, incorporated in 1763, with a population at present of 1644 souls, is bounded N. by Acworth and Langdon, E. by Marlow, and S. by Walpole and Langdon, containing 24,756 acres, of which 300 are water. There are 2 meeting-houses for congregationalists and 1 for baptists ; 15 school-houses, 5 saw and 3 grain-mills, 1 paper and 1 oil-mill, a mill for dressing cloth and a carding machine. The soil is strong and succulent, producing flax, wheat, etc. in exuberance. Fruit trees thrive well here. Cheshire turnpike intersects the. S. W. part, and the road from Hale’s Bridge passes through the centre of the town. The largest body of water here is Warren’s pond, 250 rods in length and 150 in width, Cold river traverses the N. E. angle of Alstead, where it receives the waters of Warren’s pond. Several branches of Ashuelot river have their sources in this town. Rev. Jacob Mann was ordained here over the congregational church in 1782 ; dismissed in 1789. Rev. Samuel Mead settled in the same parish 1791; dismissed 1797; since which time this parish has had no ordained minister. Rev. Levi Lankton still continues in the East parish where he was settled in 1792. Elder Jeremiah Higbee has the pastoral care of the baptist church in this town. The average number of deaths in Alstead from 1807 to 1811, was 21 per annum.
ALTON, a township in Strafford county, about 25 miles N.W. from Dover, was incorporated 1796, and reckons 1279 inhabitants. This town has Winnipiseogee lake and bay for its N. boundary, E. it is bounded by New Durham, S. by Barnstead, W. by Gilmanton and Gifford. Its surface 35,783 acres. Wolfeborough joins Alton on the N. E. corner 1 mile and 216 rods. Merry-meeting bay has a S. declination of 1800 rods into Alton, where it receives an excellent stream, on which Barker’s and Wiggin’s mills are erected. This bay is about 200 rods in width. Half-moon pond, between Barnstead and Alton, is 300 rods, long, and 150 wide. It has several ponds of less note. Its soil is hard and
rocky, adapted to corn and wheat. White and red oak, beach,maple, pine, and hemlock are its principal growth. The inhabitants are, for the most part, of the baptist order. Elder John Page was ordained here 1811. Here are 2 grain-mills, 6, saw-mills, and 1 mill for dressing cloth. Alton winters about 250 sheep.
AMHERST, formerly called Souhegan West, was originally granted by Massachusetts and is a pleasant township in Hillsborough county, incorporated in 1762. Its present population consists of 1554 inhabitants. Bounded by the river Merrimack on the E., S. by Hollis, W. by Milford, and on the N. by Mount Vernon and New Boston, in lat. 42° 54′ N. containing 22,435 acres, 350 of which are water. Babboosuck pond, of 300 acres extent, lies in the N. E. corner of this town. English pond to the N. W. is 160 rods in length and 100 in width, its waters falling into the Babboosuck. Souhegan river flows through Amherst on the S. and receives the waters of Beaver brook coming from Mount Vernon. Milford and Mount Vernon were formerly component parts of Amherst, from which they were severed, the former in 1794, and the latter in 1803. The centre of the town is a level plain of about a half a mile’s extent, equidistant from the four cardinal points, on which a very pleasant village is erected. Here are a meeting-house, a court-house, jail, school-house, several good mill sites, on which are 3 corn-mills, 5 sawmills, 1 mill for dressing cloth, 4 trading stores, 3 cotton and wool manufactories, and 1 printing establishment. The Aurean Academy, discontinued for lack of funds, was incorporated here in 1790, and was an useful and flourishing institution. A public school was commenced here 1807, and, with intervals, has continued ever since. The town is divided into 9 school-districts having 8 school-houses. That which is central is situated near the meeting-house and is a large and commodious building. The first settlers of Amherst were from Billerica and Middletown, (Mass.) 1734. In 1752, it had 7 garrisoned houses resorted to by the inhabitants in times of difficulty and danger. The first ordained minister was Rev. D. Wilkins, who visited this place when it consisted of only 14 families. He was settled in 1741, his being the third ordination in the county of Hillsborough. Mr. W. died 1783. The present pastor, Rev. Jeremiah Barnard, was settled March 3d, 1780. The number of deaths here for 33 years subsequent to his ordination was 529. The following instances of longevity have occurred within these last 20 years. Deacon Joseph Boutelle, aged 90 years, and Rebecca, aged 91, died in 1795. In 1803, died widow Grace Town, aged 96; in 1805, widow Hannah Lovejoy in the 102d year of her age, leaving descendants to the number of 330. In 1806, widow Sarah Burdet, aged 94 ; in 1808, widow Hannah Boutelle, 95 ; in 1809, widow Sarah Stuart, aged 92 ; in 1811, widow Lucy Ellsworth in the 90th year of her age. Since the year 1803, have died twenty-five persons, the aggregate of whose ages amount to 2041, making an average of more than 81 years to each. The oldest native of the town now residing here, was born in the year 1742. So prompt was this town in furnishing men for the military service of the United States that previous to the first of April 1777, 120 persons had engaged, of whom were 2 colonels, 1 major, 5 captains, and 9 subaltern officers. The second New-Hampshire turnpike passes from Claremont to this town.
AMONOOSUCK, an Indian name given to two rivers in N. Hampshire : the one is called Upper Amonoosuck, passing through a tract of excellent meadow. It rises near the N. end of the White Hills, runs northerly about 15 miles, where is a carrying place of about 3 miles to Amariscoggin river. From thence the river runs S. W. and W. nearly 18 miles, and empties into the Connecticut at Northumberland, near the Upper Coos. The other is called Great or Lower Amonoosuck, which rises on the west side of the White Mountains. It falls into the Connecticut just above the town of Haverhill, in Lower Coos, by a mouth 100 yards wide. About 2 miles from its mouth it receives Wild Amonoosuck, 40 yards wide, from Franconia and Lincoln Mountains. Two or three hours rain raises the water in this last mentioned river several feet, and occasions a current so furious as to put in motion stones of a foot in diameter, but its violence soon subsides.
ANDROSCOGGIN, or AMERISCOGGIN RIVER, has its sources 35 miles N. of Errol in this state and N. of latitude 45°. Its most northerly branch is called Margalloway. Its course is S. for nearly 30 miles. This river enters the state near the S. E. corner of the second grant to Dartmouth college, where it also receives Dead river, passing thence through Wentworth’s Location into Errol where it mingles with the waters flowing from Lake Urnbagog, about one mile from its outlet. From this juncture the confluent stream bears the name of Androscoggin. Its course is S. till it approaches near to the White Mountains, from which it receives Moose and Peabody rivers, entering the District of Maine N. of Mount Moriah. It then turns to the E. and then to the S. E., in which course through a fertile country it passes within two miles of the seacoast, and then turning N. runs over Pejepscot or Brunswick-falls into Merry-Meeting-Bay, a few miles from Bowdoin college, and forms a junction with the Kennebeck, 20 miles from the sea. In its course through Paulsburgh and Mainsborough it passes within 2 or 3 miles of the Upper Amonoosuck river.
AMUSKEAG FALLS, in N. Hampshire, are on Merrimack river, 16 miles below the ford, and 7 below Hooksett Falls. It consists of three pitches, one below the other, so that the water falls about 48 feet 3 inches in the course of half a mile. The second pitch, which may be seen from the roads on the W. side is truly majestic. In the middle of the upper part of the fall, is a high rocky island, on the top of which, are a number of pits, made exactly round, like barrels or hogsheads, some of which are capable of holding several tons; formed by the circular motion of small stones, impelled by the force of the descending water. At the foot of the rapids, half a mile below the principal fall, is a bridge, 556 feet in length, and 20 in breadth, consisting of 2000 tons of timber, and made passable for travelers 57 days after it was begun. A canal has been formed around these falls, through which boats pass with ease and safety. Prior to 1670, these falls were much visited by the aborigines. The sachem Wonolanset resided here. The son of Wonolanset, engaged in hunting here about the middle of March, discovered 15 Indians on the other side who called to him in an unknown language, upon which he fled, while they discharged nearly 30 muskets at him without effect.
ANDOVER, a township in Hillsborough county, incorporated 1779, with a population of 1259 inhabitants, is bounded N. W. by New Chester, N. E. by Merrimack river which disunites it from Sanbornton, S. E. by Salisbury, and S. W. by Wilmot with an area of 29,883 acres. It has several ponds of water, the largest of which is Chance pond, in extent 230 rods and 130 in width. Black Water, a branch of Contoocook river, flows through the S. W. part of this town. Ragged Mountain is partly in this town, the N. line of both town and county passing over its summit. The 4th New-Hampshire turnpike leads through the S. W. part of Andover where Grafton turnpike meets it. Its soil is of almost every variety, for the most part broken and stony, but generally good, producing good crops of grain and English grass. On the Pemigawasset and Black rivers are excellent tracts of intervale land. Rev. J. Babcock was ordained here 1782. Here are a meeting-house, 10 school-houses, 2 grain-mills, 6 saw-mills, 1 mill for dressing cloth, i carding-machine, and 5 trading stores. Here were wintered last season 4000 sheep. Agreeably to a bill of mortality furnished by Rev. J. B. there have died in Andover since the year 1782, under 70 years of age, 287 persons, over 70, 18 persons, over 80, 15, over 90, 2.
ANTRIM, a township in’ Hillsborough county, was incorporated 1777, and, in the year 1810, contained 1277 souls. Bounded N. by Windsor and Hillsborough, E. by the river Contoocook, which severs it from Deering, S. by Hancock, and W. by Stoddard and a part of Nelson, of an area of 21,784 acres. Gregg’s pond 400 rods long and 150 wide, lies in the S. part of the town. Its waters fall into Contoocook river. The soil of Antrim displays great inequality of surface, but is generally productive. This town annually winters about 2000 sheep, and cattle in proportion. The second N. H. turnpike bisects the N. angle of Antrim. Reverend J. M. Whiton is their minister. Here are a meeting-house, 4 grain-mills, 4 saw-mills, 2 mills for dregSing cloth, 1 carding-machine, and 3 trading stores. In 1813, 45 persons died of the prevailing fever.
ASHUELOT or ASHWILLET RIVER has a number of branches, the most remote of which is S. of Sunapee mountain in the township of Goshen, thence running S. through Alstead, Marlow, Washington, Stoddard, etc. to Swansey, where it joins with a large stream of, water from Keene, another from the S. line of the state, etc. Below Winchester it runs W. by N. and at length empties into Connecticut river in the lower part of Hinsdale.
ATKINSON, a township in Rockingham county, incorporated 1767, containing 556 inhabitants and 6,839 acres. Bounded N. by Hampstead., N.E. by Plaistow, S. by Haverhill, (Mass.) and W. by Salem. Atkinson was formerly a part of Haverhill, separated from it by the state line of demarcation. Its soil is prolific, and its situation highly pleasant. It is 30 miles from the maritime town of Portsmouth, and has an academy which was founded in 1789, by Hon. Nathaniel Peabody of Exeter, who endowed it with 1000 acres of land. John Vose, A.M. is the preceptor. Here are a handsome congregational meeting-house, 1 grain-mill, and 1 saw-mill. ” In this township is a large meadow wherein is an island of 6 or 7 acres, which was formerly loaded with valuable pine timber and other forest wood. When the meadow is overflowed, by means of an artificial dam, this island rises with the water, which is sometimes 6 feet. In a pond in the middle of the island, there have been fish, which, when the meadow has been overflowed have appeared there, when the water has been drawn off, and the island settled to its usual place. The pond is now almost covered with verdure. In it a pole 50 feet long has disappeared, without finding bottom.
BAKER’S RIVER.–Its most N. branch has its source in Coventry, and its most S. in Orange and Coventry. These branches unite in Wentworth, flowing thence E. through Rumney and emptying into the river Merrimack at Plymouth village.
BARKER’S LOCATION bounded N. by Lancaster, E. by Jefferson, and S. and W. by Kilkenny, and contains 3,090 acres.
BARNSTEAD, a pleasant level township in Strafford county, incorporated 1727, and bounded as follows, viz. N. E. by Alton, N. W. by Gilmanton, S. W. by Pittsfield, and S. E. by Barrington, containing 26, 000 acres. Here are two ponds known by the name of Suncook, lying contiguous to each other, one 400 rods and the other 300 long ; also Bundle pond 250 rods in extent. Each of these in width will, average their medium length. Halfmoon pond lies on Alton line, its centre about equidistant from the two towns, 300 rods long and half as wide. These ponds all discharge, their waters into Suncook river which traverses the town. Beaty’s, Pink, Adam’s, and Jacob’s are small and nearly circular pools about 100 rods in diameter. The original growth here is pine, oak, beech, maple, and hemlock. The soil is hard, but not very rocky, well adapted to the increase of corn and grain. Barnstead reckons 1477 souls for its population. Here are a congregational and baptist society. Elder David Knowlton was ordained here in 1804, and died in 1809. Enos George was ordained by a congregational council 1804, and is their present teacher. Barnstead has 2 houses for public worship, a number of excellent sites for water machinery, and already mills of various kinds.
BARRINGTON, a township in Strafford county, incorporated 1722, and bounded N. E. by Farmington and Rochester, S. E. by Madbury and Dover, S.W. by Nottingham and Northwood, and N. W. by Barnstead. This town is thirteen and a half miles long and half as wide, containing 58,400 acres. It had in 1810, 3,564 inhabitants. Here are a large number of ponds, some of whose streams afford excellent mill sites. Bow pond the largest, is situated in the S.W. part of the town, in extent about 650 rods and 400 rods in width. Its waters empty into Isinglass, a principal source of Dover river. Besides this are Chesley’s Round, Mendum’s, Long, Ayer’s, and Trout ponds, W. of the Blue Hills. The waters of these ponds discharge into Suncook river. The first ridge of Frost hills, commonly called Blue hills, and one of the three inferior summits of Agamenticus, is continued through this town. The N. part of Barrington is hilly and broken, but the soil, for the most part is excellent, yielding corn, grain, flax, cider, etc. in abundance. Cattle and sheep are raised here in large numbers. In 1814, were wintered here 5,162 sheep. Chrystal spar, plumbago, or black lead, iron ore, alum, and vitriol are found here. On the S.E. side of the town is a cave commonly called the Bear’s Den. Its mouth is 18 inches wide. The first course is an angle of descent of about 20 degrees, then pressing through a narrow passage of about 4 feet in length and descending the same track about 9 feet, you enter an apartment 21 feet in length, 31 in width, and 12 in height, in which you find a natural table 2 feet square,smooth and level, and about high enough to stand and write upon. Stepping up a few feet you then enter another room, 16 feet long, 4 wide, and 10 in height, encircled on each side by a regular wall of stone. The rocks forming the bottom of this cave so exactly correspond with the roof, that one needs no further evidence that they were once united. About a mile S. W. from this spot, on the margin of a pond, is a rock of 150 perpendicular feet above the face of the water. Here are 3 houses of public worship, 18 school-houses, 14 grain-mills, 2 mills for dressing cloth, 3 carding-machines, and 4 trading stores. The major part of the inhabitants are of the baptist order, having only one society of a different denomination in town. Rev. Joseph Prince was settled over the congregational church 1755, removed 1760. Rev. David Tenney was settled 1771, removed 1778. Rev. Benjamin Balch was settled 1784, and died 1814. Elder Smith Babcock, Micajah Otis, and Joseph Boody are the present ordained preachers in this town. This town, from its first settlement, has been very healthy. Several of the first settlers lived to an advanced period of more than 100 years.
BARTLETT, a township in the county of Coos, incorporated in 1790, situated at the S.E. angle of the White Hills, bounded N. by Adams, E. by Chatham, S. by ungranted land and Conway, and W. by Chadbourn’s and Hart’s locations. Its surface is 13,500 acres. Saco river and the 10th N. H. turnpike road pass through this town. Kearsarge mountain lies on its E. line.
BATH, a pleasant township in Grafton county, situated on the E. side of Connecticut river opposite Rygate in Vermont, 35 miles N. by E. from Dartmouth college ; is bounded N. E. by Littleton, E. by Landaff, S. W. by Haverhill, and W. by Connecticut river, containing 24,827 acres. It was incorporated 1769, and has a population of 1316 souls. Great Amonoosuck passes the N. E. corner of Bath and falls into the Connecticut at its S.W. corner, near which it first receives the waters of the Wild Amonoosuck. The Bath turnpike leads through the town, and, where the river and turnpike intersect, is a very handsome village. Rev. D. Southerland is their ordained minister. Bath has 1 meeting-house, 3 corn-mills, 6 saw-mills, I mill for dressing cloth, 1 distillery, and 3 trading stores.
BEAR CAMP RIVER, whose W. branch rises in Sandwich and Burton mountains and Bear Camp pond, and whose W. branch in Eaton. In Ossipee these two branches unite and fall into Great Ossipee pond on its W. side.
BEAVER BROOK, has its source from a pond in Unity, and, running W. 8 miles, falls into Connecticut river in the upper part of Charleston.
BEAVER RIVER, rises from Derry pond and several other small ponds in Londonderry, and passing S. through Pelham, falls into Merrimack river in Dracut, opposite the mouth of Concord river in Massachusetts.
BEDFORD, in Hillsborough county, situated on, the W. side of Merrimack river, incorporated in 1750, with a population in 1810, of 1296 souls. Bounded N. by Goffstown, E. by Merrimack river, S. by Merrimack and Amherst, and W. by Amherst and New-Boston. It contains 20,660 acres. Piscataquog river falls into the Merrimack at the N.E. corner of Bedford. Here is a society of congregationalists, over which Rev. D.M’Gregore was ordained pastor 1804. Rev. J. Houston was their former minister. Here is also a society of baptists. Near the ferry from Manchester to Bedford, in the spring 1760, were taken 2500 shad fish at one draught of a net. Here are a meeting-house, a cotton-factory, 6 grain-mills, 8 sawmills, 1 clothier’s mill, 1 carding-machine, and 5 trading stores.
BELLAMY BANK RIVER rises in Chelsey ponds,in Barrington, and, meandering through the N. part of Madbury, falls into Piscataqua river on the W. side of Dover neck.
BETHLEHEM, a township in Grafton county containing 422 inhabitants, bounded N. by Coos county line, which separates it from Whitefield, E. by Bretton Woods and ungranted lands, S. W. by Franconia and part of Concord, N. W. by Littleton, containing 28,608 acres. This town is very mountainous, well watered, and was formerly known by the name of Loyd’s Hills. The N. branch of Great Amonoosuck passes through the N. part, and the S. branch waters the S. part of the town.
BISHOP’S BROOK, rises in and waters a considerable portion of Stewartstown and empties into Connecticut river.
BLACKWATER RIVER. The most north branch called North brook rises in Danbury, another branch rises in Wilmot, and a third proceeds from Pleasant pond in New-London. The streams unite in Andover and flowing through Salisbury and Boscawen fall into Contoocook river near the N. angle of Hopkinton.
BLIND WILL’S NECK, is formed by the confluence of Cocheco and Isinglass rivers. Sometime in March, 1677, a party of friendly Indians, of whom Blind Will was one, were all surprised together by a party of Mohawks, and two or three only escaped. Blind Will was dragged by his hair until he perished of his wounds on this neck of land which still bears his name.
BLOODY POINT, is on Newington side of Piscataqua river. It was called Bloody Point
from a quarrel between the agents of the two companies of proprietors about a point of land convenient for both, and, there then being no government established, the controversy had well nigh ended in blood.
BOSCAWEN, a township in the county of Hillsborough, incorporated 1760, having in 1810, a population of 1829 souls. Bounded N. by Salisbury, E. by Merrimack river, which separates it from Canterbury and Northfield, S. by Concord and Hopkinton, and W. by Warner, containing 32,230 acres. The largest pond in this town is called Long pond, 350 rods in length and averaging 50 rods in width. Great pond, near the centre of the town, is 250 rods long and 20 wide, its waters falling into Black Water river on the N. edge of Warner. Black Water river flows through this town from Salisbury to Hopkinton, where it meets the Contoocook. Warner river crosses the extreme S. W. corner. A toll bridge unites Boscawen with Canterbury. The 4th N.H. turnpike leads through the N.E. corner of this town. Here are 28 mills for grinding, sawing, fulling, carding, etc. Their first ordained minister was Phineas Stevens, who was succeeded by Nathaniel Merrill in 1775. At present there are two societies, Rev. Messrs. Wood and Price pastors. Here are 2 meeting-houses, and at the bridge near the river a handsome village with about forty dwelling-houses, and five stores. In 1746, two persons were killed and several taken captive and carried to Canada from this town.
BOW, a township in Rockingham county, incorporated 1729, containing 729 inhabitants. Bounded N.E. by Merrimack river which divides it from Pembroke, S.E.and S.W. by Dunbarton, and N. W. by Concord and part of Hopkinton, containing 15,753 acres. Turkey river empties into
Merrimack river at Turkey falls near the N. E. part of Bow. About a mile below Turkey are Garvin’s falls, now passable by locks on Bow side. The Londonderry turnpike leads from Concord through the E. part of this town, directly to Boston. Here is a house for public worship and an ordained minister of the regular baptist order. Here are 2 grain-mills, 5 saw-mills, and 1 carding-machine.
BRADFORD, a township on the W. side of Hillsborough county, incorporated 1760, with a present population of 1034. Bounded N. by Warner, S. by a part of Henniker and Hillsborough, W. by Cheshire county line, adjoining Washington, E. by Fishersfield and a corner of Sutton, containing 18,919 acres, 469 of which are water. At the E. end of this town is a pleasant pond 500 rods long and 150 wide. A part of Todd’s pond lies in this town and the other part in Fishersfield. These ponds are the most W. source of Warner’s river. Sunapee and other mountains border on the W. part of this town. Rev. Caleb Burge is settled here in the ministry. Here are two religious societies, 1 house for public worship, 2 corn-mills, 2 saw-mills, 1 carding-machine, and 2 trading stores.
BREAKFAST HILL, in the township of Rye, is memorable on account of the following circumstances. Early in the morning of June 26th, 1696, a large body of Indians made an attack on 5 houses on Portsmouth plains, by which 14 persons were killed on the spot, 1 scalped and left for dead, and 4 taken prisoners. The enemy, having plundered the houses of what they could carry off, set them on fire and made a precipitate retreat through the Great Swamp. A company of militia under Capt. Shackford and Lieut. Libbey pursued and discovered them cooking their breakfast at a place ever since called Breakfast Hill. The Indians were on the furthermost side of the hill and had placed their captives between themselves and the summit, that, in case of an attack, they might first receive the fire. Lieut. Libbey urged to go round the hill and come upon them below and cut off their retreat, but the Capt. fearing in that case they would kill the prisoners, rushed upon them from the top of the hill, by which means he retook the captives and plunder, but the Indians escaped.
BRENTWOOD, a township in Rockingham county, incorporated 1742, contained, in 1810, 905 inhabitants. Bounded N. by Epping, E. by Exeter, S. by Kingston, and W. by Poplin, of a surface of 10,465 acres. Exeter river, on which are many good mill-privileges, passes through this town. Here, at what are called Pick pocket falls, is a cotton factory with 800 spindles in operation. Though situate in the edge of Brentwood it is called the Exeter factory. There are two religious societies in this place, congregationalists and baptists, beside a considerable number of friends. Each order has its respective house of public worship. Nathaniel Trask was ordained here 1752, and died 1780, aged 67. He was succeeded by Rev. E. Flint, who died 1812 ; their present minister is Rev. C. Colton; who was settled 1815. Elder S. Shephard, recently deceased, had the care of the baptist church with several others. Here are 3 corn-mills, 6 sawmills, 1 carding-machine, and a trading store. Vitriol is found here, combined in the same stone with sulphur.
BRETTON WOODS, a township in Coos county, situated 8 or 10 miles S. E. from Connecticut river, incorporated 1772,having but 20 or 30 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Whitefield and Jefferson, E. by ungranted land, S. by the county line and Nash and Sawyer’s Location, and W. by the county line which separates it from Bethlehem, containing about 24,978 acres. john’s and Israel’s rivers receive several branches from this town. The Jefferson turnpike crosses the E. part, and Pond Cherry mountain is on the N. side next to Jefferson. Here is 1 corn-mill and 1 saw-mill.
BRIDGEWATER is situated on the W. side of Pemigewasset river in Grafton county, incorporated ‘1788, and contained in 1810, 1104 inhabitants. Bounded N. by Hebron and Plymouth, E. by the county line dividing it from New-Hampton, and W. by Newfound pond, dividing it from New-Chester. Bridgewater has 19,785 acres. The turnpike passes near Newfound pond, through the W. part of the town. Here is a meeting-house, and, at the N. part a village with a number of mills.
BROOKFIELD, a township in Strafford county, about 30 miles from Dover, incorporated in 1795, with a present population of about 657. It is bounded N. W. by Wolfeborough, E. by Wakefield, S.E. by Great Moose mountain, and W. by Alton, containing 13,000 acres. Cook’s pond is about SOO rods long and 50 wide,and is the source of the W. branch of Salmon Falls river. Smith’s river rises near the former seat of Gov. Wentworth, which is in the S.W. part of the place, near the upper line of Brookfield.
BROOKLINE, a township in Hillsborough county, incorporated 1764, with a population agreeable to the census of 1810, of 538 souls. Bounded N. by Milford, E. by Hollis, S. by Massachusetts state line, and W. by Mason. Its area is 12,664 acres, 240 of which are water. Nissitisset river passes through this town from the N. W. to S. W. and falls into Nashua river in Pepperell, Massachusetts. Potanipo pond, through which this river passes, is near the centre of the town, and about a mile long, and 120 rods wide. Here are a meeting-house, 3 corn mills, 5 saw mills, and 2 trading stores. Rev. L. Wadsworth, their present pastor was ordained 1797.
BURTON, a township in the N. W. corner of the county of Strafford, incorporated 1766. Its population, conformable to the census of 1810, was 194 souls. It is bounded E. by Conway, N.E. by Eaton, S. by Tamworth, W. by Grafton county line, and N. by the line of Coos county. The White mountains lie N. and Whiteface mountain W. Swift river passes through Burton from W. to E.
CAMBRIDGE, an uninhabited township in Coos county, situated at the S. end of lake Umbagog and bounded N. by Errol, E.by the District of Maine, S. by Paulsburgh and Success, and W. by Dummer. Incorporated 1773, containing 23,160 acres. Androscoggin river passes through the W. part of this town.
CAMPTON, a township in Grafton county, situated on Pemigewasset river, incorporated 1761,and containing 873 inhabitants. Bounded N. by Thornton, E. by Sandwich, S. by Holderness and Plymouth, containing 27,892 acres. Two small ponds here give rise to Mad river, also to Bether river which falls into the Pemigewasset, which latter passes the centre of the town from N. to S. Crotchet mountain lies on the W. and Northern mountain on the E. part of the town. Campton has a public meeting-house, and an ordained minister ; 3 grain-mills, 3 saw, and 1 oil-mill, 2 mills for cloth dressing, and 2 carding-machines.
CANAAN, a township in Grafton county, of an area of 16,049 acres, was incorporated 1761. Its number of inhabitants is 1094. Bounded N. by Dames Gore, E. by Orange and Grafton, S. by Enfield, and W. by Hanover. Hart’s pond, situated nearly in the middle of the town, is about 400 rods long and 100 wide. On the W. shore of this pond is the house of public worship and a pleasant village, through which the Grafton turnpike leads. Goose pond, lying near Hanover line is about as large as Hart’s pond, also Mud pond 300 rads in length and one third in width lies near Enfield. Mascoma river from Dorchester passes through this town. On it are 12 mills of various kinds. Elder Thomas Baldwin was settled here in the ministry 1783, and removed to Boston 1790. Elder Wheat is their present pastor, and was settled here 1813.
CANDIA, Rockingham county, was incorporated 1763. Its whole population was, in 1810, 1290 souls. Bounded N. by Deerfield, E. by Raymond, S. by Chester, and W. by the same ; its area 17,734 acres. A branch of Lamprey river passes through the N. corner and the Chester turnpike through the S. W. part of the town. It has 2 houses of public worship, one of which was erected in 1814, and bears the name of liberty union meeting house. Here are 3 grain-mills, 6 saw-mills, a mill for dressing cloth, and a carding-machine. Rev. David Jewett was ordained here 1771, and removed 1780. Their late minister, Rev. Jesse Remington, was ordained in 1790, and died March 1815. Elder Moses Bean has been ordained here several years over a freewill baptist society.
CANTERBURY, a township in Rockingham county, incorporated 1727, contained in 1810, 1526 inhabitants. Bounded N. E. by Gilmanton, S. E. by Loudon, S. by Concord, and S. W. by Merrimack river which separates it from Boscawen. This town has 26,245 acres. The soil of this town is generally good, producing corn, flax, and cider in abundance. A bridge over Merrimack river connects this town with Boscawen village. A small branch of Suncook river crosses the N.E. corner, and a number of small ponds and streams water the W. part of the town. Here are two houses of public worship exclusive of the quaker church. Their present minister, William Patrick, is of the congregational order. A. Foster and F. Parker have been their former pastors. Elder Young, several years since, was settled here in the freewill baptist order. On the S.E. side of the town near Loudon, is the Shaker’s village, and as the head of their family has furnished the compilers of this work with a particular account of their concerns, we take pleasure in giving it in his own words. The believers, (or people commonly called shakers,) in Canterbury have been in the faith we now profess upwards of 30 years, and have had one Lord and one baptism, which is a crucifixion and death to the nature of sin, and unites the soul in the spirit and power of the resurrection of life. We have united our temporal interest in one for more than twenty years ; except some, who have since mis-believed, or those who did not choose so to do; as there is no compulsion with us in such a case: we live together in love and union, as brothers and sisters in the spirit and not in the flesh; and as we believe carnal or self-pleasing gratifications are of, and from the man of sin, who is now revealed, and is consumed, by the spirit and brightness of this present, second, and last appearing of Christ, in which we believe; by which our former heavens are dissolved, and our former fleshly elements do melt with fervent heat, (See 2d Peter, iii. 10th.) And we do rejoice in their destruction, and by believing and obeying this faith and revelation of Christ, we are saved from our sins, and constantly say Christ is our Saviour; and by wearing his cross, our motives are changed and our heaven and earth becomes new; (2 Peter, iii. 13.) and in this manner of life we know in whom we believe, and who and what is of this world, (John vii. 17.) As to marriages, we are all married to one, even to Christ, who is in, and is the head of his body, the church. (Eph. v. 30-32.) But external marriages, for the purpose of gratification, or for begetting or conceiving in sin, of being shapen and brought forth in iniquity, we have not any. It is the children, of this world, who have the marriages. Luke xxii. 34, etc.; but we labour to be of those who are duly qualified. (See Rev. xiv. 14. Yet we have a plenty of the young of the flock ; and that scripture is fulfilled which faith, more are the children of the desolate, than of the married wife. (See Isa. liv. 1. Psa. cxiii. 7, 8. Luke xxiii. 29, etc. Death —The souls who are in Christ, do not die; and to the faithful soul, who departs this life there is no sting; nor does the departing this life separate us in spirit nor in distance; for heaven is where Christ is, and he is in his church, and that is terrestrial bodies joined and united to celestial bodies. (See Heb.xii.22.) But to answer your mind concerning deaths.— Within 30 years, 30 persons, old, and young, have departed this life in our society here, for whom we do not mourn, believing they have the fruits of their labours. We have generally consisted of from 200 to 300 souls in this village. We have one meeting-house, open at all times for public worship, for all civil, discreet, candid, and well behaved people; but all who are otherwise minded, we wish them in better employ than to come among us. We have 7 dwelling-houses, 1 deacon’s office, and a number of workshops, both for brethren and sisters, and several mills, etc. on an artificial stream. We occupy upwards of 1000 acres of land which is consecrated to the Lord, to all which we hold a lawful and constitutional right to govern and protect from all abuse; and in that we are assisted by the ministers of the good civil authority to which we have respect, and from whence we derive support. We manufacture many articles for sale, which we endeavour to make worth what the consumer gives for them, such as linen and woolen wheels, measures, seives, candlesticks, brooms, wooden ware, boxes of wood, whips, cooper set work, cards for wool and cotton, rakes and sneads, leather of different kinds, etc. we also raise garden seeds, in which we take pains to propagate the best kind. For several years we have not made use of spirituous liquors except for sickness or infirmity seeing the evil it brings on the human race; and to escape another obvious evil we have not made it a practice of trusting or being trusted. We believe the above sketches to be supportable in truth, and if it will answer your purpose ye will insert it without varying the sense. Ye are also welcome to our names. In union and behalf of the people called shakers in Canterbury. Canterbury, where they were entertained in a friendly manner for more than a month. At their departure they forced away two negreos, one of whom made his escape and returned. The other was carried to Crown-Point and there sold to an officer. The next year Sabatis with another indian Plowsawa came again to Canterbury, where being reproached for misconduct respecting the negroes, he and his companion behaved in an insolent manner. Several persons treated them freely with strong drink, and one pursued them into the woods, and taking advantage of their situation killed them and with the help of another person buried them, but, so carelessly that their bodies were discovered by beasts of prey and their bones lay on the ground. The two men that killed Sabatis and Christi were apprehended and carried to Portsmouth. A bill was found against them by the grand jury and they were confined in irons, but on the night before the day appointed for their trial, an armed mob from the country with axes and crows forced the prison and carried them off in triumph.
CENTRE HARBOUR, a township in Strafford county, situated on the N.W. end of Winnipiseogee lake and on the S. E. end of Squam lake, from which circumstance it has its appellation. It was incorporated 1777, and its whole population was, in 1810, about 349 inhabitants. Its boundaries are Moultonborough N. E., Meredith neck S.E., and the waters on the S.W., parting it from Meredith and New-Hampton, and N. by New-Holderness and Squam lake, having an area of 7,626 acres of land. There is a public house of worship for all orders of Christians, 1 saw-mill, and 1 trading store. Part of Measley pond lies in the south-west part of this town.
CHADBOURNE AND HART’S LOCATION, Coos county. Beginning at the S.W. corner of land granted to Mr. Vere Royse, at a birch tree, thence running N. 470 rods, thence W. 285 rods, thence nearly N. till it meets the Notch of the White Hills. Saco river finds a passage through this location, and a turnpike road crosses it. It contains 3000 acres of land, and is 75 miles N. W. from Portsmouth.
CHARLESTON, a township in Cheshire county, on the easterly side of Connecticut river, bounded N. by Claremont, E. by Unity, S. by Langdon, and W. by Connecticut river; containing 24,100 acres. It was incorporated in the year 1753, and its whole population in the year 1810, amounted to 1501. A bridge denominated Cheshire bridge unites this town with Vermont. Nearly opposite to the town are Lovell’s Fort-rouger, and Haymoon islands. The principal settlement is about a half a mile from the river. It is handsomely built, and contains 50 dwelling houses, a court-house, meeting-house, and an academy. It contains two parishes, which are divided by a line running from Cheshire bridge, S. 87° E. to the corner of Unity and Acworth. The meeting-house is in the north parish, and through this parish runs the Cheshire and Charleston turnpike, which is continued over the river by Cheshire bridge. The former ministers in this town were the Rev. John Dennis, and B. Alcot. The Rev. J. Crosby is the present minister. Charleston contains 4 grain-mills, 6 saw-mills, 2 mills fur dressing cloth, 3 carding machines, 2 oil-mills, a distillery, and 6 retailing shops.
Charleston has been the scene, in former years of many Indian cruelties. In April, 1746, John Spofford, Isaac Parker, and Stephen Farnsworth were taken in this town by a party of Indians and carried to Canada. They afterwards returned to Boston with a flag of truce. In the course of the May following, a number of women in this town, while employed in milking their cows, guarded by Maj. Josiah Willard and several soldiers, were fired upon by several Indians who were concealed, and who at this time killed one of the number by the name of Putnam. While the Indians were scalping Putnam they were fired upon by Willard and his party. Two of them were mortally wounded, and were carried off by their companions. Immediately after these bloody affairs, the Massachusetts assembly sent to this town Capt. Paine with a body of men of whom about 20 fell into an Indian ambuscade, while on their way to view the place of Putnam’s murder. The Indians fired, and endeavoured to cut off their retreat. Capt. Phinehas Stevens immediately came to their relief. A skirmish ensued, in which 5 were killed on each side, and one of the Charleston men was taken. The Indians retreated, leaving some of their guns and blankets. In June of the same year, as captains Stevens and Brown, and some others were searching for their horses, their dogs discovered a party of Indians lying in ambush. Another skirmish ensued, in which the Indians were defeated, carrying off with them several of their killed, and leaving on the ground a quantity of blankets, hatchets, spears, and guns. The other side lost only one man. In the same year a person by the name of Phillips was killed in this town by the Indians. In March, 1747, Capt. Phinehas Stevens, with a company of rangers, consisting of thirty men, came to this town and took possession of the fort, which they found in a good state of repair. In a few days they were attacked ‘by a large body of French and Indians, under the command of a Frenchman by the name of Debeline. The Indians took advantage of a high wind, and set fire to the surrounding log-houses and fences. In this way they encompassed the fort with flames. They also discharged into the fort a vast number of burning arrows. They could not however succeed in setting fire to the fort, and after having carried on the siege for two days, uttering all the time their savage shouts and yells, they loaded a wheel-carriage with dry faggots, probably intending to set it on fire and push it to the walls of the fort. Before this attempt was made, Debeline demanded a cessation of arms till sunrise the next morning. This demand was granted. In the morning, Debeline presented himself before the fort, accompanied by fifty men and a flag of truce. He requested and obtained a parley. A French officer then advanced with an Indian and a soldier, and proposed that the besieged should bind up a quantity of provisions, with their blankets, lay down their arms, and be conducted as prisoners to Montreal, and that the two commanders should meet and an immediate answer be given to this proposal. Capt. Stevens accordingly had an interview with Debeline, who without waiting for an answer, renewed his proposal, accompanying it with a threat, that if his terms should be rejected, or if any one of his party should be killed, he would storm the fort and put all therein to death. Capt. Stevens answered that nothing but extremities should force him to accept such terms, that he was entrusted with the possession of the fort, and would not surrender it until he was convinced that the besiegers could execute their threats, adding, that he had no encouragement to surrender if all his men were to be put to death for killing one of the enemy, when it was probable they had already killed many. Debeline replied, ” go and see if your men dare fight any longer, and give me an immediate answer.” Capt. Stevens accordingly put the question to his men, whether they would fight or surrender. They unanimously determined to fight. This was communicated to the enemy, who renewed and continued the attack all that day and the following night, accompanied with shouting and yelling. On the morning of the third day they requested another cessation of arms for two hours. Two Indians came to Capt. Stevens with a flag of truce and proposed, that if he would sell them provisions, they would depart. Capt. Stevens answered, that to sell them provisions was contrary to the laws of nations, but offered to pay them five bushels of corn for every captive for
whom they would give an hostage till the captive could be brought from Canada. After the communication of this answer, a few guns were fired, and the enemy departed. No lives were lost in the fort and only two men were wounded. Commodore Sir Charles Knowles was so highly gratified with the conduct of Capt. Stevens, that he presented him with an elegant and valuable sword. From this circumstance relating to Sir Charles, the township was incorporated by the name of Charleston. Before its incorporation it was called No. 4. The next spring Capt. Stevens was again appointed to command at No. 4. with a garrison of a hundred men. In the year 1749, near the close of this war and after the garrison was withdrawn, except 15 men, Obadiah Tortwell was killed, and a son of captain Stevens was captured and carried to Canada. At the expiration of the war he was set at liberty and sent home. This was in the year 1749. In the beginning of the year 1754, this devoted town was again visited by the savages. In August they broke into the house of James Johnson early in the morning before any of the family were awake. They seized upon him and his three sons. The Indians however tarried till the next day on account of the situation of Mrs. Johnson, who was then “delivered of a daughter, to whom the name of Captive was given. The whole family were then carried off with-out bloodshed. Mrs. Johnson was placed on a litter, and sometimes on horseback. Provisions soon falling short the Indians killed the horse, and even the infant was driven to horse-flesh for its nourishment. They proceeded to Montreal, where Johnson obtained leave to return home on a parole of two months. The assembly of New-Hampshire granted 150 sterling to purchase his ransom. The severity of the winter compelled him to defer his return to Canada till the next spring. He was charged with breaking his parole, was deprived of a large part of his money, and was cast into prison together with his family, where the small-pox attacked them. After eighteen months, Mrs. Johnson with her sister and two children were sent to England, and from thence they returned to Boston. Mr.Johnson was detained three years in prison, when he was released and went with his son to Boston. He there met his wife, and was again imprisoned, being suspected of treasonable designs against his country, but was soon discharged for want of evidence. His eldest daughter was retained in a Canadian nunnery. Mrs. Johnson asserts in her narrative that her eldest daughter Susan returned a few days before the surrender of Montreal, and she expresses her gratitude to Miss Jasson’s who had treated her daughter with great kindness by adopting her as their child and keeping her at school. Her daughter Captive, who is still living, afterwards married Col. George Kimball, and Susan married Capt. Samuel Wetherbee. In 1755, a number of cattle in this town were killed by the Indians, and in 1760, the family of Joseph Willard were captured and carried to Montreal.
CHATHAM, a township in Coos county, incorporated in 1767, containing 201 inhabitants. Bounded N. by Gilman and Warner’s location and Mount Royce, E. by the state line, S. by Conway, and W. by Bartlett and Adams. It contains 2,856 acres. A pond in this town, called Mountain pond, is 200 rods long and 40 wide ; Kimball’s pond, in the S.E.part of the town, is about 250 rods long and 240 wide. Kearsarge mountain lies in the S.W. part of the town on. Bartlett line. This town contains 2 saw-mills, 1 mill for dressing cloth, 2 corn-mills, and a carding-machine. Chatham is about 10 miles in length from north to south, and four miles in width. Its direction from the White mountains is east, 8 miles distant.
CHESHIRE COUNTY lies on the easterly bank of Connecticut river, and is hounded by the state of Massachusetts on the S., Grafton County on the N., and Hillsborough county on the E. It contains in land and water, 763,860 acres. Its number of townships is thirty-six, and its inhabitants amount to 41,042 of whom 7,478 are legal voters. It has 52 houses for public worship, 2 academies, 109 grain-mills, 155 saw-mills, 46 mills for dressing cloth, 9 oil-mills, 7 cotton and, 5 woolen factories, 23 carding-machines, 2 paper mills, 69 trading stores, and 15 distilleries. In 1813, this
county contained 28 stud-horses, 5,771 horses of 5 years old, 498 of 4 years old, 5,169 oxen of full growth, 2,930 of 4 years old, 14,317 cows, 9,632 cattle of 3 years old, and 1,891 acres of orchard land. The chief towns in Cheshire county are Charleston and Keene. The superior court and the courts of common please sit in these towns alternately, and the probate court holds three sessions in each of these towns every year. This county sends 35 representatives to the state legislature.
CHESTER, a township in Rockingham county, bounded N. and E. by Raymond, Candia, and Allenstown. E. by Poplin and Sandown, S. by ” Londonderry, and W.by Manchester and Merrimack river. It contains 49,054 acres, of which 962 are water. Chester was incorporated in 1722 and contains 2,030 inhabitants. Massabesick pond, containing 1,512 acres is situated in the westerly part of this town, a portion of it however is in Manchester. This pond is almost equally divided by a narrow strait, over which the Londonderry turnpike passes. In Merrimack river, near the north-westerly part of this town, is situated the Isle of Hooksett falls. Beaver brook has its rise in this town and falls into Merrimack river. So also does one branch of Exeter river which passes into Hawke. Another branch of Exeter river passes the northeasterly corner of this town. Chester contains 23 mills of various kinds. It has a congregational meetinghouse, an academy, 60 dwelling-houses, 6 retailing shops, and one edifice for presbyterian worship. The Rev. M. Hale, Flagg, and Wilson were formerly settled here. The Rev. N. Bradstreet is the present minister. Rattle-snake hill in this town is a great curiosity. Its diameter is ‘half a mile, its form is circular, and its height 400 feet. On the south side 10 yards from its base is a cave called the Devil’s den, in which is a narrow apartment, 15 or 20 feet square, the flooring and ceiling of which are formed by a regular rock. From the wall of this apartment there are depending numerous excrescences, bearing the form and size of pears, which upon the approach of a. torch throw out a sparkling lustre of innumerable hues.
On the 2d of July,1764, Mr. James Shirley of this town, while walking by the side of his horse, which was led by another person, was instantly killed by lightning. The flash was observed by persons at the distance of a number of rods to fall upon his head. It tore his hat into fragments, singed his hair, and entered his head just over his right temple. It is remarkable, that the money in his pocket was melted, and his buckles, which were of steel were broken. His horse was killed although the person who led him, escaped with slight injury. In the course of the year 1724, a party of 5 Indians entered Chester and seized upon 2 persons by the names of Thomas Smith and John Carr. When they had brought them off about 30 miles, they bound them and laid themselves down to sleep. The prisoners seized this opportunity to escape, and in three days arrived safely at a garrison in Londonderry.