Taken from The New Hampshire Gazetteer 1817

LYME, a township in Graf­ton county, incorporated in 1761, and now containing 1670 inhabitants ; bounded N. by Orford, E. by Dorchester, S. by Hanover, and W. by Con­necticut river, comprising an area of 28,500 acres. There are several ponds in Lyme, which form the sources of Port’s, Grant’s, and Fairfield brooks. Grafton turnpike pass­es through this town to Orford bridge. There is here a small village containing a presbyte­rian meeting-house, 10 dwell­ing-houses, 3 stores, etc. There are also in other parts of the town a baptist meeting-house, sever­al grist and saw-mills, and a carding-machine. Rev. W. Connant was settled here in 1773, and was succeeded by the pres­ent minister, Rev. N.Lambert.

LYNDEBOROUGH, a township of an irregular shape, in Hills­borough county ; bounded N. by Francestown, E. by New-Boston and Mount-Vernon, S. by Milford and Wilton, and W. by Greenfield and Temple. It contains 20,767 acres, and 1074 inhabitants, was in­corporated in 1764. Among the mountains in the N. girt of the town Souhegan river has its source. Through oth­er parts of the town flow Piscataquog and Rocky rivers. Warner’s brook takes its rise near a mountain 1450 feet in height. On the S. side of this mountain stands the meeting­house of the town. There are also in the town 2 grain-mills,
2 saw-mills, a clothing-mill, and a nail factory. Rev. S. Goodridge was ordained here in 1768, died in 1809, and was succeeded in 1810, by the present pastor Rev. N. Mer­rill.

MAD RIVER has its source in a pond on a mountain in the ungranted part of Graf­ton county, about 10 miles N. from Sandwich. Taking a southerly course, it cruses S. E. extremity of Thornton and falls into Pemigewisset river at Campton to this junction from its source its course is southwest about 14 miles.

MADBURY, a township in Strafford county, incorporated in 1755, and now containing a population of 582 inhabitants; bounded N. E. by Dover, S. W. by Durham and Lee, and N. W. by Barrington, comprising an area of 8,125 acres. Bellamy bank river has its source in Chelsey’s pond in Barrington, passes through Madbury in a serpentine course and is the only considerable stream which waters the place. The soil here is of a good qual­ity and under excellent culti­vation. The inhabitants are generally baptists and have a meeting-house, in which El­der W. Hooper offciates.

MANCHESTER, a town in Hillsborough county situated on the eastern bank of Mer­rimack river. It was incorpo­rated in 1752, by the name of Derryfield, and in 1810, re­ceived its present name. It is bounded N. and E. by Chester, S. by Londonderry, and W. by Merrimack river, which separates it from Bedford and Goffstown, comprising an area of 15,071 acres, 550 of which are water. Massabesick pond lies partly in this town. Amuskeag falls and M’Gregore’s bridge are on the Merrimack between this town and Goffstown. Blodget’s canal is cut round the falls on the Manchester side. Through the lower part of the town Cohass brook flows from Massabesick pond to Merrimack river, and a canal is projected for the purpose of making this canal navigable for boats, rafts, etc. Manchester has 1 meet­ing-house, several mills, and a cotton and woolen factory. This town is the residence of Maj. Gen. John Stark, the hero of Bennington. There is an anecdote related of this ven­erable man, which’ is not gen­erally known, and for that rea­son may not be unacceptable here. While hunting when a young man with three com­panions on the banks of Ba­ker’s river he was captured by a party of Indians. He imme­diately gave the alarm to his brother William, who was in a canoe at some distance and who thereby escaped. For giving this alarm the Indians treated him with great cruelty and carried him to their headquarters near Memphremagog lake. They then adopted him as a son and clothed him in fine robes. This early captivity, from which he soon escaped, qualified him for the duties of a partisan officer in the succeeding war, from which station he was afterwards exalted to the rank of major general of the conti­nental army.

MARGALLAWAY RIVER has its source among the high lands, which separate Maine from Lower Canada, in the N. E. extremity of New-Hamp­shire, about 30 miles N. from Errol. After a southerly course of nearly 20 miles on the wes­tern border of Maine, it en­ters New-Hampshire at the S. E. part of the 2d grant to Dartmouth college, where it forms a junction with the unit­ed streams of Dead and Di­mond rivers. Thence after a southerly course of about 6 miles to Errol it receives the waters of Umbagog lake. Af­ter this junction the main stream is the Ameriscoggin river.

MARLBOROUGH, a township in Cheshire county, incorporat­ed in 1776, and now contain­ing 1142 inhabitants ; bounded N. by Roxbury, E. by Dublin and Jaffrey, S. by Fitzwilliam, and W. by Swansey and a part of Keene. Its area is 20,749 a­cres. The 3d N. H. and the Fitzwilliam turnpikes pass through this town. There are here several ponds, which form the source of some of the branches of Ashuelot river. The soil is rocky, suitable for grain and flax and particularly for grass. Rev. Joseph Cum­mings, the first minister in this town, was ordained in 1778, and dismissed in 1780. His successor, Rev. H. Fish, was ordained in 1793, and is still in office. Marlborough con­tains 1 congregational meeting­house, a manufactory of sithes and hoes, and another of earth­en ware, several mills, and 1 carding-machine. The annual average number of deaths in this town for 20 years past has been about 13. Capt. Andrew Calhoun, an officer killed in the revolutionary war, was of this town.

MARLOW, a township situat­ed nearly in the centre of Ches­hire county, was incorporated in 1761, and now contains 566 inhabitants; it is bounded N. by Acworth and Lempster, E. by Washington and Stoddard, S. by a part of Gilsum, and W. by Alstead, comprising an area of 15,737 acres. Several
branches of Ashuelot river rise in the small ponds of this town, and its western part is watered by a branch of Cold river. There is here a meet­ing-house in which Eider Caleb Blood was ordained in 1777. He has been suc­ceeded by Elders Becket, Dus­tin, and Bates, the latter of whom is now in office and be­longs to the order of methodists. Here are several grist and saw-mills, and 1 trading shop.

MASCOMY POND lies princ­ipally in the town of Enfield, adjacent to Lebanon. It is 1200 rods long and about 250 wide and contains 2,375 acres. The surrounding lands fully indicate that the surface of the pond was once 30 or 40 feet higher than its present level. There are also appearances of a sudden rupture, as there are no marks of any margin between its present and former height. Nearly a mile from its present outlet there is a declivity of rocks 40 feet higher than the present level of the water. These rocks exhibit proofs, that the water once passed over them, but it has now formed a channel through the solid earth, nearly a mile in length.

MASCOMY RIVER has the source of its northern branch in Smart’s, pond between Lyme and Dorchester. This branch has a southerly course to Ca­naan, where it receives the wa­ters of Smart’s and Goose ponds. In Enfield it receives the waters of East and Maid’s ponds and several others, and empties itself into the south­east side of Mascomy pond. The, outlet of this pond is its S. E. extremity in Lebanon and there receives the name of Mascomy river, which after a course of 7 miles, falls into the Connecticut a few miles below Lyman’s bridge.

MASON, a township in Hills­borough county, was incorpo­rated in 1768, and in 1810 con­tained 1077 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Wilton, E. by Milford and Brookline, S. by the state line, which separates it from Ashby and Townsend in Mass., and W. by New-Ipswich, containing 18,860 acres. Several small streams rise here and water the town, on which are many valuable mill seats. The village here is called Souegan village and contains 10 or 12 dwelling-houses and 2 stores. The 3d N.H. turnpike passes through the S. W. cor­ner of the town. The soil here is generally deep _and loamy, suitable to orchards and grain. The surface is rough and stony. Mason contains a meeting­house, a large grain mill, and several other mills, and a cotton factory of 500 spindles. Rev. J. Searles the first minister in this place was ordained in 1772, and was succeeded by, Rev. E. Hill in 1790, who is still in of­fice. Elder W. Elliot is set­tled over a baptist church in this town.
A species of ochre is found here; which in its natural state gives a good yellow, and after being burned yields a chocolate colour. In the northern part of the town is a remarkable gulf. A channel was dug to turn a small stream through a hill for the purpose of carrying of a small mill. Before it was completed, a sudden freshet raised the water in one night, so as to carry off the earth to the depth of 60 feet.

MAYNESBOROUGH, an unset­tled township in Coos coun­ty, containing 34,106 acres, and bounded N. by Paulsburgh; E. by Success, S. by Selburn and Durand, and W. by Kilkenny. Ameriscoggin river passes through its easter­ly part where it receives Levi’s river from Success, and the south branch of the Upper Amonoosuck from Paulsburgh. This township lies 12 miles N. of Mount Washington and the same distance W. from the eastern line of the state, and E. from Lancaster.

MEREDITH, in Strafford county, incorporated in 1768, contained in 1810, a population of 1940. It is bounded N. W. by New-Hampton and Centre-harbor, N. E. by the Great bay which divides it from Moultonborough, S. E. by Long bay and Winnipiseogee river which separates it from Gifford, and S. W. by Sanbornton bay and Sanbornton, comprising an area of 35,777 acres. Two large bays in this vicinity extend N. W. about 5 miles each, and on the line of Centre harbor is Meredith pond 2 miles in length and 1 in breadth. Two miles S. of this is another pond 300 rods long and 100 wide. The first of these empties into Meredith bay, and the latter into Sanbornton bay. They might be united by a canal of 2 miles. At Meredith bridge is a hand­some village containing about 15 dwelling-houses, several stores, mechanic shops, and a cotton factory. In the whole town there are 4 meeting: houses; several mills, a carding-machine, a nail factory, 2 distillaries, and 7 trading stores. The inhabitants are gener­ally of the baptist persuasion. Elder N. Folsom is the only ordained minister in the place. A canal has been projected from Winnipiseogee lake to Merrimack river, which would pass through Meredith, west of the bridge. This plan if completed, would afford to lumber and other heavy articles a water carriage to Boston and Newburyport from the centre of New-Hampshire.

MERRIMACK RIVER iS formed by two branches. The most northern of which, (Pemigewasset river) has its source among the White mountains. The other branch is a short stream which flows from Winnipiseogee lake. These form a junction at the S.W. extrem­ity of Sanbornton, on the line of Hillsborough county, and compose the Merrimack, the general course of which is S. by E. about 52 miles on a di­rect line (but about 80 miles as the river runs,) to the southern boundary of the state. From Sanbornton corner it passes be­tween Northfield, New-Salis­bury, Canterbury, and Boscawen. These towns are connected by bridges. The Merri­mack receives the Contoocook river on the northern line of Concord. From this junction the Merrimack passes in a ser­pentine course through the centre of Concord, forming a large tract of excellent intervale. Two bridges are thrown over the river, connecting the east­ern and western parts of Con­cord. The Merrimack, after leaving this town passes be­tween Pembroke and Bow. In Bow there is a canal on the western side of the river round Garvin’s falls, and just above these falls Turkey river emp­ties itself, as does Suncook riv­er at the lower extremity of Pembroke. About 400 rods below the mouth of the Sun­cook are the Isle of Hookset falls and bridge, over which passes the Londonderry turn­pike leading to Concord. Amuskeag falls are about 8 miles below; these consist of three large pitches within the dis­tance of half a mile making a fall of 80 feet. There is a ca­nal round these falls on the eastern side of the river and at this place. M’Gregore’s bridge connects Manchester and Goffstown. At the lower part of Goffstown Cohass brook empties itself. At the town of Merrimack, about 5 miles far­ther down, Souhegan river empties itself, as does the Nashua river 7 miles lower on the western side, flowing from the town of Dunstable. At this town it takes an easterly direction, passing into Tyngsborough, Chelmsford, etc. in Massachusetts, and at Newburyport it falls into the sea.

MERRIMACK, a township in Hillsborough county, incorpo­rated in 1746, and containing a population of 1047 souls ; bounded N. by Bedford, E. by Merrimack river, S. by Dun­stable, and W. by Amherst and Hollis. Babboosuck and Pennychunk ponds lie partly in this town, and Souhegan river here unites with the Merrimack. There are in this town a meeting-house, several mills, and 3 trading stores. Rev. Ja­cob Burnhap, D.D. was ordained here in 1772, and is still in office.

MERRY-MEETING BAY forms the southeastern arm of Winnipiseogee lake, extending about 5 miles therefrom into Alton.

MIDDLETON, in Strafford county, was incorporated in 1778, and contains 439 inhab­itants; bounded N. by Brook­field, E. by ‘Wakefield, S. by Milton, and W. by New-Dur­ham, comprising 9,840 acres. There is here a meeting-house in which Elder W. Buzzel officiates. The Great Moose mountain extends over the N. part of the town.

MILFORD, in Hillsborough county, is bounded N. by Mount-Vernon and Lyndeborough, E. by Amherst, S. by Hollis, and W. by Mason and Wilton, comprising an area of 15,402 acres. This town was incorporated in 1794, and in 1810, its population was 1118. A large portion of its land is intervale, lying on Souhegan river and its branches. Rev. H. Moore, the present minister was ordained over the congre­gational society here in 1812. There is also a baptist society without any settled pastor. There is here a meeting-house, a cotton factory erected in 1813, a screw factory, several mills, and 2 carding-machines.

MILTON, in Strafford coun­ty, was formerly a part of Rochester, and is bounded N. W. by Middleton, E. by Sal­mon falls river, which divides it from Shapley (in Maine,) and S.Vvr. by Farmington. Its area is 25,000 acres, and its number of inhabitants 1005. It extends more than 13 miles on Salmon falls river. Branch river crosses the S.W. extrem­ity of the town. Tenerife mountain lies on its easterly side, near which is Milton pond. The southerly extremi­ty of Milton is 9 miles and 82 rods distant from Wakefield. There are here 3 religious societies, 1 meeting-house, 3 grain-mills, 3 saw-mills, 1 clothing mill, and 3 trading stores.

MILLSFIELD, an uninhabit­ed township in Coos county, 7 miles W. of Umbagog lake and 35 N. from the White hills ; bounded N. by Dixville, E. by Errol, S. by Dummer, and W. by Erving’s location. It comprises 24,100 acres, and was incorporated in 1774. Clear stream waters its north­ern extremity and Phillip’s river with several branches of the Ameriscoggin its southern parts. There are here several ponds, the largest of which is 300 rods long and 140 wide.

MONADNOCK MOUNTAIN is in Cheshire county, on the line between Jaffrey and Dublin, 10 miles N. from Massachu­setts, 20 E. from Connecticut river. Its base is 1395 feet and its summit 3254 above the level of the sea. The diame­ter of its base is 5 miles from N. to S., 3 from E. to W. and its summit consists of a bald rock.

MOHAWK RIVER has its rise among Dixville mountains, and after a westerly course through Colebrook, receives some con­siderable streams from Stewartstown, among which is Bea­ver river. It empties itself in­to the Connecticut near the N. W. extremity of Stewartstown.

MOOSE RIVER has its source on the N. side of the White mountains near the township of Durand, through which it flows into the Ameriscoggin. Its mouth is in Shelburn. Its source is within 5 miles of that of Israel’s river, which falls in­to the Connecticut.

MOOSEHILLOCK, one of the highest ranges of mountains in the state, deriving its name from the great numbers of moose which were formerly found here. It is situated in the E. part of Coventry near Peeling. Baker’s river has its source on the easterly side of this ridge. Snow has been found on its summit in every month except July.

MOULTONBOROUGH, in Straf­ford county, lies on the N. ex­tremity of Winnipiseogee lake. It was incorporated in 1777, and its population in 1810, was 994 souls ; bounded N. by Sandwich and Tamworth, N. E. by a part of Ossipee, S. E. by Tuftonborough, and W. by Centreharbor and Squam pond, containing 32,163 acres. This place derived its name from Gen. Jonathan Moulton of Hampton, who was one of its earliest and largest proprie­tors, and New-Hampton, which was taken from it, was also named at his request after the place of his residence. Moultonborough lies near the S. W. side of the Great Ossipee mountain, and it is observ­ed, that in N. E. storms the wind passes over the mountain like water over a dam, and with such force, as frequently to unroof houses. The Rev. S. Perley was settled here in 1778, and removed the next year. His successor Rev. J. Shaw is still in office. There is here a pleasant village of 10 or 12 dwelling-houses, a meet­ing-house, 1 store, 4 grain-mills, 5 saw-mills, 2 clothing-mills, and a carding-machine. Red hill is in the N.W. part of the town, and Red hill river passes through its northerly part and falls into Winnipiseogee lake. The spotted fever prevailed here in 1813. It attacked some hundreds but carried off only 30 persons. Bears were formerly common in this town as in many other new settlements. In the au­tumn they frequently came down into the populous set­tlements and sometimes even to the maritime towns. It fre­quently devours young swine, but seldom attacks mankind.

MOUNT-VERNON, in Hills­borough county, was incorpo­rated in 1808, and contains 762 inhabitants. It is bound­ed N. by New-Boston, E. by Amherst, S. by Milford, and W. bv Lyndeborough, and con­tains 7,975 acres. This town is watered by Beaver brook, which has its source here, as also have several branches of Souhegan river. There is here a pleasant village containing a meeting-house, 12 dwelling-houses, 3 stores, etc. and sever­al mills. The 2d N. H. turn­pike passes through this village. Rev. J. Bruce was settled here in 1785, and was suc­ceeded in 1809, by Rev. S. Chapin the present pastor.

NARMARGUNGOWACK RIVER rises in the township of Success in several branches, which unite in Paulsburgh and there fall into the Ameriscoggin river.

NASH AND SAwYER’s LOCA­TIONS. This tract is bounded N. by Bretton Woods, E. by the White mountains, S. by Chadbourne and Hart’s loca­tions, and W. by ungranted lands. It contains 21,084 a­cres. The Jefferson turnpike passes through it.

NASIR’s STREAM has its source. in the N. E. part of the town of Stratford, and at Nor­thumberland it falls into the Amonoosuck 6 miles from Connecticut river.

NASHUA RIVER has its source in the south part of Boylston, (Mass.) and after a northerly course of 40 miles it passes into Dunstable, (N.H.) and empties itself into the Connecticut at Nashua village in Dunstable.

NELSON, in Cheshire coun­ty, was formerly called Packersfield and received its pres­ent name in 1814, by an act of the legislature. It is bounded N. by Stoddard, E. by Han­cock and Antrim, S. by Dub­lin, and W. by Roxbury, con­taining 22,875 acres and 1076 inhabitants. There are sever­al ponds in this town, such as Spoonwood pond, which com­municates with Long pond by a strait about forty rods long. Long pond runs circuit­ously into Hancock and then returns to Nelson; its length is 1300 rods. There are also Fish, Pleasant, and Roaring brook ponds, Centre pond and Berkshire near Dublin, com­prising in all about 1,879 acres of water. In the S. part of this town a branch of the Ashuelot river rises, and in its N. part a branch of the Contoocook. The surface of Nelson is mountainous like that of the adjacent country. Rev. J. Foster was ordained here in 1781. Rev. G. Newhall is the present minister. There is in this town a meeting-house, a cotton and woolen factory, 4 grain-mills, 3 saw-mills, and 1 clothing-mill.

NEW-BOSTON, in Hillsbo­rough county, was incorporat­ed in 1763, and contained by the last census, a population of 1810 souls. It is bounded N. by Weare, E. by Goffstown and Bedford, S. by Amherst and Mount-Vernon, and W. by Lyndeborough, comprising an area of 26,538 acres. Several branches of Piscataquog river flow through its S. W. extremity into Goffstown, and thru its S.E. part the 2d N.H. turnpike has its course. There is here a baptist and a presbyterian meeting-house, 7 school-houses, several mills, and a wire-factory incorporat­ed in 1812. Rev. Solomon Moore was settled in New-Boston in 1768, died in 1803, and was succeeded in 1806 by the Rev. E. P. Bradford the present pastor. Elder J.Stone was ordained over the baptist church in 1806, and is still in office.

NEW-CASTLE, commonly called Great-Island, is in Rock­ingham county, 2 miles E. from Portsmouth. It was in­corporated in 1693, and con­tains 592 inhabitants and 45 acres. This is the largest of those islands which lie at the mouth of the Piscataqua. It has a meeting-house, about 100 dwelling-houses, and at its N. E. extremity a fort and light­house. Rev. Joshua Moody was ordained here previous to the revolution of 1689, and has been succeeded by the Rev. Messrs. Shurtleff, Blunt, Chase, and Noble. Elder Thomas Bell resides here at present and occasionally prea­ches.

NEW-CHESTER, in Grafton county, was incorporated in 1778, and contained in 1810, a population of 895 inhab­itants ; bounded N. W. by Danbury and Alexandria, N.. by Newfound pond, E. by Pemigewasset river, and S. by Andover, comprising 23,456 acres. Grafton turnpike and a branch of Blackwater river pass over the S. W. part of the town, and over its norther­ly part flows Smith’s brook, which falls into the Pemigewasset river opposite New-Hampton. A ridge, called Ragged mountain, separates this town from Andover. There are here 3 religious societies, 1 meeting-house, 3 grain-mills, and 5 saw-mills. In the year 1796, twenty-five persons died here of the dysentery.

NEW-DURHAM, in Strafford county, was incorporated in 1762, and now contains 888 inhabitants ; bounded N. W. by Wolfeborough E.by Brook­field and Middleton, and S.W. by Farmington and Alton, comprising 22,625 acres. In 1749, this town, comprehend­ing a tract of land 6 miles square, was granted to Ebene­zer Smith and others, on con­dition that 40 families should be permanently settled in it within 5 years from the declar­ation of peace, and that within 2 years after, a meeting-house should be erected, public wor­ship supported, and a grain and saw-mill erected. Maj. Thomas Tash made early exertions in forwarding the settlement of this town, and built the 2 mills at his own expense. With the assistance of Paul March and others, the required number of settlers was obtained by a bounty of 50 a­cres of land to each settler. The town was incorporated by the name of New-Durham. Within the compass of the original grant are 5 ponds, the largest of which is Merry-Meet­ing-bay pond containing about 1000 acres. The surface of the town is very mountainous and part of the soil so rocky as to be unfit for cultivation. Mount Betty rises 630 feet a­bove the pond, which washes its base. Cropple-crown moun­tain is still higher. The soil here is generally too moist for grain, but suitable for grazing. Merry-Meeting river flows from the pond of that name and falls into Winnipiseogee lake. Ela’s river flows from Cold rain pond and passes a­bout 4 miles through New-Durham to Farmington, on both which streams are many good mill seats. On the lat­ter is a fall of 14 feet, within 4 rods of which, mills are already erected. Cocheco river also has its source in this town. The principal roads passing through New-Durham are from Wolfeborough and Gilmanton to Dover. There are some curiosities in this town, one of which is a remarkable fountain of wa­ter, over which a part of Ela’s river passes. By sinking a small mouthed vessel about 6 feet into this fountain, water may be obtained extremely cold and pure. The depth of it has never been ascertained although attempts have been made. Near the centre of the town is a mountain called Rat­tlesnake hill, the south side of which is nearly an hundred feet high, and almost perpen­dicular. In its fissures a vast number of rattlesnakes have their dens. Their numbers have recently diminished. About a mile northeast from this mountain is March’s pond, which abounds with a species of clay, much resembling when dried the common chalk in appearance and qualities. On the N. E. side of Shaw’s moun­tain is a remarkable cave, call­ed the Devil’s den, the entrance of which is about three feet wide and ten high. The outer room is twenty feet square; the inner apartments grow smaller, until at the distance of fifty feet into the mountain the passage becomes too small to be investigated. The sides both of the galleries and the rooms are composed of stone. They bear the appearance of having been once united, and were probably separated by some great convulsion of nature. Several other mountains in this town contain precipices and cavities, some of which are forty or fifty feet in depth. Col.Thomas Tash, who spent the last twenty years of his life in New-Durham, was born in Durham in 1722. He was en­gaged in the French war, first in the capacity of captain and afterwards in that of major. In 1755, the annual stores, while on their way to the north­ern army, were destroyed at a place called Half-way brook, between forts Edward and William Henry. Capt. Tash with 140 men was ordered to repair to this spot with assur­ances that the remainder of the battalion should immedi­ately follow. On arriving at the place of his destination he found the stores and wagons destroyed, the men killed, and the enemy gone off. Ascer­taining their rout, he pursued them in the woods about five miles, and attacked them while they were feasting upon their plunder. A warm action en­sued which lasted an hour, when the enemy, consisting of about 1000 French and Indians, perceiving the weakness of our force, attempted to surround it. At this critical moment the remainder of the battalion arrived under major Burbank. The enemy immediately fled, and were pursued by Tash many miles into the wilder­ness. In 1757, Tash was appoint­ed major and was stationed at No. 4. (now Charleston,) with 250 men. This was the first detachment of N. H. troops that ever occupied that impor­tant post. On the return of peace he settled in Newmar­ket, and in 1776, he received a colonel’s commission in the N. H. forces, and served one campaign. Toward the close of the war he removed to New-Durham, where he owned sev­eral farms and a large tract of wild land. There he devoted himself to agriculture, and died at the age of 87, leaving behind him a memory still dear and respected. Rev. Nathaniel Porter, a congregationalist, was ordain­ed in New-Durham in 1775, and dismissed in 1777. He was succeeded by Elder Ben­jamin Randall, a zealous and indefatigable preacher of the freewill baptist order, of which sect he was considered the head, and he obtained over it an extensive jurisdiction. He died in 1808, at the age of 60.

NEW-FOUND POND lies part­ly in Hebron and partly in New Chester. Its length from north to South is 6 miles, and its width about 22 miles. It con­tains 4,530 acres, nearly two thirds of which are in New-Chester.

NEW-FOUND RIVER flows from the pond of that name, and after a southerly course of 4 or 5 miles, falls into Pemigewasset river near Bridgewa­ter village.

NEW-GRANTHAM, in Ches­hire county, was incorporated in 1761, and now contains 864 inhabitants ; bounded N. by Enfield, (in Grafton county,) E. by Springfield, S. by Croy­don, and W. by Plainfield, comprising 24,900 acres, 300 of which are water. There is a pond in the northwest part of the town about 1 mile long and 160 rods wide. Croydon mountain extends through the west part of the town, and a turnpike passes over the north part of the mountain. This town in 1775, had only 74 in­habitants, and in 1810 its pop­ulation was 864: Here are the sources of several of the branches of Sugar river, on which are a number of mills.

NEW-HAMPTON, formerly called Moultonborough-Addition, lies in the west part of Strafford county, incorporated in 1777, and now contains 1293 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Pemigewasset river which separates it from Bridgewater and New-Chester, N. by Holderness, N. E. by Centreharbor, and S. E. by Sanbornton and Meredith, comprising an area of 19,422 acres. Pemigewasset pond lies on the border of Meredith, and is about 200 rods in diameter. There are several other small­er ponds in this town. In the westerly part of the town is a remarkable spring, from which a stream issues and falls into Pemigewasset river after run­ning about a mile. This stream is sufficient for the use of sev­eral mills, and is not affected by rains or droughts. A toll bridge unites this town to Bridgewater, from which there is a turnpike leading to Sanbornton. The soil here is rich and light and very favourable to various kinds of grain and grass. There are in New-Hamp­ton 2 meeting-houses, 2 school-, houses, and 2 distilleries. Rev. S. Hubbard was ordained over the congregational church here in 1800, and is still in office. Elder Dana, a baptist, is also settled in this town.

NEW-HOLDERNESS, in Graf­ton county, lies on the eastern side of Pemigewasset river. It was incorporated in 1761, and contains 883 inhabitants ; bounded N. by New-Hampton, E. by Sandwich and Centre harbor, S. by Centre harbor and New-Hampton, and W. by Pemigewasset riv­er, which separates it from Plymouth, comprising 24,921 acres, of which 2,500 are wa­ter. A part of Squam lake is in this town, and also Squam pond, through which Squam river runs and falls into the Pemigewasset in the southwest part of the town. Squam mountain lies in its northeast part. Rev. R. Fowle was ordained here in 1789, over an episcopalian church. There is here a paper-mill, several grain-mills, one clothing-mill, a carding-machine, and a dis­tillery.

NEWICHAWANNOCK RIVER is the west and main branch of the Piscataqua. It is called Salmon falls river as far as the lower falls in Berwick, where it assumes the above name, which it retains till it unites with the Cochecho, and flows on to Hilton’s point.

NEWINGTON, in Rockingham county, contains 503 inhabi­tants, and is bounded W. by Great and Little bays, N. E. by Piscataqua river, which separates it from Kittery, E. by Portsmoath, and S. by Greenland. At Fox point in the northwest part of the town, Piscataqua bridge is thrown over Piscataqua river to Goat island, and thence to Durham shore. Goat island is about 48 rods long and of unequal breadth. There is on it an excellent tavern owned by the proprietors of the bridge.
Newington was formerly a part of Portsmouth and Dover. Its soil is excellent and pro­duces grain abundantly. The orchards here are very productive. Piscataqua bridge was built in 1794; it is 2600 feet in length, of which 2244 are plank. The chord of the cen­tral arch, which unites the two islands, is 244 feet. It is con­sidered a masterly piece of ar­chitecture, and was constructed by Timothy Palmer of Newburyport. Rev. Joseph Adams, a con­gregationalist, was the first minister in this town. He was ordained in 1714, and was suc­ceeded in 1787, by the Rev. J. Langdon, who continued in office 23 years. The annual average number of deaths in Newington is computed to be 7. There is here 1 meeting-house and 2 school-houses. There is a spring in this town, which, besides supplying a grain-mill nearly all the year, is the foun­tain of the Portsmouth aque­duct. In May, 1690, a party of In­dians under one Hoopwood attacked Fox point in this town, destroyed several houses, kill­ed 14 persons, and took 6 pris­oners. They were pursued by Capts. Floyd and Greenleaf, who recovered some of the cap­tives and part of the plunder, after a severe action, in which Hoopwood was wounded. Died in this town March 5th, 1765, Mrs. Elizabeth Hight, aged 100. She never used medicine during this long life. She was married four times, had 8 children and 300 descendants more or less re­mote.

NEW-IPSWICH, in Hillsbor­ough county, was incorporated in 1762, and contains 1395 in­habitants. It is bounded N. by Temple and Sharon, E. by Mason, S. by the line of Mas­sachusetts, and W. by Rindge (in Cheshire county.) Its a­rea is 20,260 acres. The west side of the town is watered by a branch of Contoocook river, and its east side by a branch of the Souhegan river. One branch of the- latter river rises in a pond in this town and a­nother has its source on a moun­tain. The 3d N. H. turnpike passes through the centre of this town. There is here a handsome village, 2 meet­ing-houses, an academy, 2 cot­ton and 2 woolen factories, an oil-mill, several grain and saw­mills, 1 clothing-miil, a carding-machine, and 4 trading-stores. Rev. S. Farrar was ordained here in 1760, and di­ed in 1809, aged 71. He was succeeded by the Rev. R. Hall the present minister. Elder S. Parkhurst was settled here in 1814.

NEW-LONDON, in Hillsbor­ough county, was incorporated in 1779, and contained in 1810, a population of 692; bounded N. by Wilmot, S. and E. by Sutton, and W. by Sunapee pond which separates it from Wendell. Its area is 13,560 acres, 2000 of which are wa­ter. In this town lies part of Great Sunapee pond, and also Little Sunapee about 500 rods long and 170 wide,_forming a principal source, of Blackwater river. The soil here is gener­ally hard and rocky, but it well rewards the labour of agriculture. New-London has several hills or mountains, such. as Bunker’s, Dole’s, and Messer’s. The summit of Kearsarge mountain is six miles from the central village. The principal road passing through this town leads from Hopkin­ton to Hanover. There are here 2 baptist meeting-houses. Elder Job Scammons was or­dained here in 1779, and El­der Enoch Huntingdon in 1814. The annual average number of deaths in this town is about 10. There are here several mills and 2 or 3 trading stores.

NEWMARKET, in Rocking­ham county, was incorporated in 1726, contains 1061 inhab­itants and is bounded N. by Durham and Lee, E. by the S. W. branch of Piscataqua river, S. by Exeter, and W. by Epping, comprising an area of 11,082 acres. Piscasick river passes through this town, and Lamprey river crosses its N. W. extremity and falls in­to the Great bay near its N. E. corner where there is a consid­erable village. At a place called Newfields there is another village, containing about 20 houses and several shops, etc. Rev. John Moody was ordain­ed here in 1730, and died in 1778, aged 73. He has been succeeded by the Rev. Messrs. Tombs and Thurston. Elder J. Broadhead and Elder Osborn, both methodists, occasion­ally preach here. There are in the town three religious so­cieties, several mills, stores, etc. From the year 1731 to 1770, there were in this town 948 births and 554 deaths, av­eraging about 28 of the former and 14 of the latter annually. This town was formerly a part of Exeter and was purchased of the Indians in 1638, by Wheelwright and others. Sev­eral instances of Indian cruel­ty and capture occurred in the early history of this place. Col. Winthrop Hilton, who :was killed by the Indians in Epping (then Exeter,) was bu­ried in Newmarket. The inscription on his monument is still legible and his descend­ants are still living in this vi­cinity. Mrs. Shute is now liv­ing in this town, who was cap­tured by the Indians in 1755, when 18 months old. She liv­ed with them till the age of 14.

NEWPORT, in Cheshire coun­ty, was incorporated in 1761, and contains 1427 inhabitants; bounded N. by Croydon; E. by Wendell, S. by Unity, and W. by Claremont, comprising an area of 25,267 acres. It lies about 8 miles E. from Connecticut river and the same distance from Sutton. Sugar river flows through Newport and receives here a number of its branches. The Croydon and Cornish turnpikes unite in this town and pass on to Am­herst. There is here a hand­some village of about 20 hous­es and several stores. The town contains a baptist and a congregational meeting-house, a cotton factory, several mills, and a carding-machine. Rev. John Ramele was the first min­ister here, and Rev. A. Wines is the present pastor.

NEWTOWN, in Rockingham county, was incorporated in 1749, and contained in 1810, a population of 454 ; bounded N. by Kingston, E. by South­ampton, S. by Massachusetts, and W. by Plaistow, compris­ing 5,250 acres. County pond lies partly in this town. There are here 2 religious societies and 1 meeting-house. Rev. J. Ernes was ordained in 1759. Rev. D.Tewkesbury is the pres­ent pastor.

NORTHFIELD, in Rocking­ham county, was incorporated in 1780, and contains 1057 in­habitants ; bounded N. by Sanbornton, E. by Gilmanton, S. by Canterbury, and W. by Salisbury and Boscawen, comprising 19,636 acres. There are here 2 small ponds, viz. Chesnut pond, flowing in­to the Winnipiseogee, and Sondogardy pond, flowing into the Merrimack river. At the N.W. part of the town near Webster’s falls Winnipiseogee riv­er falls into the Pemigewasset. A bridge over the latter river connects this town with New-Salisbury, and another o­ver the former unites it to Sanbornton. There is here a meeting-house common to all sects; several mills, stores, etc.

NORTH OF LATITUDE 45° is a tract of land belonging to the state of New-Hampshire; bounded as follows, beginning at the state’s land No. 3. and running N. 61° E. by the Dis­trict of Maine 3500 rods to the high lands, thence by the high lands, which separate Lower Canada from the United States to the most N. W. branch of Connecticut river, thence down said branch to latitude 45°, thence by said latitude to lands No. 3. containing 163,353 acres. On this tract is the great lake Connecticut.

NORTHAMPTON, in Rocking­ham county, was incorporated in 1742, and contains 651 in­habitants. It is bounded N. by Greenland, E. by Rye and the sea, S. by Hampton, and W. by Stratham, and contains 8,465 acres. This was former­ly a part of Hampton. Rev. Nathaniel Gookin was settled here in 1739. He has been succeeded by the Reverend Messrs. Hastings, M’Clure, Thurston, and French. The latter gentleman is still in office. There is here 1 meet­ing-house and 7 grain-mills.

NORTH RIVER has its source in North river pond on the line between Northwood and Not­tingham. After a southerly course through Nottingham, Epping, and a part of Lee it falls into Lamprey river near the N. E. corner of Epping and the line of Newmarket. This stream affords many val­uable mill privileges, on most, of which are erected mills of various kinds.

NORTHUMBERLAND, a town­ship in Coos county, lying on Connecticut river at the mouth of the Upper Amonoosuck. It was incorporated in 1779, and contained in 1810, a pop­ulation of 281; bounded N. by Stratford, E. by Piercy, S. W. by Lancaster, and W. by Connecticut river. Its area is 20,430 acres. It is in this town near Cape-Horn moun­tain, that the Upper Amonoosuck falls into the Connecticut. There are here several ponds and mountains. The soil is fertile though broken and une­ven. A bridge connects this town with Maidstone in Ver­mont nearly opposite Guild­hall. There is here a meeting­house, 2 grain-mills, a saw­mill, and a carding-machine.

NORTHWOOD, a township of elevated land in RoCkingham county, formerly a part of Nottingham. It was incorpo­rated in 1773, and contained in 1810, a population or 1095, of whom 230 were legal voters. Northwood is hounded N. E. by the line of Strafford county, which separates it from Bar­rington, S. E by Nottingham, S. and S.W. by Deerfield, and N.W. by Epsom and Pittsfield, comprising an area of 17,075 acres, 1054 of which are water. There are here 6 ponds, viz. Suncook pond 750 rods long and 100 wide, Gennis’ pond 300 long and 150 wide, Long pond about 300 long and 50 wide, Harvey’s pond, of an el­liptical form, about 200 long and in some places 40 wide; a part of Great-Bow pond is al­so in this town and also part of North river pond, Pleasant pond, and Little-Bow pond, the latter of which has two out­lets; on the N. E. it discharg­es its waters into Great-Bow pond, which is the head of Is­inglass river, and on its north­erly side a brook flows from it into Long pond, the waters of which pass into the Merrimack through Suncook pond and river. The northerly branch of Lamprey river has its source in this town near, the N. W. extremity of Saddle-back moun­tain, which is a ridge of high land separating this town from Deerfield. On the easterly side of this ridge are found crystals and crystalline spars of various colours and sizes. Black lead is also found here. There are no consider­able water-falls in this town. The height of its land is such, that the waters flowing from the farm of the late G. Clark, Esq. fall into three different rivers, Suncook, Lamprey, and Dover, and indeed the waters, which fall from different parts of the roof of a building on this farm run into two different riv­ers, the Piscataqua and Merri­mack. The soil in Northwood is generally of a moist quality. It is excellently suited for grazing, and in mild seasons favourable to corn and grain. The N. H. turnpike passes through this town from Ports­mouth to Concord. It has here a direct course from E. to W. of 8 miles. Rev. Ed­mund Pilsbury, the first minis­ter in this town, was ordained in the year 1779, over a bap­tist society and continued here till 1809. Rev. J. Prentiss was ordained in 1799 over the congregational society and is still in office. Rev. Eliphalet Merrill, the present successor of Mr. Pilstmry, was ordain­ed in 1804. These two socie­ties are nearly equal in number and each has a meeting-house. There are in Northwood 6 school-houses, 4 grain-mills, 7 saw-mills, a clothing-mill, and 8 trading stores. The situation of this town is pleasant, and more elevated than any land between it and the sea. From its height, vessels entering the Piscataqua harbour may be seen with the assistance of glasses. From this place the light house at Portsmouth bears S. E. and the highest mountain in Gilford N. 16.0 W. The first house in this town was erected in 1762, and is now standing near the baptist meeting-house. Two of the first settlers are now living here in honourable old age. The annual average number of deaths is about 9.

NOTTINGHAM, in Rocking­ham county, was incorporated in 1722, and now contains 1063 inhabitants ; bounded N. E. by Barrington, S.E. by Lee and part of Epping, S. by Ep­ping and Raymond, and W. by Northwood and Deerfield, comprising 25,800 acres, of which 300 are water. There are here several ponds, such as North river pond contaning about 80 acres, Petuckaway pond of about 170 acres, Quincy pond about 45 acres, and others of a smaller size. In the westerly part of the town near Deerfield are Upper, Middle, and Lower Petuckaway mountains. Petuckaway river has its source in this town in a pond of the same name. Little river and sever­al other small streams also rise in Nottingham. North river passes through this town and through its northerly part the N. H. turnpike has its course. Rev. S. Emery was settled here in 1742, and Rev. B.Butler in 1758. Samuel Dyer, a free-will baptist, is the present minister. There is a congre­gational meeting-house situ­ated in a pleasant and compact part of the town called the square. There are in the town 3 grain-mills and 4 saw-mills.

NOTTINGHAM WEST, a township in Hillsborough coun­ty, incorporated in 1746, and now containing 1379 inhabit­ants ; bounded N. by Litch­field and Londonderry, E. by Pelham, ‘S. by Lyndeborough, (Mass.,) and W. by Merri­mack river, which separates it from Dunstable, comprising 17,379 acres. In this place is Massabesick pond 230 rods long and 70 wide, and adjacent to the town is Otternic pond about 25 rods wide. There are here 2 meeting-houses, 3 religious societies, 2 of baptists and 1 of congregationalists. Rev. N. Merrill the first min­ister in this town, was ordain­ed in 1737, and was succeeded by Rev. J. Strickland in 1772. Elder Daniel Merrill is settled here over a baptist church. There are in this town 3 grain-mills, 3 saw-mills, and 1 trad­ing store. Capt. James Ford was a resident in this town. He was with Gen. Stark at Bennington and was there mor­tally wounded.

OLIVERIAN RIVER. The most easterly branch of this river rises on the west side of Moosehillock mountain and its northern branch from Owl-head mountain, both in the town of Coventry. These branches unite in Haverhill, (N. H.) forming Oliverian riv­er, which empties itself into the Connecticut.

ORANGE, formerly called Cardigan, is in Grafton county. It was incorporated in 1790, and contains 229 inhabitants; bounded N.E. by Groton and Hebron, S. E. by Alexandria and part of Danbury, S.W. by Cushing’s Gore, and N. W. by Dame’s Gore and Canaan, comprising 21,976 acres. In this town is the source of the southerly branch of Baker’s river and of the northerly branch of Smith’s river. Cardigan mountain extends through its centre from N. to S. and Grafton turnpike passes over its S.W. extremity. In the S. W. part of this town is found a very valuable species of ochre. It is found in great abundance, deposited in veins and of a su­perior quality to that which is imported. Two men will dig and prepare for market about 80 pounds of this in a day.

ORFORD, in Grafton county, was incorporated in 1761, and contained in 1810, a population of 1265 ; bounded N. by Piermont, E. by Wentworth, S. by Lyme, and W. by Connecticut river, comprising an area of 27,000 acres. There are sev­eral ponds in this town, the largest of which is Baker’s pond, 260 rods long and 160 wide, forming the source of the westerly branch of Baker’s riv­er. Indian pond is in the north part of the town near Stadion mountain. A stream called Jacob’s brook rises in Orford and empties itself into Con­necticut river above the bridge, which connects this town with Fairlee in Vermont. On this stream are 10 mill-dams. Sun­day and Cuba mountains lie, near the centre of this town, and Smart’s mountain in its S. E. extremity, forming the boundary of four towns, viz. Orford, Wentworth, Dorches­ter, and Lyme. Rev. John Sawyer was set­tled here in 1787, and was succeeded by the present minister, Rev. Samuel Dana. There are here 2 religious societies and 2 meeting-houses, and near the river is a pleasant village containing about 25 houses, through which the turnpike passes to Orford bridge. There are in this town several grain and saw-mills, a clothing-mill, and a carding-machine.

OSSIPEE, a township in Straf­ford county, was incorporated in 1785, and now contains 1205 inhabitants; bounded N. by Tamworth, N. E. by Great Ossipee pond, S. E. by Wake­field, and S. by Wolfeborough, Tuftonborough, and Moultonborough, comprising 36,795 a­cres. This place was former­ly called New-Garden. Its form is very irregular, its length being nearly 15 miles from N. W. to S. W. and its width in some places not more than 4 or 5. There are here several ponds, of which Dan Hole pond on the borders of Tuftonborough is the largest, be­ing about 400 rods long and 200 wide. The others are on an average 100 rods each in diameter. Bear pond has no discoverable outlet. Pine river flows through the easterly part of this town, and Bear Camp river passes its northern extremity, emptying itself into Great Ossipee lake. The soil here is generally fertile. Ossipee contains 2 religious soci­eties, 1 baptist meeting-house, 5 grain-mills, 3 saw-mills, and 1 carding-machine.

OSSIPEE GORE,. a township in Strafford county, incorpora­ted in 1785, and now contain­ing 425 inhabitants; bounded N. E. by Eaton, S. E. by Ef­fingham, and S. W. by Ossipee, comprising 10,331 acres. Ossipee lake lies principally in this town, and is about 1000 rods long from north to south, and about 600 rods wide. It receives Bear Camp river on its west side and Pine river on its south. The waters of this lake are discharged through Ossipee river.

OSSIPEE RIVER. flows from Great Ossipee lake or pond and forms a large bay or rath­er the bays, connected With each other, in the whole about 800 rods long and 600 wide. On the southeast line of Ossipee these waters are contract­ed into Ossipee river, which flows in a southeast course through Effingham into the district of Maine, and falls into Saco river, about 15 mileS east of Ossipee pond.

OSSIPEE MOUNTAIN is in the west part of the town of Ossipee adjacent to Moultonborough, and about 4 miles. west from Ossipee lake. Its altitude has never been ascer­tained. On its east side the northwest wind is peculiarly severe.

OYSTER RIVER has its source in Wheelwright pond in the town of Lee, near the south­east extremity of Barrington. It flows from the east side of the pond in a northeast course to Madbury. Thence turning southerly it crosses the line which separates Lee from Dur­ham five times within the distance of two miles. It thence takes an easterly course, and raising through Durham, meets the tide waters at the falls.

PAULSBURGH, a township in Coos county, containing about 20 inhibitants; bounded N. by Dummer and Cambridge, E. by Success, S. by Maynesborough, and W. by Kilkenny, comprising 34,507 acres. The Upper Amonoosuck and the Ameriscoggin rivers pass thru this town, the former in a north­erly course to the Connecticut, and the latter in a southerly course to the Merrimack. In the southwest part of the town is a large mountain, adjoining Maynesborough, and in its N. E. part near Cambridge there is another. There are 2 mills in this town. The centre of Paulsburgh is 15 miles east from Northumberland on Con­necticut river, and about 7 miles west from the District of Maine, and about 22 (by the road) from Lancaster court­house.

PEABODY RIVER rises in the eastern pass of the White mountains, where also rises Ellis river, a branch of the Saco. The sources of these two rivers are within the dis­tance of a few feet from each other. Peabody river flows in a northerly course from the northwest part of Adams to Shelburne, where it falls into the Ameriscoggin. From its source to its mouth its length is about 10 miles.

PEELING, in Grafton county, was incorporated in 1763, and in 1810, contained 203 inhabi­tants; bounded N. E. by Lin­coln, S. E. by Thornton, S.W. by Thornton and Ellsworth, and W. by Warren, Coventry, and Landaff, comprising 33,359 acres. There are here sever­al ponds, the largest of which is Elbow pond about 60 rods in diameter. The middle branch of Pemigewasset river passes through this town. In Peeling there are three large mountains; Cushman’s mountain in its north part, Blue mountain in its centre, and Black mountain in its northwest part. Among these mountains a branch of the Amonoosuck, a branch of Baker’s river, and Moosehillock brook have their sources. Although the surface here is mountainous the roads are good, and a turn­pike is projected from Bath to this town. There are but 2 mills in this town.

PELHAM, in Rockingham county, was incorporated in 1746, and in 1210, it contain­ed 998 inhabitants; bounded N. by Windham and Salem, S. E. and S. by Dracut, (Mass.) and W. by Nottingham West. Its area is 16,333 acres, of which 280 are water. There are here two ponds, Island pond of about 178 acres, and Gumpas pond of about 100. Beaver river flows through the town and receives the waters of these ponds. The surface of the town is generally even, although there are. several swells of valuable land. Rev. James Hobbe was ordained here in 1765, and was succeeded by Rev. James Moody. Rev. John Church, the present minister, was set­tled in 1798. There is here 1 meeting-house, 3 grain-mills, 3 saw-mills, 1 clothing-mill, a carding-machine, and 3 try fling stores. During the ten years ending in 1808, the number of deaths in this town was 121, of which 32 were of consumption.

PEMBROKE, in the south part of Rockingham county, was incorporated in 1759, and now contains 1153 inhabitants; bounded N. E. by Chichester, E. by Epsom, S. E. by Suncook river which separates it from Allenstown, S. W. by Merri­mack river dividing it from Bow, and N. W. by Suncook river dividing it from Con­cord. It contains 14,060 acres. Two bridges are erected o­ver the Suncook, one connect­ing this town with Concord, and the other leading to Allenstown; over the latter of which the Chester turnpike passes. Near the junction of the Suncook and Merrimack are several valuable mill seats, on which are erected a cotton fac­tory, 2 paper-mills, an oil-mill, a nail factory, carding-ma­chine, etc. Beside these, there are in the town 4 corn-mills, 5 saw-mills, and a clothing-mill. Pembroke street is nearly three miles long, on which are about 50 dwelling-houses, 5 stores, and 2 meeting-houses. The soil of this town is gen­erally good, and its local situa­tion is remarkably pleasant. It was called Suncook by the In­dians, and was granted by Massachusetts under the name of Lovewell’s town. Rev. Aaron Whitman was settled here in 1736. He has been succeeded by the Rev. Messrs. Emery, Colby, Mitchell, and Burnham, the latter of whom is the present minister.

PEMIGEWASSET RIVER, the western, branch of the Merri­mack, flows from the ridge called the height of land. Its several sources are on the Moosehillock mountain, the southwest part of the White mountains, and in the town of Franconia. On its western side it receives Baker’s river, a stream from New-Found pond, Smith’s river, and many smaller streams. Its average course is south about 50 miles, passing through Lincoln, Peeling, Thornton, Campton, and by Holderness, Plymouth, Bridgewater, New-Chester, and Andover. It empties into the Winnipiseogee at the lower part of Sanbornton. After this junction the main stream becomes the Merrimack.

PETERBOROUGH, a township in the southwest part of Hills­borough county, lying about 25 miles west from the Con­necticut and tile same distance east from the Merrimack, was incorporated in 1760, and in 1810 contained 1537 inhabi­tants; hounded N. by Han­cock and Greenfield, E. by Greenfield and Temple, S. by Sharon, and W. by Jaffrey and Dublin, comprising an area of 23,780 acres. The surface of this town is mountainous, and its soil is enriched by numerous brooks and small streams, favourable to meadow and pasturage ground, .and supplying many valuable mill seats: A prin­cipal branch of Contoocook river passes near the centre of this town, and also Goose riv­er flowing from Dublin and falling into the Contoocook at Smith’s mills. Near this junc­tion is the principal village, which is much indebted for its origin and growth to the indi­vidual exertions of the Hon. S. Smith. Here are about 25 dwelling-houses, 2 stores, 3 cotton fac­tories, a paper-mill, an oil-mill, grain-mill, fulling-mill, saw-mill, carding-machine, mechanic shops, etc. On the Contoocook in other parts of the town are 2 other cotton facto­ries, a woolen factory, 2 grain-mills, and 2 saw-mills. Peterborough is one of the most considerable manufactur­ing towns in the state. No one has so many factories. The principal roads leading through the town are from Am­herst to Keene, and from Han­cock to New-Ipswich. There is here 1 meeting-house, in which Rev. J. Morrison was ordained in 1759. He was succeeded by Rev. D. Annan in 1779. Rev. E. Dunbar, the present minister, was settled in 1799.

PIERCE, in Coos county, was incorporated in 1794, and in 1810, contained 211 inhabit­ants; bounded N. by Stratford and ungranted lands, E. and S. by Kilkenny, and W. by Northumberland, comprising 50,630 acres. Piercy’,s pond is on the E. side of the town, the waters of which fall into the Upper Amonoosuck in the town of Paulsburgh. Near the N.E. extremity of Piercy the north and south branches of the Amonoosuck form a junction. This river receives Nash’s stream in the northerly part of the town, as it flows from Strat­ford. Mill and Pilot moun­tains are in this place. There are here only two mills.- The course on a straight line from the centre of this town to the mouth of the Upper Amonoosuck is about 6 miles.

PHILLIP’S RIVER flows part­ly from Columbia and Dix­ville mountains and partly from a large pond in the state’s land No. 1. thence enlarging itself as it passes through the towns of Millsfield and Dummer, and taking a westerly course, it passes through Kil­kenny and enters Piercy, where it unites with the Upper Amonoosuck.

PIERCE’S ISLAND is in Piscataqua harbour, between this and Seavey’s island the main channel passes. On each of them batteries and entrench­ments were prepared in 1775, and again in 1814. The cur­rent is here narrow, rapid and deep, and the shore hold and rocky. (See Piscataqua har­bour.)

PIERMONT, in Grafton coun­ty, was incorporated in 1764, and in 1810, contained 877 in­habitants; bounded N. E. by Haverhill, E. by Warren, S. W. by Orford, and W. by the west side of Connecticut river, which divides it from Brad­ford in Vermont, comprising about 25,800 acres. Eastman’s ponds lie in this town near Warren; they unite and fall into Connecticut river in Piermont. Black mountain lies on the south side of this place and Stallion mountain on its north­ern side. The Coos turnpike passes through the N. E. part of the town. There is here 1 meeting-house and 2 religious societies, 2 grain-mills, 3 saw­mills, 1 fulling-mill, and 1 distillery. The inhabitants are
generally farmers, and manu­facture their own clothing.

PINE RIVER flows from a pond of that name in Wake­field. After a N. W. course through Ossipee and part of Effingham, it falls into Great Ossipee lake.

PISCATAQUA RIVER iS the only large river, the whole course of, which is within the state. Its source is a pond hear the S. W. corner of the town of Wakefield, and is on the line of the District of Maine. Its general course thence to the sea is S. S. E. a­bout 40 miles. It divides this state from York county, (Maine) and is called Salmon falls river from its source to Berwick lower falls, where it takes the name of Arezvichawannock, which it bears until it meets the river Cochecho flowing from Dover. The conflu­ent stream thence passes to Hilton’s point 7 miles from the sea.
The western branch is form­ed from the Swamscot river flowing from Exeter, the Winnicot river flowing from Stratham through Greenland, and Lamprey river, which divides Newmarket from Durham. These empty into a bay 4 miles wide, called the Great bay. These waters in their further progress are contracted into a smaller bay, where they receive Oyster river from Durham and Black river from Dover. They form a junction with the other branch at Hilton’s point. The tide rises in all these bays and branches as far up as the falls in each. It forms a rapid current, especially in the season of freshets, when the ebb con­tinues about two hours longer than the flood; some of the ferries would be impassable were it not for the numerous eddies, formed by the indentures of the shore. At the lower falls in each river are landing plac­es, where lumber and other country produce is discharged, so that each branch affords a convenient trading place not more than 15 or 20 miles from Portsmouth, with which a con­stant communication is kept up. This river therefore from
the situation of its branches is extremely favourable to navi­gation and commerce.

PISCATAQUA HARBOUR is one of the finest on the conti­nent, having sufficient depth of water for vessels of any burden. The adjacent lands pro­tect it from storms so effectu­ally that ships may ride here safely in any season of the year. The current here is so narrow and rapid that the harbour never freezes. It is so well forti­fied by nature that very little labour is requisite to make it impregnable. The islands in this harbour are numerous; the largest of them is Great-Island or New-Castle, now in­corporated into a township (which see.) On this island stands a light-house and the principal fort, called Fort Con­stitution. Near the site of this fort, one was erected as early as 1660, under the command of Richard Cutts, Esq. In 1795, this was completely pre­pared, mounted with 16 cannon and manned with a company of men now under the command of Capt. Walbach. In the summer of 1814, Fort Constitution was put in a complete state of defence, and another was erect­ed at Jeffrey’s point on the easterly part of the island, an­other on Kittery point called Fort M’Clary and another on Pierce’s island called Fort Washington, and several other fortifications were thrown up on the main islands.

PISCATAQUOG RIVER. Its most southerly branch rises in Francestown and its most northerly in Henniker and Deering. These after passing through Weare and New-Bos­ton form a junction on the W. side of Goffstown, through which town the stream passes to the N.E. extremity of Brad­ford where it falls into the Merrimack river after a south­erly course of about 20 miles.

PISCASICK RIVER rises in Brentwood and passes through Newmarket into Durham, where it falls into Lamprey riv­er about one mile from the northern boundary of New­market. On this stream are numerous mill seats.

PIGWACKET, the Indian name of Conway, Fryburgh, and the towns adjacent.

PITTSFIELD, in Rockingham county, was incorporated in 1782, and contained in 1810 a population of 1050; bounded N. E. by Barnstead, S. E. by Barrington and Northwood, S. W. by Epsom and Chichester, and N.W. by Loudon and Suncook river. It comprises 14,921 acres, 94 of which are wa­ter. In the S.E. part of this town is Catamount mountain, on the summit of which is Berry’s pond, and on its E. side is Wild-goose pond, about 100 rods in diameter. On the W. side of this pond the magnetic needle
is materially affected. The soil of this town is very fertile. There are here 3 grain-mills, 5 saw-mills, 2 fulling-mills, 2 carding-machines, and several trading stores. The first minister in Pitts­field was the Rev. R. Page. El­ders Sargeant and Knowlton of the baptist order are now set­tled here. There is also in this town a small society of Friends. The number of deaths here from 1781 to 1814, was 379. The•spotted fever pre­vailed in this town in 1813 and 14, of which 75 persons died in those two years. The annual average number of deaths is about 9.

PLAINFIELD, a township in Cheshire county, incorporated in 1761, and containing in 1810, a population of 1462; bounded N. by Lebanon, S.E. by New-Grantham, S. by Cornish, and W. by Connecticut river, which divides it from Hartland in Vermont. At the lower part of this town in Connecticut river is Hart’s island about 150 rods long and 35 wide. Waterquechy falls are adjacent to this town, a bridge was erected here in 1807. Plainfield is watered by a small stream flowing from Croydon moun­tains, on which are erected sev­eral mills. This town contains a handsome village of 10 or 12 dwelling-houses, several stores, and 2 meeting-houses. Through this place passes the Croydon turnpike. The pres­ent ministers here are Rev. J. Dickerson of the congregation­al and Elder Cram of the bap­tist order.

PLAISTOW, a small township in Rockingham county, incor­porated in 1764, and now containing 462 inhabitants; bound­ed N. W. by Hampstead, N.E. by Kingston and Newtown, S. E. and S. W. by Haverhill, (Mass.,) and W. by Atkinson, comprising about 5,843 acres. A small stream from Hamp­stead and another from New­town meet in Plaistow and run­ning southerly pass into Ha­verhill between Plaistow meet­ing-house and the S. corner of Atkinson. There are 3 grain-mills, 2 saw-mills, and 1 full­ing-mill. Here are 2 religious societies and 1 meeting-house. Rev. James Cushing was set­tled here in 1730, and was succeeded in 1765, by Rev. G. Merrill. Elder John Herriman is the present minister and was ordained in 1812.

PLYMOUTH, a township in Grafton county, is situated at the junction of Baker’s and Pemigewasset river. This town was incorporated in 1763, and in 1775, it contained 382 inhabi­tants, and in 1810, it contained 937 ; hounded N. by Campton, E.by Pemigewasset river, S. by Bridgewater, and W. by Hebron, comprising 16,256 acres. The Mayhew turnpike pass­es through the westerly part of this town. In the north­east part is a pleasant village, containing about 22 dwelling-houses, a meeting-house,court-house, 4 stores, and a distillery. In this town are also 4 mills, etc. Rev. Nathan Ward was set­tled here in 1765. The pre­sent minister is the Rev. D. Fairbanks.