DURHAM, a township in Strafford county, lying on Oyster river at the junction with the Piscataqua. It contains a population of 1449, and is bounded on Madbury S. 63i° E. 1040 rods, thence S.54.1° E. to Cedar “point; on Lee N. 16*°E. 5 miles and 66 rods; on Newmarket S. 803° E. 700 rods to a rock,thence S.561° E. 264 rods to the head of the creek, thence to Chelsey’s little island which is the S. corner boundary, thence by Great and Little bay to Cedar point, comprising an area of 14,970 acres. The N.H. turnpike from Portsmouth to Concord passes through this town. The first settled minister in Durham was the Rev. Hugh Adams, who was ordained in 1717, and dismissed in 1739. The Rev. Nicholas Gilman, Hugh Adams, and Curtis Coe have been his successors, all of them congregationalists. The compact part of the town, near the falls contains a handsome meeting-house, 37 dwelling-houses, and 7 stores and small shops. In this town resided Maj. Gen.Sullivan and Col.Adams of the revolutionary army, Hon. George Frost and Ebenezer Thompson were also citizens of Durham. The annual average number of deaths in this place for many ‘years past has been computed at less than 15. In Durham is situated that remarkable rock weighing 60 or 70 tons and lying so exactly poised on another rock as easily to be moved with one hand. Durham was included in Hilton’s patent which was granted in the year 1630. In September, 1675, the Indians made an attack at Oyster river, then a part of Dover and now constituting Durham. They burned two houses, killed several men and carried away two captives. Two days after this attack they made another, destroyed several houses and killed two persons. These repeated insults and depredations roused the indignation of our people and forced them to retaliate. About 20 young men, most of whom were from Dover, obtained permission from major Waldron to make an attempt against the Indians in their own way. Having scattered themselves in the woods, a division of them discovered a party of five Indians in the field near a deserted house, some of whom were gathering corn, while the others were preparing to roast it. Our people were at such a distance from their companions, that they could not make any signal to them without discovering themselves. Two of them crept silently toward the house and rushing suddenly upon the two Indians, who were busy at the fire, knocked them down with their guns. The other three took the alarm and escaped. In 1694, when a large part of the inhabitants had marched to the westward, the Indians who were dispersed in the woods about Oyster river, having diligently, observed the number of men in Hucking’s garrison, rushed upon eighteen of them, as they were going to their morning devotion, and having cut off their retreat to the house put them all to death except 1 who fortunately escaped. They then attacked the house, in which there were only two boys beside the women and children. The boys kept them off for sometime and wounded several of them. At length the Indians set fire to the house and even then the boys would not surrender till the Indians had promised to spare their lives. The latter however murdered three or four of the children, one of whom they fixed upon a sharp stake in the view of its mother. The women and children were carried captive, but one of the boys made his escape the next day. The next spring the Indians narrowly watched the frontiers to determine the safest and most vulnerable points of attack. The settlement at Oyster was selected for destruction, and preparations being at length completed following the incursion, Sieur de Villieu with a company of 250 Indians and a French priest marched for this devoted spot. Oyster river is the stream which falls into the west branch of the Piscataqua river just below the present site of Durham. The settlements were on both banks of the river. Here were twelve garrisoned houses amply sufficient for the reception of the inhabitants, but not apprehending any danger, many of the families remained in their unfortified houses, and those who were in the garrisons were but indifferently prepared for a siege, as they were destitute of powder. The enemy approached the place undiscovered and halted near the falls. Here they separated into two divisions, one of which was to go on each side of the river and plant itself in small parties in ambush near the houses and to be ready for the attack at sunrise, for which a single gun was to be the signal. One John Dean, whose house stood near the falls, happening to rise very early for a journey before the dawn of day, was shot as he came out of his door. This firing partially deranged the plan, as several parties who were at a distance, had not then arrived at their stations. The inhabitants also, being generally alarmed, some of them had time for escape and others to prepare for defence. The signal being thus given, the attack commenced on all points, where the enemy was ready. Of the twelve garrisoned houses five were destroyed, Adams’, Drew’s, Edgerly’s, Meader’s, and Beard’s. The enemy entered Adams’ without resistance where they murdered fourteen persons, whose graves can still be traced., Drew surrendered his garrison on promise of security but he was put to death. One of Iris children, only nine years old, was compelled to run through a line of Indians as a mark for their hatchets. Edgerly’s garrison was evacuated, the people having fled to their boats, one of whom was mortally wounded in attempting to escape. Beard’s and Meader’s were also evacuated and their inhabitants escaped. The unfortified houses were all set on fire, the people being either put to death or captured in them. Some escaped by concealing themselves in the bushes and elsewhere. Thomas Edgerly having hid himself in his cellar preserved his house though it was twice set on fire. The house of John Bass the minister was destroyed together with his valuable library. He waa absent at the time and his wife and family fled to the woods. The wife of John Dean who was the first person shot, was taken with her daughter and carried about two miles up the river, where they were left under the care of an old Indian, while his companions returned to their bloody work. The Indian complained of a pain in his head, and asked the woman what would relieve him, she replied, occapee, (which is the Indian name for rum) and of which she knew he had carried away a bottle from her house. The medicine being very agreeable to his taste he repeated the dose. He soon fell asleep from its effects and she seized the opportunity to escape into the woods, where she lay concealed till the danger was over. The other seven garrisons were resolutely and successfully defended. The gate of Burnham’s happened to be left open through the night. A man within, who had been kept awake by the toothache, hearing the alarm gun, roused the people and secured the entrance, just as the enemy had reached it. Finding themselves disappointed at this point, the Indians immediately ran to Pitman’s, a defenceless house and forced open the door at the. moment that he had burst his way through that end of the house, which adjoined the garrison, to which he and his family happily escaped. Their bloody purpose being thus a gain defeated, they attacked the house of John Davis, who after a short resistance surrendered on terms which were basely violated, as he and his whole family were either killed or made prisoners. Thomas Beckford preserved his house in a singular manner. It was situated near the river and surrounded by a palisade. Hearing the alarm before the enemy had reached his house, he sent off his family in a boat and then fastening his gate he undertook alone the defence of his house. Contemning alike the promises and threats of his besiegers, he kept up a constant fire at them, changing his dress as often as he could, and giving orders aloud, as if he had a company with him. Finding their exertions unavailing, the enemy withdrew, leaving Beckford the sole master of a fortress which he had defended with such admirable address. Three other garrisons, being seasonably apprized of the danger, were resolutely defended, and two Indians were killed in attacking them. Jones’ garrison, was surrounded before day, but its owner, hearing his dog bark and fearing that wolves were near, went out at that moment to secure some swine and returned uninjured. Having on his return ascended his wall, and observing the flash of a gun, he immediately dropped backward, and the ball entered the very place where he stood. The enemy from behind a.rock continued firing on the house for some time and then abandoned it. During these transactions the French priest took possession of the meeting-house and employed himself in writing on the pulpit with chalk, but the house itself received no damage. Those parties of the enemy, who were on the other side of the river, having completed their work of destruction, assembled in a field adjoining Burnham’s garrison, where they insultingly displayed their prisoners and derided the inhabitants, supposing themselves out of the reach of the guns, one of them was shot from the sentry box from the garrison. Both divisions having then met at the falls where they had separated the evening before, marched to Capt. Woodman’s garrison. The ground being broken and hilly, they made their approach without difficulty and kept up a continual fire at the hats and caps, which our people held on sticks above the wall. At length fearing that the inhabitants from the neighbouring settlements would collect against them, the Indians retreated, having killed or captured between 90 and 100 persons and destroyed 20 houses, 5 of which were garrisoned. Among the prisoners were Thomas Drew and his wife who were recently married. He, was taken to Canada, where he continued two years and was then ransomed. She was carried to Norridgewock, where she was detained four years and endured every thing but death. She was delivered of a child in the winter, unsheltered from the storms, and being unable to nurse it, the Indians put it to death. After her return to her husband she had a family of 14 children. She lived to the age of 89 and her husband to that of 93. They died within two days of each other and were buried in the same grave.
In 1703, the Indians made another incursion and killed one man. In 1704, several persons were murdered by them, and in 1705, a small party attacked the house of John Drew, where they put eight people to death and wounded several others. The garrison was near but was at that time without a man in it. The women, finding their case desperate, put on the hats of their husbands and dressed themselves in other respects like men, and by keeping up a brisk fire, they actually drove the enemy off, before they had plundered or even attacked the house. John Wheeler accosting this party and mistaking them for friendly Indians, unfortunately fell into their power and was killed, together with his wife and four children. Two of his sons secreted themselves in a cove by the bank of the river. In 1707, two men were captured from Durham, and two Others were murdered as they were on a journey from that town to Dover. In 1707, a party of Mohawks attacked a company of our men who were at work in the woods under the direction of Capt. Chesley. At the first fire they killed seven and wounded another. Chesley, with his few surviving companions continued a brisk fire on the enemy, and for some time kept them off, but he at length fell, overpowered by numbers. He was deeply lamented as a brave officer. In 1724, the Indians made another incursion into this town, formed an ambush near the road and murdered several persons. The family of Col. John Davis of this town (who died at the age of 88,) were equally remarkable for longevity and superior, stature. Five of them lived till the age of 85, and one to that of 99.
EAST-KINGSTON, a township in Rockingham county, situated in the southerly part of that county. It was incorporated in 1733, and contains 442 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Exeter, E. by Kingston, S. by Southampton, and W. and N. W. by Kingston, and contains 6,200 acres of excellent land. Powow river crosses the S. W. extremity of this town. The Rev. Peter Coffin was settled here in 1772, and has long since removed. There is here but one meeting-house. This town contains 3 corn-mills and 2 saw-mills. From the year 1740 to 1771, the deaths in this town were 283, making an annual average of about nine. The greatest number in any one year was 21, and the smallest number 2. Since 1771, the proportion has remained nearly the same.
EATON, a township in the northerly part of Strafford county, incorporated in 1766, and containing in 1810, 535 inhabitants ; bounded N. by Conway, E. by the eastern line of the state, S. by Ossipee Gore, and W. by Tamworth, containing about 27,637 acres. There are several ponds in this town ; Six Miles pond, in the western part of the town, Cook’s, Little, Blair’s, etc.; and in the S. E. extremity of the town rises Legion mountain. There are 5 saw-mills, 5 grain-mills, and 1 clothing-mill. Elder Jackson is the only settled minister here.
EFFINGHAM, a township in Strafford county, incorporated in 1678, and now containing 876 inhabitants : bounded N. W. by Ossipee Gore, E. by the state line, which separates it from Parsonsfield, S. E. by Wakefield, and S. W. by Ossipee, comprising an area of 34,938 acres. The great Ossipee river passes through this town in a westerly course, over which is here a toll bridge 500 feet in length. There is a pond near this river 400 rods long and 270 wide. ‘ On the western side of this town lie the Green mountains. Rev. G. Burt was ordained here in 1803, and dismissed soon after. There are in Effingham three religious societies and 2 meetinghouses, 4 grain-mills, 4 sawmills, a clothing-mill, and a carding-machine.
ELLIS RIVER rises on the easterly side of the White hills in several small streams, near the source of Peabody river, and separating into two streams which unite in Adams, empties into the Saco at Bartlett.
ELLSWORTH, a township of mountainous land in Grafton county, bounded’ N. by Peeling, E. by Thornton, S. by Rumney, and W. by Warren. Its whole population is 142, and its area 15,606 acres. There is a small pond in the S. E. part of the town, from which a stream flows into Pemigewasset river, and in the north part of the town is situated Cat mountain. There is here 1 corn-mill and 1 saw-mill.
ENFIELD, a township in the lower part of Grafton county, incorporated in 1761, and now containing 1291 inhabitants. It is bounded N. E. by Canaan, S. E. by Grafton, S. W. by Cheshire county line which divides it from New-Grantham, and W. by Lebanon, comprising in this space 24,060 acres. On the N. W. side of this town lies the greatest part of Mascoma pond, which is about 1100 rods long and 250 wide. There are here also East pond, Maid pond, and several smaller ones, in the whole comprising 2210 acres of water. The fourth N. H. turnpike leading to Lyman’s bridge passes between Mascoma pond and the mountain. At the west end of the pond stands the principal village, containing 30 or 40 dwelling-houses and a handsome meeting-house. There is also a village of the shakers at the S. E. end of the mountain near a small pond, Stony brook runs through the south part of the
pond, and Mascoma river falls into the pond of that name. Enfield contains 4 grain-mills, 5 saw-mills, 1 clothing-mill, 2 carding-machines, and an oil-mill.
EPPING, a town in Rockingham county, (formerly a part of Exeter,) incorporated in 1639, and now containing a population of 1182. It is bounded N. by Nottingham and Lee, E. by Newmarket and Brentwood, S. by Brentwood and Poplin, and W. by Nottingham and Raymond, and contains 12,760 acres. Lamprey river passes through Epping entering its southwest corner. In this town Patuckaway and North rivers fall into Lamprey river, the former in its western and the latter at its southeast part. On these streams are 4 grain-mills, 6 saw-mills, and 1 clothing-mill. The soil of Epping is excellently adapted to almost all sorts of grain, grass, flax, etc. In the orchard of Capt. Towle of this town there is an apple-tree which in one year produced between 50 and 60 bushels. The first minister of Epping was the Rev. Mr. Cutler who was ordained in 1747. Rev. Josiah Stearns, his successor, was ordained in 1758, and died in 1790. Rev. Peter Holt, the present minister, was ordained in 1793. In Epping there are 4 meeting-houses and 8 school-houses. In the revolutionary war there were ten died among those who went from this town. The annual average number deaths is about 13.
EPSOM, a township in Rockingham county, bounded N. by Pittsfield, E. by Northwood, S. by Allenstown, and W. by Pembroke and Chichester. It contains about 19,200 acres, and in 1810 its population was 1156. Suncook river passes through the westerly part of Epsom and receives Little Suncook from several small ponds in Northwood. The Rev. John Tuck was ordained here in 1761, and was succeeded by the Rev. E. Hazeltine who died in 1813. Rev. J. Curtis was settled in 1815, and is the present minister. The principal village in Epsom contains about 20 houses, a congregational meeting-house, a school-house, and several small stores. This town, like most others of its size in the state, has several religious societies. There are here many valuable mill seats. There are 7 grain-mills, 9 saw-mills, 2 clothing-mills, 2 carding-machines, and a cotton factory. Maj. Andrew M’Clary, a native of this town, fell at the battle of Breed’s hill on June 17, 1775, after defending with a few companions a temporary entrenchment thrown up a few hours before. Attacked by an overpowering force of the enemy they retreated about one mile. The major in this action displayed great bravery and presence of mind. Inflamed by an ardent patriotism, like the Roman Camillus, he left his plough on the first intelligence of war, and volunteered in the cause of his brethren, in which he was soon called to a command which he executed to his lasting honour.
ERROL, a township in Coos county, situated on the western branch of Umbagog lake. It was incorporated in 1774, and contains only 38 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Wentworth’s location, E. by the district of Maine, S. by Success and Paulsburgh, and W. by Millsfield, and contains 35,400 acres, 2,800 of which are water. Margallaway and Clear streams here unite with another stream flowing from Umbagog lake, and form in junction Ameriscoggin river. From the centre of this town to Stratford on Connecticut river the distance is 25 miles.
ERVING’S LOCATION is in Coos county, 118 miles from Portsmouth, bounded N. by Dixville, E. by Millsfield, and W. by Columbia and ungranted lands No. 1.
EXETER, called Swamscot by the aborigines, an ancient post town in Rockingham county, pleasantly situated at the head of tide waters and navigation on the southwest branch of Piscataqua river, and equidistant from the metropolis and Newburyport in Essex county, Massachusetts. Exeter was incorporated in the year 1639, and contained according to the last census, 1759 inhabitants. The township is of an irregular figure, of an area of 11,800 acres, and has for its boundaries Newmarket N. by E.; Stratham E. and N. E.; Hampton and Hampton-falls S. E.; Kensington S.; and Brentwood on the W. Exeter Fresh river takes its rise from a small pond in Sandown, running thence on the corners of Hawke and Poplin, thence into Chester and thence again into Poplin, Raymond, Brentwood, and Exeter, near what are termed Pickpocket mills, pursuing from thence an easterly course till within one mile of the falls where it receives Little river from the west, and mingles shortly after with the tide waters of the Swamscot, in the midst of a fine trading and manufacturing settlement. Exeter is the second considerable town in the state, 50 miles N. of Boston, and 402 N. E. of Philadelphia. It has a bank with a capital of two hundred thousand dollars. It was formerly the seat of government, and many of the public offices of the state are still kept here. The public edifices are two congregational churches, a baptist meeting-house, an elegant academy, a handsome courthouse, and a gaol. Beside the celebrated Phillips Exeter Academy there are here two English schools and ten or a dozen private schools chiefly for females. It is well situated for a manufacturing town, and has 2 fulling-mills, 2 carding-machines, 2 oil-mills, a woolen factory, 2 extensive cotton factories, a spinning and weaving factory, a tin ware, comb, and morocco factory, a gin distillery, iron works, a manufactory of ordnance and small arms, a paper mill, a great number of saw and gristmills, a printing-office, bookstore, book-bindery, etc. etc. The saddlery, shoe-making and chaise-making business is also carried on here to a very great extent. In 1776, Col. Samuel Hobart erected a powder-mill in this town capable of manufacturing 2,400 pound of powder per week. It is not now in operation. Before the revolution ship-building was an extensive and profitable branch of business here, and vessels of five-hundred tons burden were built and floated down the fiver to Portsmouth and sold, or employed in the West-India trade. Since the last war it has altogether declined. Specimens of bog iron ore and some considerable copper pyrites have been discovered in this town. Vitriol also, combined in the same stone with sulphur, is found in its neighbourhood. In the year 1789, the remains of an Indian skeleton were dug up on the east side of the river in this town. It was in a perpendicular position and enclosed in a birchen hollow log. Some strings of wampum and twelve spoons, apparently of European manufacture, were found near it. The skull was entire, the teeth remained in the jaws, and the hair, which was long, straight, and black, had suffered neither decay nor injury. Phillips Exeter Academy in this town is a highly respectable, useful, and flourishing institution. It was founded by the Hon. John Phillips, LL.D. in 1781. A part of its funds is appropriated to the support of candidates for the ministry or indigent scholars recommended for their genius and learning. There are in this academy nearly 80 scholars. It has a well selected library and a handsome philosophical apparatus. The board of trustees consists of seven gentlemen, of whom the Hon. J. T. Gilman is president. The immediate instruction of the students is entrusted to a principal, a professor of mathematics and natural philosophy, and an assistant. The Rev. John Wheelwright the principal settler of this town, in 1638, removed from Braintree, (Mass.) then a part of Boston, where he was settled in the ministry. In the same year he united with several others in making a settlement in Exeter. He was a gentleman of talents, piety and learning. The Indians did not commence their depredations against this place till the year 1675, at which time they killed several persons here. In July, 1690, Col. Winthrop Hilton’s garrison in this place was attacked and some lives were lost. In June, 1697, this town was preserved in a remarkable manner from a deep laid plot which the Indians had formed against it. The enemy were planted in ambush near the town, and were discovered by some children who had ventured from home without a guard. The savages retreated without the loss on our side of more than one person. In 1710, Col. Winthrop Hilton with a party of his neighbours, while at work in a field situate in that part of Exeter which is now called Epping, were attacked by the Indians, who barbarously murdered the colonel with two of his party, and captured two others. Emboldened with this success the enemy immediately entered the settlement and killed several other persons, some of whom were children.
FARMINGTON in Strafford county was formerly a part of Rochester. It was incorporated in 1722, and in 1810, contained 1272 inhabitants; bounded N. E. by Milton, S. E. by Rochester, S.W. by Barrington, and N. W. by New-Durham, comprising 20,811 acres. Cochecho river flows through the N.E. part of this town, and the Frost mountains extend through it from N. to S. From the summit of this ridge, called Mount Washington, the seacoast and a large part of the state may be seen. There is in this town a handsome meeting-house, several mills, and trading stores.
FISHERSFIELD, a township in Hillsborough county, incorporated in 1778, and now containing 563 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by New-London, E. by Sutton, S. by Bradford, and W. by Cheshire county line which divides it from Goshen and Wendell, comprising an area of 19,332 ‘acres. In the north part of the town lies Sunapee pond. Todd pond is on its southerly side. The latter is about 500 rods long and 60 wide. The westerly side of the town is broken and elevated, but most of its land is suited for grazing. There is in this town a baptist meeting-house, 8 or 10 mills, and 3 stores.
FITZWILLIAM, a township in Cheshire county, situated on the southerly line of the state, which separates it from Royalston and Winchendon in Massachusetts. It is hounded by Richmond on the W., Marlborough on the N., and Jaffrey and Rindge on the E., and contains 26,900 acres, 400 of which are water. In this town lies South pond, which is 320 rods long and 90 wide in its narrowest part; and also Sip’s pond, 200 rods long and 100 wide. Fitzwilliam was incorporated in 1773, and its population is now 1310. It is situated on the height of land south of the Monadnock mountain, and its surface is hilly. The soil is rocky but well adapted to grass and to the cultivation of various kinds of grain. The low lands are covered with pine, hemlock, and spruce. There are here also some valuable and productive meadows. Near the centre of the town is a large hill remarkable for the beautifully romantic prospect which it affords; and in the northwest part of the town is Gap mountain, which at a distance appears to be part of the Monadnock, and on which are found the common substances called whetstones. About half a mile north of the centre of the town four turnpike roads meet, viz. one from Keene, one from ‘Winchester, one to Templeton, and one to Ashby, (Mass.) ; the two last lead to Boston. There is a village here comprising about 20 houses, a meeting-house, 3 stores, and several mechanics’ shops. At the south end of South pond an enterprising citizen opened a canal through the bank of the pond at some distance from its natural outlet, and erected upon it a grist-mill, which promises to be productive and useful. At the north extremity of the town there is a village of about 15 houses, besides a grain-mill, a fulling-mill, and a carding-machine. Several looms and machines for spinning wool have been in operation here during the past summer.
The first church in this town was formed on the 27th of March, 1771, on congregational principles, over which the Rev. Benj. Brigham was ordained pastor. This gentleman died on the 11th of June, 1799, in the 58th year of his age and the 29th of his ministry. His successor was the Rev. Stephen Williams, who was dismissed in November, 1802. The Rev. John Sabin, the present minister of the place, was ordained on the 6th of March, 1805. Brig. Gen. James Reed, a revolutionary officer, was a citizen of this town, and reflected honour upon it by his courage as a soldier and his excellences as a man. The average annual number of deaths in this town for the last seven years has been about 14. In the year 1812, 16 persons died here of the throat distemper.
Fox POINT. (See Newington.)
FRANCESTOWN, a town in Hillsborough county, bounded N. by Deering, E. by New-Boston, S. by Lyndeborough and Greenfield, and W. by Greenfield, and containing 18, 760 acres, of which 660 are water. In 1810 its population was 1451. This town derived its name from Frances, the wife of Gov. John Wentworth. It was incorporated in 1772, and then included what was once called New-Boston-Addition, together with a part of Society Land and Lyndeborough. The soil here is uneven and stony, but its qualities are warm and moist. There are some small intervales which are very productive. The original growth here was beech, birch, red oak, maple, hemlock, and pine. There are many springs in the town, and on its easterly side is Haunted pond, about 300 rods long and 225 wide; and also Pleasant pond, about 350 rods square, in which the 4th branch of Piscataqua river has its rise. The highest land in this town is Crotched mountain, the summit of which is more than 600 feet above the plain in the centre of the town. About half way up this mountain there is a small pond, always full and yet always of a shallow depth. One of the summits of this mountain is covered with woods, the other is almost a solid ledge of rocks, affording a very extensive prospect to the southwest. The second N. H. turnpike passes through this town near its centre in a southerly direction. Another important road, leading from the southwesterly part of the state to Concord, crosses the turnpike in this town. The first permanent settlement here was made about the year 1760, by one Carson, a Scotchman. In 1773, the inhabitants had so increased by emigration, chiefly from Dedham, (Mass.) that a congregational church was gathered here by the Rev. Samuel Cotton, minister of Litchfield. It consisted at first of 18 members, and in 1792 of 148, since which time a large number has been added. No other religious society has ever existed in this town excepting a small one of Scotch presbyterians, which in 1792, united with the congregationalists. Rev. Moses Bradford is the first and only minister ever settled in this place. He was ordained in September, 1790, and to his exertions is the town in a great measure indebted for its respectable character and its prosperous condition. From its settlement to 1790, the whole number of deaths was about 100. From 1790 to May, 1814, the deaths amounted to 401, a large proportion of whom were infants. In 1812, thirty-three persons died here of the dysentery; the whole number of deaths in that year was 45. Exclusive of the ordinary proportion of other mechanical business, there are here four large tanneries, a manufactory of musical instruments, and one of earthen ware. The compact part of the town consists of about 25 dwelling-houses, with a handsome meeting-house, several stores, etc. There are also 7 school-houses. The school committee in March, 1814, reported that exclusive of the small scholars who attend in the summer only, there were in these schools during the past winter, 450 scholars, of whom 82 were in the study of English grammar. The farmers of this town have recently paid increased attention to the raising of sheep. The introduction of the merino breed has become an interesting and profitable concern. There are two flocks of sheep in this town, containing in them both more than 600. The agricultural and general condition of this place has of late been flourishing. A mail stage passes through Francestown twice a week to and from Boston. There are here two quarries of free stone, one in the easterly and one in the southerly part of the town. The former was discovered in 1813. It is not extensive, and has not been much worked. The latter is productive, and probably inexhaustible. It was first worked about ten years ago. Its colour is white, mingled with a dark shade. It is easily manufactured with the saw or chisel, and is susceptible of a high polish. Although of a soft nature, it is very adhesive and heavy, 12 cubic feet weighing one ton. After it is prepared at the quarry, it is sold for $1,42 cts. per cubic foot. It is used for hearths, stoves, etc. In several parts of this town, large rocks of a globular form are found directly poised on the surface of others. Curiosities of this kind, of which the cause is certainly mysterious, are common to many places in this state. Clay of a superior quality for bricks is found in large quantities in this town, and in some spots there have been seen strong indications of iron ore. Indeed several large pieces of good purity have been found. Richard, who has long resided in this town, was captured by the Indians during the last French war in the year 1756._ Although guarded by two warriors, he was able by superior strength and agility to effect his escape, but not without the loss of all his clothes. He wandered entirely naked between the lakes George and Champlain for six days, eating nothing but berries and bark. To elude his pursuers he was obliged to swim across the Hudson river three times. He is now living in good health at the age of 77.
FRANCONTA, (formerly Morristown,) lies in the upper part of Grafton county, near the western side of the White mountains which form its eastern boundary. Lincoln and Landaff are its southern, Concord its western, and Bethlehem its northern boundary. The great Hay Stack mountain is on the southeasterly extremity of this town, and French and other mountains are within its limits. It contains 32,948 acres. Several branches of the great Amonoosuck rise in these mountains and pass through this town. Franconia was incorporated in 1760, and in 1810, contained 358 inhabitants. There is here an extensive iron factory establishment. The company was incorporated December 18th, 1805, and is composed principally of Boston and Salem gentlemen. The works, consist of a blast furnace with a reservoir of water near the top as a precaution against fire, an air furnace, a steel furnace, a pounding machine to separate the iron from the cinders, a forge with four fires and two hammers, a turning lathe, and a trip-hammer shop with four fires and two hammers. There are also in this town a powder magazine, a saw-mill, a grist-mill, 10 or 12 dwelling houses, a store, and a warehouse. Most of the ore wrought here is conveyed from Concord mountain about 3 miles from the furnace. There is also a large tract of coaling ground belonging to the company, and a highly impregnated mineral spring about two miles from the furnace. Not very far from this establishment are the upper works, called ” the Haverhill and Franconia iron works,” which were incorporated in 1808. These are built on the same plan as the former, but their operations are not as yet so extensive.
GILFORD, a township in Strafford county, formerly a part of Gilmanton, incorporated in 1727, and now containing about 1200 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Winnipiseogee lake, E. by Alton, S. by. Gilmanton, and W. by a long bay which divides it from Gilmanton. There are here several large mountains. The summits of two of them are within 200 rods of each other, and about 2000 feet above the level of the town. On the southerly part of Gunstock mountain is Suncook pond, which forms the northerly source of Suncook river. Gilford has two meeting-houses, which belong to no particular denomination of christians, 3 trading stores, 4 grain-mills, 3 saw-mills, and a carding-machine. The free will baptists have here a large church and society under the care of Elder Richard Martin, an aged and respectable minister. There is also a society of the regular baptists under the care of Elder Morrison. At Meredith bridge, which unites this town to Meredith, is a handsome village containing about 25 dwelling-houses, stores, etc. A meeting-house was lately erected here by the inhabitants of the two towns for the common use of all orders of christians.
GILMANTON, a township in Strafford county, incorporated in 1727, and containing in 1810, 4,338 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Gilford, E. by Alton, S. E. by Barnstead, S. W. by Rockingham line, and N.W. by Winnipiseogee lake and bay which separates it from Sanbornton, comprising an area of 58,448 acres. Suncook river rises here in a pond of that name on Gilford line, the waters of which fall into another pond of the same name, which is larger than the former, being about 350 rods long and 175 wide. From thence it falls into a third pond of the same name 500 rods long and half as wide. There are several smaller ponds in this town, in one of which is the source of Bow Cook river. There are in Gilmanton 5 meeting-houses, 20 schoolhouses, a court house, a cotton factory, a nail factory, 9 grain-mills, 10 saw-mills, 2 clothing-mills, a carding-machine, an oil-mill, and 9 trading stores. A handsome academy was incorporated and built here in 1794, and opened for the reception of students December,1797. It has generally from 30 to 50 students. Its funds are about $5000, raised by subscription. There is here a congregational church and society recently under the charge of the Rev. Isaac Smith, who died in March, 1817. There are several baptist societies, and one of friends. One term of the common pleas fur the 1st district, is holden here annually. Hon. Joseph Badger, who settled in this town in the year 1760, was its first magistrate, and was high 3 instrumental in its growth and prosperity. He was for many years judge of probate, and resigned that office at the age of 70.
GILSOM, a township in Cheshire county, incorporated in 1763, and now containing 513 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Alstead and Marlow, E. by Sullivan and Stoddard, S. by Keene, and W. by Surry. The eastern branch of Ashuelot river passes through this town. Gilsum has 1 meetinghouse, 2 grain-mills, and 2 sawmills. Elisha Fish who died in 1807, was its first ordained minister. The annual average number of deaths in this town is not more than 6. In 1813, 10 died here of the spotted fever.
GOFFSTOWN in Hillsborough county, is situated on the westerly side of Merrimack river, it is bounded N. by Dunbarton, E. by Merrimack river, S. by Bedford, and W. by New-Boston and part of Weare, and contains 29,170 acres. It was incorporated in 1761, and in 1810, contained 2000 inhabitants. In the S. W. extremity of the town are the two Unconoonock mountains, and in the S. E. part is the Amoskeag bridge and falls. Piscataquog river passes through this place. In 1771, Rev. Joseph Currier was settled here in the congregational order. Cornelius Waters and D.L. Morrill, have been his successors. There are in this town 2 religious societies, 1 meeting-house, 8 trading-stores, 1 cotton factory containing about 30 spindles, 7 grain-mills, 20 saw-mills, 2 clothing-mills, and 2 carding-machines.
GOSHEN, a township in Cheshire county, incorporated in 1791, and in 1810, containing 563 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Newport and Wendell, E. by the county of Hillsborough, S. by Washington,and W. by Lempster and Unity, and contains 12,023 acres. Little Sugar river waters the north part of the town. Sunapee mountain lies between Goshen and Fishersfield. Croydon turnpike passes through the west part of the town to Connecticut river. There is here 1 grain-mill, 2 saw-mills, 1 clothing-mill, – and 1 distillery.
GRAFTON COUNTY is bounded W. by the west branch of Connecticut river, S. by the counties of Cheshire and Hillsborough, E. by Strafford, and N. by Coos. Beginning at Connecticut river, at the west extremity of Dalton and running on the west and south line of Dalton to Whitefield, thence on the west and south line of Whitefield to Bretton Woods, thence on the west and south line of Bretton Woods to the southeast extremity of Weare, thence south in a straight line across unlocated lands to the county of Strafford at the northerly corner of Tamworth, thence on the north and west line of Sandwich and on the south line of Holderness to Pemigewasset river, thence down that river to the N. E. extremity of New-Andover, thence on the northerly line of that town and on the northeasterly line of New-London to the N. E. extremity of Springfield, thence on the northerly line of Springfield, New-Grantham, and Plainfield to Connecticut river, and thence by that river to the place first mentioned. This county contains 35 townships and a large quantity of unlocated land. Its population by the last census was 28,462, of whom 4,837 were rateable polls. There are in this county 29 stud-horses, 3827 other horses, 286 four years old, and 998 more than two years old, 3522 oxen, 1308 four years old, 9981 cows, 50,084 three years old cattle, and 6107 over two years old. In 1812, there were also in this county 52 mules and 3 jacks, and 577 acres of orchard.
Grafton county contains 36 houses for public worship, 1 academy, 83 grain-mills, 118 saw-mills, 24 mills for dressing cloth, 35 carding-machines, 1 paper-mill, 49 trading-stores, 21 distilleries, and 1 oil-mill. The county prison is at Haverhill, and the superior and inferior courts hold alternate sessions there and at Plymouth. The probate courts are holden at Haverhill, Plymouth, Hanover, Bridgewater, and Enfield.
GRAFTON, a township in the county of that name, lies about 13 miles southeast from Dartmouth college. It was incorporated in 1773, and now contains 931 inhabitants. It is bounded N. E. by Orange, S. E. by Cushing’s Gore S.W. by the line of Cheshire county which separates it from Springfield, and N. W. by Enfield and a part of Canaan, and contains 21,993 acres. Branches of Smith’s river water the easterly part of the town, and Mascomy river its west part. There are here 2 baptist meeting-houses, 6 grain-mills, 6 sawn mills, 1 clothing mill, 2 carding-machines, 2 stores, and 1 distillery. That species of mineral, (lassis specularis) commonly called isinglass, is found in a state of great purity in Glass hill mountain in this town. It adheres in the form of lamina to rocks of white and yellow quartz. The usual size of these lamina is, about 6 inches square, but some have been found 18 inches. This glass when prepared is transported to Boston, and from thence large quantities are exported to England, probably for ship lanterns. It is found on the easterly side of the mountain, which is about 200 feet high. Many people are employed every summer in collecting it.
GREAT BAY. The western branch of Piscataqua river is formed by Swamscot river, which flows from Exeter, Winnicot river which comes from Greenland, and Lamprey river which divides Newmarket from Durham ; these streams empty into a bay 4 miles wide, called Great Bay. The water in its further progress is contracted into a lesser bay, and there receives Oyster river from Durham, and Black river from Dover. The Whole branch at length meets the main stream at Hilton’s point. The tide flows into all these streams as far as the lower falls in each, and forms a very rapid current, especially at the seasons of the freshets, when the ebb continues about two hours longer than the flood. Piscataqua bridge is thrown over the lower extremity of Little bay. Newington lies on the eastern shore of this bay, Stratham and Greenland on the southern, and Durham on the northern shore.
GREAT ISLAND. (See New-Castle.)