STRATFORD, in Coos, county, was incorporated in 1773, and contains 339 inhabitants; bounded N. by Columbia, E. by ungranted lands No. 1., S. by Piercy and Northumberland, and W. by the Connecticut river, which separates it from Brunswick in Vermont. Its area is 48,931 acres. This town is watered by Roaring-brook, Strong’s brook, and Bay brook, Bow-back mountain, Peak’s mountain, and several others are in this town. Stratford has one meeting-house belonging to methodists, Rev. C. Sumner was settled here in 1773. In 1775, this town had only 40 inhabitants, and in 1790, there were 150.
STRATHAM, in Rockingham county, lies on the E. side of the western branch of Piscataqua river and in 1810, contained 876 inhabitants; bounded N. by Greenland, S.E. by Greenland & Northampton, S. W.by Exeter, and W. and N. W. by the river and bay, which separate it from Exeter and Newmarket. Its area is 10,120 acres. There are here 2 religious societies, 1 of baptists and the other of congregationalists, each of them has a meeting-house. There are in this town 4 grain-mills, 3 saw-mills, and 1 clothing-mill. This town was part of the grant to Edward Hilton in 1650, called Squamscot patent. The charter of Stratham was dated March 20th, 1716, and signed by George Vaughan than lieutenant-governor. The first town-meeting was on the 10th of Apnl, 1716, Deacon David Robinson was chosen town clerk and held that office 47 nears. Rev. Henry Rust was ordained here in 1718, Rev. Joseph Adams in 1747, and Rev. James Miltimore in 1786, the latter gentleman has since removed. Elder S. Shepard was settled over the baptists in 1771. At present there is no settled minister in the town. From the year 1798 to 1812, inclusive, the number of deaths in this town was 186. The greatest number in any one year was 20, and the smallest number 5, averaging about 12 annually. Between the years 1742, and 1797, inclusive, the number of deaths was 1080, averaging about 20 annually. Stratham lies about 8 miles from the sea. The land is even and well calculated for agricultural purpose’s. Farming is so exclusively the employment of the town, that, although a navigable river adjoins it, there is not a wharf, vessel or boat belonging to the place. In the easterly part of the town, is perhaps the largest repository of peat in the state. It is a meadow commonly known by the name of Temple meadow or swamp. This at some future day will probably become a valuable resource. In 1807, a bridge was erected connecting this town with Newmarket. It cost about S6,000, and, the toll amounts annually to about 5700. In the revolutionary war this town lost 23 of its inhabitants.
SUCCESS, an unsettled township in Coos county, incorporated in 1773, and bounded N. by Cambridge, E. by the District of Maine, S. by Shelburne, and N. W. by Maynesborough, comprising 29,813 acres.
In this town rises Narmargungimack river from a pond about 350 rods long and 225 wide, near the line of the state. Live river also has its source in this town.
SUGAR RIVER flows from the west side of Sunapee lake, and passing westerly into Newport, receives several branches from the north, and thence entering Claremont, falls into Connecticut river five or six miles below Cornish bridge. It is in contemplation to unite this river with the Contoocook by a canal, (see Sunapee lake.)
SULLIVAN, a township in Cheshire county, was incorporated in 1787, and contains 516 inhabitants; bounded N. by Gilsum and Stoddard, E. by Stoddard and Nelson, S. by Roxbury and Keene, and W. by Keene and Gilsum, comprising 12,212 acres. This town is watered by Ashuelot river, and has 2 religious societies, 1 meetinghouse, and a settled minister. There are here 2 saw-mills and 1 grain-mill.
SUNCOOK RIVER has the source of its northern branch in a pond, which forms part of the boundary between Gilmanton and Gilford, and passing through the easterly part of Gilmanton, it receives the two Suncook ponds and also Small’s pond near the line of Alton. It thence enters Barnstead, where it passes through two other ponds of its own name, and receives the waters of Half moon and Brindle ponds. Just below these ponds it receives a branch from Barrington, called Little Suncook river, and another from Wild goose pond in the northeast part of Pittsfield. It thence flows through Pittsfield into Epsom where it receives an eastern branch from Suncook pond in Northwood. From this junction it flows 8 or 10 miles through Epsom and between Allenstown and Pembroke, and empties its waters into the Merrimack below Concord near the southern extremity of Allenstown. There is a great variety of mills on this river and its branches. (See Pembroke.)
SUNAPEE LAKE lies partly in Wendell, (Cheshire county,) and partly in Fishersfield, (Hillsborough county.) It is eleven miles long and about one mile and a half wide. Its outlet is on its west side through Sugar river. A canal has been contemplated to connect the Connecticut and Merrimack river, and this lake has been proposed as the reservoir, it being situated on the height of land between the two rivers. It now discharges its waters through Sugar river into the Connecticut. This would undoubtedly be the western course of the projected canal, but as to its eastern route there are differences of opinion. The most advantageous course has been said to be through Herrick’s cove and Small pond in its vicinity, and thence through Keazer’s pond near the north meeting-house in Sutton, and thence through Steven’s brook into Warner’s river, which empties into the Merrimack.
SURRY, a township in Cheshire county, incorporated in 1769, and now containing 564 inhabitants; bounded N. by Alstead, E. by Gilsum, S. by Keene, and W. by Westmoreland and Walpole, comprising 7,917 acres. Ashuelot river flows through this town, and is here between 80 and 100 feet wide. There is one pond in this town, which is near the summit of a mountain. Through Surry the turn
pike passes from Chester to Keene. Rev. B. Dalling, the first minister in this place, was settled in 1788. Rev. P. Howe is the present minister. There is here one religious society and a meeting-house, 2 grain-mills, 2 saw-mills, 1 clothing-mill, 1 carding-machine, 1 distillery, and 2 trading stores.
SUTTON, a township in Hillsborough county, was incorporated in 1784, and contains 1328 inhabitants; bounded N. by New-London, E. by Kearsarge Gore and Boscawen, S. by Warner and Bradford, and W. by Fishersfield, comprising 24,300 acres, 280 of which are water. Long pond in this town is 350 rods long and 80 wide. Hazen’s pond is about 150 rods in diameter. A branch, of Warner’s river flows through this town. Kearsarge mountain extends almost over the whole length of Sutton on its west side. Kearsarge hills are also in the same part of the town. On these high lands and in the meadows at their feet are found beds of excellent clay. Here also are found quarries of stones remarkable for their shape and qualities. They are prepared with little labour for hearths, etc. The soil in this town presents all the varieties of productiveness and sterility; and, though the surface is diversified with a continued succession of hills and vales, and is often rough and mountainous, excellent crops of wheat are raised here, as well as the other staple produetions of the state.
In 1798, a mineral resembling black lead was found in this town, and it has been ascertained to produce a durable and handsome slate colour. The principal road passing through Sutton is from Hopkinton to Dartmouth college. The prevailing sect here, are baptists, over whom Elder S. Ambrose was ordained in l782. Elder Taylor is also settled in this town. There are here 2 meeting-houses, 3 grain-mills, 2 saw-mills, 2 clothing-mills, 1 carding-machine, and 3 trading stores. The annual average number of deaths in this town for the last 10 years has been 12. Two persons lately died here, one over 99, and the other over 100 years of age.
SWAMSCOT RIVER IS the Indian name of Exeter river as far as the head of the tide, which is in the compact settlement of the town of Exeter. (See Exeter.)
SWANZEY,a township in Cheshire county, was incorporated in 1753, and now contains 1400 inhabitants; bounded N. by Keene, E. by Marlborough and Fitzwilliam, S. by Richmond, and W. by Winchester and Chesterfield: its area is 28,057 acres, 200 of which are water, Swanzey pond is 1 mile long
and 100 rods wide. Ashuelot river in its passage through this town has a breadth of 6 or 8 rods. The branch turnpike crosses the northeast extremity of the town. There are here 3 religious societies, 2 meeting-houses, 2 small villages, a cotton factory, distillery, carding-machine, 4 grain-mills, 12 saw-mills, and 3 clothing-mills. Rev. T. Harrington was the first minister of this town. He has been succeeded by Rev. Messrs. Carpenter and Goddard. Elder Cutler is the only minister here at present.
SWIFT RIVER has its source among the mountains in the ungranted lands northwest of Whiteface mountain, and 6 or 8 miles from Sandwich. It takes an easterly course through Burton into Conway, where it empties into Saco river. There is another small river of the same name in Tamworth.
TAMWORTH, a township in Strafford county, was incorporated in 1766, and contains 1134 inhabitants ; bounded N. by Burton, E. by Eaton, S.by Ossipee, and W. by Sandwich, comprising 28,917 acres.
Bear Camp river is the only considerable stream in this town. This has an easterly course into Ossipee pond. The rapidity of its current in times of freshets renders it almost useless for the purposes of mills. Swift river in this town is a fine stream and affords many valuable mill seats. A nail factory and a carding-machine are erected on it. Conway river falls into Bear Camp river near the centre of Tamworth. It has its source in Burton and passes through Conway pond. This is also a valuable stream for mills. A few rods from the meeting-house in this town, is a remarkable rock called ordination rock, it being memorable as the place where the Rev. S. Hidden was ordained September 12th, 1792. Its summit was sufficiently large to accodomate the minister and the whole of the council. There is in Tamworth a large church and society under the pastoral charge of Mr. Hidden. There is also a free-will baptist society here under Elder Webster. There are in this town
TEMPLE, a township in Hillsborough county, was incorporated in 1788, and contains 941 inhabitants; bounded N. by Greenfield, E. by Lyndeborough and Wilton, S. by New-Ipswich and Mason, and W. by Sharon and Peterborough, comprising 13,700 acres. Several streams which fall into Sowhegan river, rise among the mountains in the westerly part of this town. The principal road from Amherst to Peterborough passes through this town. There is here 1 congregational society and 1 meeting-house, 4 grain-mills, 3 saw-mills, and 1 fulling-mill. Rev. S. Webster was ordained here in 1771, and Rev. Noah Miles, his successor, in 1779.
THORNTON, a township in Grafton county, was incorporated in 1781, and now contains 794 inhabitants; bounded N. and N. W. by Peeling, N. E. by Thornton’s Gore, S. by Campton, and W. by Ellsworth. Its area including Thornton’s Gore is 28,490 acres. This Gore is bounded E. by ungranted lands, and N. W. by Lincoln. Pemigewasset river flows through this town from north to south. The main road from Lancaster to Plymouth passes through Thornton. There are here 2 religious societies and 1 meeting-house, in which Rev. E. Esterbrook was the first ordained minister.
TUFTONBOROUGH, a township in Strafford county, was incorporated in 1795, and now contains 709 inhabitants; bounded N. W. by Moultonborough, N. E. by Ossipee, S. E. by Wolfeborough, and S. W. by Winnipiseogee lake, comprising 24,390 acres. Beach pond is on the line of this town, about 250 rods long and 100 wide. Hale pond and Linious pond are also in this town: the latter is near Winter Harbour bay. Near the southwest extremity of this town, Melvin’s river, passing from Moultonborough, falls into the Winnipiseogee pond. There is here a baptist, methodist, and congregational society. There are 2 saw-mills and 2 grist-mills in this place.
UMBAGOG LAKE. The upper part of this lake is in the District of Maine, and only a small part is in this state, in the towns of Errol and Cambridge. On the eastern line of New-Hampshire it is 2700 rods long. It extends into Errol about 300 rods, and about the same distance into Cambridge. From northeast to southwest its whole length is about 20 miles. In some places it is 10 miles wide, and in others not more than 100 rods. Its outlet is on its westerly side in the town of Errol, and its waters flow into Margallaway river.
UNITY, a township in Cheshire county, was incorporated in 1764, and in 1810, it contained 1044 inhabitants ; bounded N. by Claremont and Newport, E. by Goshen, S. by Lempster and Acworth, and W. by Charleston, comprising 24,446 acres. The line which separates this town from Acworth, crosses Cold pond, leaving about 150 acres of it in Unity. Perry’s mountain lies in the southwest part of the town. Little Sugar river rises near this mountain, and a branch of Sugar river in the easterly part of the town. The 2d N. H. turnpike passes through this place to Claremont, and also a very direct road from Goshen to Charleston. There is here a society of baptists and another of methodists; each of them has a meeting-house. There are in this town 2 grain-mills, 5 saw-mills, 1 clothing-mill, and 1 distillery.
WAKEFIELD, a township in Strafford county, lying on the eastern border of the state. It was incorporated in 1774, and now contains 1166 inhabitants; bounded N. W. by Effingham and Ossipee, E. by the District of Maine, S. E. by Milton,. and W. by Brookfield and Middleton. Lovell’s pond
is the largeSt in this town, and lies on its northeast side. It is 700 rods long and 275 wide. Province pond is about 450 rods long and 400 wide. Pine River pond is about- 100 rods long and 100 wide. There are several others of a smaller size. The principal branch of Piscataqua river has its source in this town, (see Salmon river.) The soil of this place is generally good, but it is more favourable for mowing and grazing than for tillage. There is here a baptist and a congregationalist society. Rev. Asa Piper, the first minister in the place, was ordained in 1785. There is here a meeting-house, a cotton factory, a carding-machine, 5 grain-mills, 3 sawmills, 3 fulling-mills, and a handsome village containing several stores. Lovell’s pond in this town derived its name from Capt. John Lovell of Dunstable, who, in the year 1725, being on a scouting expedition in this quarter, with a company of 40 men, attacked by night a party of Indians, whom they found encamped by the side of a pond. Lovell and his companions surprised the enemy, who were eleven in number, and by his dexterous movements destroyed the whole party. Robert Macklin, a remarkable instance of longevity, died in Wakefield in 1787, at the age of 115. He was born in Scotland, and lived several years in Portsmouth in the occupation of a baker. He frequently walked from Portsmouth to Boston (66 miles,) in one day and returned in another. This journey he performed at the age of 80.
WALPOLE, a township in Cheshire county, was incorporated in 1752, and now contains 1894 inhabitants; bounded N. by Langdon, E. by Alstead and Surry, S. by Westmoreland, and W. by the western bank of Connecticut river. Its area is 24,301 acres. In the northwest part of the town is Fall mountain, extending from Charleston about 550 rods to Bellows’ falls, and about 250 rods beyond. There is a bridge in this town at Bellows falls and another about 375 rods above Bellows ferry. A turnpike from Charleston to Keene, and another from Walpole upper bridge to Keene, pass through this town. Cold river falls into the Connecticut a little below Fall mountain. There is in this town only 1 religious society and 1 meeting-house. The first settled minister here was the Rev. Leavitt, and the present pastor is the Rev. P. Dickerson. There are here 4 grist-mills, 6 saw-mills, 2 fulling-mills, 1 cotton factory, and 2 carding-machines.
WARNER, a township in Hillsborough county, was incorporated in 1774, and in 1310, contained 1838 inhabitants; hounded N. W. by Sutton, Kearsarge Gore, and Salisbury, N. E. by Boscawen, S. E. by Hopkinton and Henniker, and S. W. by Bradford and Sutton, comprising an area of 27,571 acres.
This town was formerly called Almsbury; and Warner river, which passes through it was called. Almsbury river. This river is the central branch of the Contoocook, and a large. number of streams fall into it as it passes through this town and through a part of Boscawen into Hopkinton. There are here 3 religious societies and 2 meeting-houses. Rev. William Kelly was ordained in this town in 1772, and died in 1813. The present ministers are the Rev. J. Woods and Elder E. Wilmarth. There are in this place 7 grain-mills, 11 saw-mills, 2 clothing-mills, 2 carding-machines, and 5 stores. No town in the state has better grazing land than Warner.
WARNER’S LOCATION, in Coos county, is bounded N. by ungranted lands and Mount Royse, E. by the District of Maine, and S. by Chatham and ungranted lands: it contains 2000 acres. A stream which empties into Cold River pond passes over the easterly side of this location.
WARREN, in Grafton county, was incorporated in 1763, and contains 506 inhabitants;
bounded N. by Coventry, E. by Peeling and Ellsworth, S. by Wentworth, and W. by Piermont, comprising an area of 27,720 acres. The westerly branch of Baker’s river flows through Warren from Moosehillock mountain, and a large part of Carr’s mountain lies in the eastern part of the town, and over its southeast extremity the Coos turnpike passes. There is here 1 grain-mill and
WASHINGTON, in Cheshire county, was incorporated in 1776, and contains 820 inhabitants; bounded N. by Goshen, E. by Bradford and Hillsborough, S. by Stoddard, and W. by Marlow and Lempster, comprising an area of 30,760 acres, 1,550 of which are water. There are here no less than 20 ponds. Through the centre of this town, a ridge of mountains extends from N. to S. on the summit of which a branch of the Contoocook has its source. A branch of the Ashuelot rises in a pond in the N. part of the town near Sunapee mountain. The Croydon and 2d N. H. turnpikes meet near the meeting-house in this place. Washington was formerly called Campden. There are here 3 religious societies and 1 meeting-house. Rev. George Leslie was settled here in 1779, and Rev. C. Page is the present pastor. There are in Washington 2 grain-mills, 3 saw-mills, 1 clothing-mill, 1 carding-machine, 2 distilleries; 2 oil-mills, and 3 trading stores.
WEARE, a township in Hillsborough county, was incorporated in 1764, and now contains 2630 inhabitants; bounded N. by Hopkinton and Henniker, E. by Dunbarton and Goffstown, S. by New-Boston, and W. by Deering and Francestown, comprising an area of 33,648 acres. A principal branch of Piscataquog river passes through this town. Near the centre of Weare is Mount William. Rev. Amos Wood was ordained here in 1789, and was succeeded by Rev. John Cayford. Elders H. Buzzel and S. Streeter (an universalist) at present officiate in this town. There are here 5 religious societies and 3 meeting-houses, 7 grain-mills, 8 saw-mills, 3 clothing-mills, 1 cotton-factory, 4 carding-machines, 2 distilleries, 1 oil-mill, and 5 trading stores.
WENDELL, a township in Cheshire county, formerly called Saville, was incorporated in 1781, and contains 447 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Springfield, E. by Sunapee lake, which separates it from New-London and Fishersfield in Hillsborough county, S. by Goshen, and W. by Croydon and Newport, comprising 15,666 acres, 2,860 of which are water. About 2,720 acres of Sunapee pond are in this town, and form a noble sheet of water. Here is the principal source of Sugar river. From the southern extremity of the pond in Fishersfield to the N. W. point of the north bay the distance is 7 miles. This is the length of the pond from N. to S. There are three small ponds here containing 140 acres. The outlet of Sunapee pond is little more than 2 miles south of the centre of the town. The whole pond contains 4,095 acres. Sugar river flowing from it has a westerly course into Newport. There are in Wendell 3 corn-mills, 4 saw-mills, and 1 clothing mill. Elder N. Woodward, a baptist, was the first settled minister in this town.
WENTWORTH, in Grafton county, was incorporated in 1766, and contains 645 inhabitants; bounded N. E. by Warren, S. E. by Rumney, S. W. by Dorchester, and N. W. by Orford, comprising an area of 22,522 acres. The north and south branches of Poker’s river unite in this town, and Pond brook, flowing from a small pond on the line of Orford, falls into the northern branch. In the N. E. part of the town is a part of Carr’s mountain. At Aiken’s bridge, which is thrown over the north branch of Baker’s river there is a small village, containing 10 or 12 houses, etc. There is in this town 1 meeting-house, 4 grain-mills, 5 saw-mills, 1 fulling-mill, a carding-machine, and a distillery.
WEST RIVER MOUNTAIN. (See Chesterfield.)
WESTMORELAND lies on Connecticut river in the north part of Cheshire county. It was incorporated in 1752, and contains 1,937 inhabitants; bounded N. by Walpole, E. by-Surry and Keene, S. by Chesterfield, and W. by Connecticut river, which separates it. from Putney in Vermont. Its area is 22,446 acres. There are here 5 religious societies and 3 meeting-houses, 2 of them for baptists and the other for congregationalists. The Rev. W. Goddard was the first minister of the place. Elders Bailey and Pratt have been his successors, both of whom still officiate. There is in this town a. pleasant village, 5 grain-Mills, 6 saw-mills, 2 clothing-mills, an oil-mill, 2 distilleries, and 4 trading stores.
WHEELWRIGHT’S POND is in the N. part of Lee and forms the source of Oyster river. This pond is memorable for the battle which was fought near it in 1690, between a scouting party of. Indians and two companies of rangers under Capts. Floyd and Wiswall, the engagement lasted 2 hours. Wiswall, his lieutenant, sergeant, and 12 men were killed and several were wounded. Floyd continued the fight, till his men, wearied and wounded, drew off and forced him to follow. The enemy also retreated, without carrying off the wounded of our party.
WHITEFIELD, an irregular township in the S. W. part of Coos county, containing by the last census 51 inhabitants; bounded N. W. by Dalton and Lancaster, E. by Jefferson; S. by Bretton Woods, and S. W. by Bethlehem in Grafton county, comprising 20,800 acres. A part of Round pond and several others lie in this town, from each of which John’s river receives a tributary stream as it passes to Dalton. The main road from Plymouth to Lancaster passes over the west part of the town. From the N.W. extremity of Whitefield to Connecticut river the distance is about 4 miles.
WHITE MOUNTAINS. These mountains were first explored by Walter Neal and some others in 1631, who described them as a ridge extending a hundred leagues, on which snow lay the whole year. They visited them with the hope of. finding precious stones, and having picked up something like crystal, this was sufficient to give the ridge the name of Crystal hills. Dr. Belknap, (the historian of New-Hampshire) describes these mountains in the following manner; The White mountains are the most elevated part of a ridge; which extends N.E. and S.W. an immense distance. The area of their base is an irregular figure, the whole circuit of which is not less than 60 miles. The number of summits within this area cannot he ascertained at present, the country around them being a thick wilderness; the greatest number can be seen at once from Jefferson on the N. W. side. Here seven summits appear at one view, of which four are bald. Of these, the three highest are the most distant, being on the eastern side of the cluster, one of these is the mountain, which makes so majestic an appearance all along the shore of the eastern counties of Massachusetts. It has latelv received the name of Mount Washington. To arrive at the foot of the mountain there is a continual ascent of 12 miles from the plain of Pigwacket, which brings the traveller to the height of land between the Saco and Ameriscoggin rivers. At this height, there is a level, about a mile square, part of which is now a meadow and was formerly a beaver pond, having a dam at each end, Here, though elevated more than 3000 feet above the level of the sea, the traveller finds himself in a deep valley. On the east is a steep mountain out of which issues several springs of clear water, one of which is the source of Ellis river, (a southern branch of the Saco) another is the fountain of Peabody river (a northern branch of the Ameriscoggin.) From this meadow toward the west there is an uninterrupted ascent in a ridge between two gullies, to the summit of Mount Washington. The eastern side of the mountain rises in an angle of 45 degrees, and requires 6 or 7 hours of hard labour to ascend it. Many of the precipices are so bald, as to oblige the traveller to use his hands as well as his feet, and to hold by the trees, which diminish in size till they are mere shrubs and bushes; above these are low vines bearing red and blueberries. The uppermost vegetation is a species of winter grass, mixed with the moss of rocks. Having surmounted the upper and steepest precipice, there is a large area called the plain. It is a dry heath, composed of rocks covered with moss and bearing the appearance of a pasture in the beginning of winter. In some openings between the rocks, there are springs of water, in others dry gravel. Here the grouse or heath birds resort and are generally out of danger. The Sugar-loaf which stands on this plain is a pyramidal heap of grey rocks, which in some places are formed like winding steps. This pinnacle has been ascended in an hour and a half. The traveller having gained the summit, is recompensed for his toil, if the sky be serene with a most noble and extensive prospect. On the S. E. side, there is a view of the Atlantic ocean, the nearest part of which is 65 miles distant on a direct line. On the W. and N. the prospect is bounded by the high lands, which separate the waters of the Ameriscoggin and Connecticut rivers from those of Lake Champlain and the St. Lawrence. On the S. it extends to the southernmost mountains of New-Hampshire, comprehending a view of Lake Winnipiseogee. On every side of these mountains, are long winding gullies, beginning at the precipices below the plain, and deepening in the descent. In the winter the snow lodges in these gullies and being driven by the N.W. and N.E. winds from the top, is deepest in those on the southerly side. It is observed to lie longer in the spring on the S. than on the N. W. side. During nine or ten months, these mountains exhibit more or less of that bright appearance, which gives them the appellation of white. In the spring, when the snow is partly dissolved, they have a pale blue complexion, approaching a sky colour, while at the distance of eight miles, they have the proper colour of rocks. These changes are observed only by people, who live in constant view of them, and from these facts and observations, it may be concluded, that the whiteness of them is wholly caused by the snow. In the western pass of these mountains is a remarkable pass called the notch, the narrowest part of which is but 22 feet wide, between two perpendicular rocks. From the height above, a brook descends and meanders through a meadow, which was formerly a beaver pond. It is surrounded by rocks, which on one side are perpendicular and on the other rise in an angle of 45 degrees, forming a strikingly picturesque scene. It is about 40 rods through this gap and then the land resumes its level appearance. This defile was known to the Indians, who formerly led their captives through it to Canada, but it was forgotten or neglected till the year 1771, when two hunters passed through it. It is now part of a road to Coos and Canada. This gap lies from Portsmouth N. 20° W. 90 miles on a direct line, and from-Concord 4° E. 70 miles. These mountains are in latitude 44° 15′ N.; and the line of perpetual congelation in that latitude, as deduced from observations made in Europe, is 7,872 feet above the level of the sea. From the greater coldness of American latitudes, this point in them must fall short of the above estimate. The altitude therefore of the White mountains cannot be supposed more than 7,800 feet above the level of the sea. These mountains are surrounded by settled towns, except about 8 miles on the east side between Adams and Shelburne. Mount Washington is 82 miles on a direct line from Portsmouth N. 17° W. and from Portland N. 55° W. and front Boston 120 miles N. 3° W. The following additional particulars are extracted from an account published in the Medical Journal, by a party of gentlemen from Boston, who visited these mountains in July, 1816, for the purpose of scientific observation. In the United States, exclusive, or possibly inclusive, of Louisiana, the highest point or ridge of land is undoubtedly that of the White mountains in New-Hampshire. From the earliest settlement of the country these mountains have attracted the notice of the inhabitants, and of mariners along the coast, by the distance at which they are visible, and the whiteness of their appearance during three quarters of the year. They were for a long time the subject of fabulous representations; the Indians had a superstitious dread of them, and travellers who occasionally ascended their summits, returned with exaggerated reports of the difficulty and distance, as well as of the strange productions found on the more elevated parts of their surface. The earliest account of an ascent of the White mountains is given in Gov. Winthrop’s Journal, and appears to have taken place in the year 1642. This account is somewhat curious, if not otherwise, at least for its antiquity. “One. Darby Field, an Irishman, living about Piscat, being accompanied with two Indians, went to the top of the White Hill. He made his journey in eighteen days. His relation at his return was, that It was about 160 miles from Saco, that after 40 miles travel, he did for the most part ascend; and within 12 miles of the top, was neither tree nor grass, but low savins, which they went upon the top of sometimes, but a continual ascent upon rocks, on a ridge between two vallies filled with snow, out of which came two branches of the Saco river, which met at the foot of the hill where was an Indian town of some 200 people. Some of them accompanied him within 8 miles of the top, but durst go no further, telling him that no Indian ever dared to go higher, and that he would die if he went. So they staid there till his return, and his two Indians took courage by his example and went with him. They went mnay times”. Within the last 40 years the White mountains have been repeatedly ascended by different exploring parties, and several accounts of their productions and phenomena have been published. The object of this paper is to detail such observations as were made by a party from Boston, who visit through the thick clouds for a good space, and within 4 miles of the top, they had no clouds but very cold By the way among the rocks, there were two ponds, one a blackish water, and the other reddish. The top of all was plain, about 60 feet square. On the north side was such a precipice as they could scarcely discern the bottom. They had neither cloud nor wind on the top, and moderate heat. All the country about him seemed a level, except here and there a hill rising above the rest, and far beneath them. He saw to the north, a great water which he judged to be 100 miles broad, but could see no land beyond it. The sea by Saco seemed as if it had been within 20 miles. He saw also a sea to the eastward which he judged to be the gulf of Canada ; he saw some great waters in parts to the westward, which he judged to be the great lake Canada river conies out of. He found there much Muscovy glass, they could see pieces 40 feet long, and 7 or 8 broad. When he came back to the Indians, he found them drying themselves by the fire, for, they had a great tempest of wind and rain. About a month after, he went again with five or six of his company, then they had some wind on the top, and some clouds above them, which hid sun. They brought some stones which they supposed had been diamonds, but they were most chvstal.”—Winthrop’s Journal, p. 247. The relation of Darby Field, may be considered as in the main correct, after making reasonable deductions for the distance, the length of the Muscovy glass, and the quantity of water in view, which it may be suspected has not been seen by any visitor since his time. They are distant about 150 miles from Boston. Their Indian name according to Dr. Belknap, was Agiocochook. Our approach to them was made from the northwest, commeucing at the town of Lancaster, a village situated on the Connecticut river, 25 miles from their base. From this town a road has been cut, passing through a gap of the mountains to Portland, and constituting the principal outlet of the Coos country. This road takes the course of the Israel’s river, a branch of the Connecticut, passing between the Pliny mountains on the left and the Pond cherry mountain on the right. Tne village of Lancaster is situated in a valley surrounded in several directions by very elevated ridges of land. A number of the summits in sight of this place could not be estimated at less than 3000 feet in height, judging from the experience we had acquired of several hills of known altitude on the road, and the accounts given by the inhabitants of the time necessary for their ascent and descent. The road from Lancaster passes through Jefferson, (formerly Dartmouth) Bretton Woods, and Nash and Sawyer’s locations, to the notch of the mountains. This road in its course runs over the foot of the Pond cherry mountain. It lies for most of the way through thick woods but rarely, enlivened with the appearance of cultivation. At Playstead’s house, 13 miles from their base we had a fair view of the White Hills. They presented the appearance of a continued waving range of summits, of which it was difficult to select the highest. At Rose-brooks, 41 miles from the notch, the view of them was very distinct and satisfactory. We could now clearly discern the character of the summits, five or six of which were entirely bald and presented the appearance of a grey and ragged mass of stones towering above the woods, with which the sides and base were clothed. In several places we observed a broad continued stripe descending the mountain and having the appearance of a regular road cut through the trees and rocks from near the base to the summit of the mountain. On examining these with a telescope they were found to be channels of streams, and in several, the water could be seen dashing down the rocks. Between Rosebrooks and the notch is a plain, or rather a swamp, the waters of which pass off in different directions, partly to the Amonoosuck, a branch of the Connecticut, and partly by an opposite course to the Saco. After crossing several brooks running towards the former, we came to another stream, the water of which was so sluggish that it required some time to become satisfied that it was actually flowing in the opposite direction. This stream has its origin in a pond of one or two acres, situated near the road, and having no other inlet or outlet. This pond appears to be the principal source of the Saco river. The waters of this stream being collected from several sources proceed directly toward the side of the mountain. At the point where to all appearance they must be intercepted in their course, there occurs one of the most extraordinary features of the place, well known by the name of the notch. The whole mountain, which otherwise forms a continued range, is here cloven down quite to its base, affording a free opening to the waters of the Saco, which pass off with a gradual descent toward the sea. This gap is so narrow that space has with difficulty been obtained for the road, which follows the course of the Saco through the notch eastward. In one place the river disappears, being lost in the caves and crevices of the rocks, and under the shelves of the adjoining precipice, at length reappearing at the distance of some rods below. The notch gradually widens into a long narrow valley, in the lower part of which is situated the town of Bartlett. There is no part of the mountain more calculated to excite
interest and wonder than the scenery of this natural gap. The crags and precipices on both sides rise at an angle of great steepness, forming a support or basement for the lofty and irregular ridges above. One of the most picturesque objects in our view was a cliff presenting a perpendicular face of great height and crowned at its inaccessible summit with a profusion of flowering shrubs. For many miles below the commencement of the notch the eye meets on both sides a succession of steep and precipitous mountains, rising to the height of some thousands of feet, and utterly inaccessible from the valley below. The sides of these mountains consist in some parts of bald rock, streaked or variegated by the trickling of water, in others they are covered with trees and shrubs. The occasional torrents formed by the freshets in the spring have in many places swept away the stones and trees. from their course, for a great distance, and left the vestiges of their way in a wide path or gully over naked rocks. In some instances the fire had run over the sides of the mountain, destroying the vegetation and leaving the dead trunks of the trees standing like stubble in a field, and presenting a singular appearance of desolation for some miles in extent. Several brooks, the tributaries of. the Saco, fall down the abrupt declivities, forming a succession of beautiful cascades in sight of the road. We were told that the wind sweeps through the notch at times with great violence. The lightning is said to strike frequently in the mountains from the clouds about their sides, and the sound of the thunder in this place is represented as unusually loud and severe. The report of a musket discharged in the notch, was followed by a long echo, reverberated for some time from both sides of the mountain. ” The White Hills have been ascended by various routes, from their different sides. The course which is usually considered 4s attended with the least difficulties, is that which commences at the plain of Pig-wacket, at present the town of Conway,and follows the course of Ellis river, a northern branch of the Saco, having its origin high in the mountain.” The place of leaving the road, to follow the track of this stream is in the town of Adams about 20 miles from the summit of the highest part of the mountain. Of this distance seven or eight miles may be rode over on horseback, the rest must be performed on foot. After leaving the borders of cultivation, our course lay through thick woods, on a level or with a gentle ascent, not much encumbered with an under growth of bushes, for six miles. The walking was tolerably good, except the circumstance of being obliged once or twice to ford the streams. Our encampment for the night, was made at the mouth of New river, a principal branch of the Ellis. This river takes its name from the recency of its origin, which happened in October, 1775. At this time, during a great flood, that took place in consequence of heavy rains, a large body of waters, which hid formerly descended by other channels, found their way over the eastern brink of the mountains, and fell down toward the Ellis, carrying the rocks and trees before them in their course, and inundating the adjacent country. By this freshet the banks of the Saco were overflowed, cattle were drowned, and fields of corn were swept away and destroyed. Since that period, the New river has remained a constant stream, and at the place where it descends the last precipice, forms a splendid cascade of 100 feet in height. From this encampment, which was seven miles from the top of the mountain, we proceeded the next day, (July 2,) two or three miles by the side of Ellis river, on a gradual ascent, occasionally encumbered by the trunks of fallen trees. We now left the Ellis, for one of its principal branches, called Cutler’s river, leading directly towards the principal summit. After climbing by the side of this stream for a considerable distance, the trees of the forest around us began to diminish in height, and we found ourselves at the second zone or region of the mountain. This region is entirely covered with a thick low growth of evergreens, principally the black spruce, and sit.. ver fir, which rise to about the height of a man’s head, and put out numerous, strong, horizontal branches, which are closely interwoven with each other, and surround the mountain with a formidable hedge a quarter of a mile in thickness. This zone of evergreens, has always constituted one of the most serious difficulties in the ascent of the White Hills. The passage through them is now much facilitated by a path cut by the direction of Col. Gibbs, who ascended the mountain some years since. On emerging from this thicket, the barometer stood at 25, 93, giving our elevation above the sea, at 4,443 feet. We were now above all woods, and at the foot of what is called the bald part of the mountain.. It rose before us with a steepness surpassing that of any ground we had passed, and presented to view a huge, dreary irregular pile of dark naked rocks.”We crossed a plain or gentle slope, of a quarter of a mile, and began to climb upon the side. There was here a continued and laborious ascent of half a mile, which must be performed by cautiously stepping from one rock to another, as they present themselves like irregular stairs, winding on the broken surface of the mountain. In the interstices of these rocks were occasional patches of dwarfish fir and spruce, and beautiful tufts of small alpine shrubs, then in full flower.” Having surmounted this height we found ourselves on a second plain. This like the first, was covered with withered grass, and a few tufts of flowers. Its continuity is interrupted by several declivities, one of which we descended to our left, to reach a brook that crosses it here, from the rocks above. There remained naw to be ascended only the principal peak, the one designated in Winthrop’s Journal, by the name of the Sugar-loaf, and in Belknap’s New-Hampshire, by the name of Mount Washington. This we accomplished in half an hour, by climbing the ridge to the north of it, and walking on this ridge to the summit. ” If the traveller could be tranvorted at once to the top of this mountain, from the country below, he would no doubt be astonished and delighted at the magnitude of his elevation, at the extent and variety of the surrounding scenery, and above all, by the huge and desolate pile of rocks, extending to a great distance in every direction beneath him, and appearing to insulate him from the rest of the world. But the length and fatigue of the approach, the time occupied in the ascent, the gradual manner in which the prospect has been unfolding itself, are circumstances which leave less novelty to be enjoyed at the summit, than at first view of the subject, would be expected. The day of our visit was uncommonly fine, yet the atmosphere was hazy, and our view of remote objects, was very indistinct.. The Moosehillock, one of the highest mountains of New-Hampshire,situated in Coventry, near the Connecticut, was visible on the south. The Kearsarge, Double-headed mountains, and several others were in full view at the east. The country around in almost every direction, is uneven and mountainous. Its appearance is described by Josselyn, in his ” Rarities of New:-England,” published in 16f2, who says that the country beyond the mountains to the northward, “is daunting terrible, being full of rocky hills, as thick as mole hills in a meadow ; and clothed with thick woods. Height of the White Mountains. The great distance at which these mountains are visible, and the apparent length of their ascent, have led to estimates of their height considerably exceeding the probable truth. The Rev: Dr. Cutler, who twice visited them, and took barometrical observations computes the height in round numbers, at 10,000 feet above the level of the sea. Dr. Belknap, in his history of New Hampshire, is persuaded, that this computation is too moderate, and that subsequent calculations will make the height even greater. Mr. Bowditch has published in the transactions of the American Academy, a logarithmic calculation founded on the barometer, as observed by Dr. Cutler and Professor Peck, in 1804, which gives them an elevation of 7,055. Capt. Partridge, an engineer in the United States service, visited the mountain some years since, and took barometrical observations on several of the principal peaks. His observations now in possession of Professor Farrar at the University, give to the highest summit an elevation of only 6103 feet. A mountain barometer, of Englefield’s construction, carried by Mr. Gray of our party, stood on the summit at noon at 24, 23 ; the accompanying thermometer being at 57. At the same day at Cambridge, the barometer stood at 29, 95, and the thermometer at 76. This difference of the barometer, after making the necessary corrections for temperature, and variation in the surface of the cistern, would give, according to Sir H. C. Englefield’s formula, a difference of 6230 feet in the altitude of the two places. A logarithmic calculation was made, from the same _data, by Professor Farrar, which resulted in a difference of 6194 feet. This number being added to 31 feet, the height of Cambridge above the sea, will give 6225 feet, which may be assumed as the probable height of the White Hills, above the waters of the ocean. In favour of the correctness of the observations on which this computation is founded, it may be observed, that the barometer employed was of the most approved and modern construction, being guarded against accidents with an express view to its use in expeditions of this sort; that it went and returned without injury; and at the end of the journey agreed with other instruments at the University, precisely as it had done before its removal. In confirmation of the present estimate, it may also be observed, that a geometrical measurement, taken by Dr. Shattuck, and others from the plain in front of Rosebrook’s house, gave to the summit an elevation of 4620 feet above that place. This being added to 1648, the barometrical height of Rosebrook’s above the sea, will give a total of 6268 feet, differing only 43 feet from our estimate.
WILTON, a township in Hillsborough county, was incorporated in 1762,and contains 1017 inhabitants; bounded N. by Lyndeborough, E. by Milford, S. by Mason, and W. by Temple: its area is 15,820 acres. This town is watered by several branches of Sowhegan river, which unite near its easterly extremity.
There is here 1 meetinghouse and 1 society of congregationalists, over which Rev. J. Livermore was ordained in 1763, and removed in 1777. Rev. A. Fisk was ordained in 1778, and Rev. T. Bedee, the present pastor, in 1803. There are here 4 grain-mills, 4 sawmills, 2 carding-machines, and 2 trading stores.
WILMOT or, a township in Hillsborough county, was incorporated in 1807, and contains 298 inhabitants; bounded N. W. by Springfield, N.E. by Danbury, New-Chester, and Andover, S. E. by Kearsarge Gore, and S. W. by Sutton and New-London, comprising 14,780 acres. This town was in 1807, set off from New-London and Kearsarge Gore. A branch of Blackwater river has its source in this town and flows through it. There are here several mills.
WINCHESTER lies in the S. W. part of Cheshire county: it was incorporated in 1753, and contains 1478 inhabitants; bounded N. by Chesterfield and Swanzey, E. by Swanzey and Richmond, S. by Warwick, (Mass.) and W. by Hinsdale, comprising 33,534 acres, 600 of which are water. In Winchester is Humphreys’ pond, 200 rods long and 80 wide. Ashuelot river, in its passage through this town, receives Roaring brook and several other streams. The 6th N. H. and the Ashuelot turnpikes pass through Winchester. There are in this place 3 religious societies and 2 meeting-houses. Rev. M. Lawrence was settled here in 1764, and Rev. E. Conant in 1788. There are here 4 grain-mills, 9 sawmills, 3 clothing-mills, 1 carding-machine, 1 cotton factory, 2 distilleries, and 2 stores.
WINDHAM, in Rockingham county; was incorporated in 1741, and contains 742 inhabitants; bounded N. by Londonderry, E. by New-Salem, S. by Pelham, and W. by Nottingham West and Londonderry: its area is 15,744 acres. One half of Policy pond lies in this town, and the other half in Salem; it is 420 rods long and 140 wide; Cabbo pond 600 rods long and 100 wide; Hitelite, Golden, and Mitchell’s ponds and other smaller ones are in this town. Beaver river forms the western boundary of Windham. The Londonderry turnpike crosses the eastern extremity of the town. There is here 1 meeting-house, in which the Rev. Johnson was ordained in 1760. Rev. J. Kinkeed, S. Williams, and the present minister Rev. S. Harris, have succeeded him. There are in this place several mills and stores.
WINDSOR, in Hillsborough county, contains 238 inhabitants, and is bounded W. by Cheshire county, N. by Hillsborough, and S. by Antrim, comprising 5,335 acres. There are here several small ponds,
containing each 50 or 60 acres. The 2d N. H. turnpike cross¬es the northern extremity of the town.
WINNIPISEOGEE LAKE is the largest body of water in New-Hampshire, being 22 miles in length from S.E. to N.W. Its breadth is very unequal, but in no place more than 8 miles. Some very long points of land project into this lake, and it contains several islands. The surrounding mountains give rise to many streams which flow into it. From the S. E. extremity of this lake called Merry-Meeting bay, to its N. W. point called Centreharbor, there is good navigation in the summer and a good road in the winter, which is much traveled by the people of the adjacent towns. The lake is frozen about 3 months in the year. Trout are caught here weighing from 5 to 25 lb. Cusk are also caught here. The waters of this lake are about 470 feet higher than the tide waters of Dover river.
WINNIPISEOGEE RIVER is the stream through which the waters of the above lake flow into Merrimack river. It issues from the southwestern arm of the lake at a place which is remarkable for the number of fish caught there. It then opens into Long bay between Meredith and Gilford, thence through a lesser bay to Meredith bridge, thence between Gilmanton and Sanbornton into Sanbornton bay, which is about 7 miles long and 3 wide. This river divides Sanbornton from Gilmanton, and flows between Sanbornton and Northfield to Pemigewasset river, (which see.) The whole distance from the lake to this junction with the Pemigewasset river is 20 miles. It is in contemplation to cut a canal from the lake to Merrimack, the waters of the lake being about 232 feet higher than those of the Merrimack, and about 438 feet higher than those of Charles river, where the Middlesex canal empties into it. It cannot be doubted that these canals would benefit the surrounding country by facilitating the transportation of its productions and enhancing the value of its lands.
WINNICONETT (commonly called Winnicot) river, rises in a large swamp in Hampton, and after a northerly course through a part of Stratham into Greenland, it meets the tidewaters about 200 feet from the Great bay.
WOLFBOROUGH, in Strafford county, was incorporated in 1770, and in 1810, contained 1376 inhabitants ; bounded N. W. by Moultonborough, N.E. by Ossipee., S.E. by Brookfield and New-Durham, and S. W. by Alton and lake Winnipiseogee, containing 28,600 acres, 400 of which are water. Smith’s pond, 1050 rods long and 556 wide, in the southeast part of the town, discharges its waters westerly through Crooked river into the lake. There are several other large ponds, viz. Crooked, Rust’s, Batton’s, and Sargeant’s ponds. At a place called Smith’s bridge there is a small village containing several mills, stores, etc. Rev. E. Allen, a congregationalist, and Elder Townsend, a baptist, were the first ordained ministers in this town. They were both ordained on the 25th of October, 1792. Elder Townsend is still in office. There are in this town 2 meeting-houses, 8 school houses, 4 grain-mills, 4 saw-Mills, 1 clothing-mill, and 1 carding-machine. A family of the name of Blake were the first who moved into this town. Mr. Blake and wife are still living. At the foot of a hill which stands on the bank of one of the ponds in this town, there is a spring strongly impregnated with a mineral substance which is said to give the water a quality similar to those of the Saratoga springs.