State of the State 1817–Part 7 of 7

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Taken from The New Hampshire Gazetter 1817

STRATFORD, in Coos, coun­ty, was incorporated in 1773, and contains 339 inhabitants; bounded N. by Columbia, E. by ungranted lands No. 1., S. by Piercy and Northumberland, and W. by the Connecticut river, which separates it from Brunswick in Vermont. Its area is 48,931 acres. This town is watered by Roaring-brook, Strong’s brook, and Bay brook, Bow-back mountain, Peak’s mountain, and several others are in this town. Stratford has one meeting-house be­longing to methodists, Rev. C. Sumner was settled here in 1773. In 1775, this town had only 40 inhabitants, and in 1790, there were 150.

STRATHAM, in Rockingham county, lies on the E. side of the western branch of Piscataqua ri­ver and in 1810, contained 876 inhabitants; bounded N. by Green­land, S.E. by Greenland & Nor­thampton, S. W.by Exeter, and W. and N. W. by the river and bay, which separate it from Ex­eter and Newmarket. Its area is 10,120 acres. There are here 2 religious societies, 1 of baptists and the other of congregationalists, each of them has a meet­ing-house. There are in this town 4 grain-mills, 3 saw-mills, and 1 clothing-mill. This town was part of the grant to Edward Hilton in 1650, called Squamscot patent. The charter of Stratham was dated March 20th, 1716, and signed by George Vaughan than lieuten­ant-governor. The first town-meeting was on the 10th of Apnl, 1716, Deacon David Robinson was chosen town clerk and held that office 47 nears. Rev. Henry Rust was ordain­ed here in 1718, Rev. Joseph Adams in 1747, and Rev. James Miltimore in 1786, the latter gentleman has since re­moved. Elder S. Shepard was settled over the baptists in 1771. At present there is no settled minister in the town. From the year 1798 to 1812, inclusive, the number of deaths in this town was 186. The greatest number in any one year was 20, and the smallest number 5, averaging about 12 annually. Between the years 1742, and 1797, inclusive, the number of deaths was 1080, averaging about 20 annually. Stratham lies about 8 miles from the sea. The land is ev­en and well calculated for ag­ricultural purpose’s. Farming is so exclusively the employ­ment of the town, that, al­though a navigable river ad­joins it, there is not a wharf, vessel or boat belonging to the place. In the easterly part of the town, is perhaps the larg­est repository of peat in the state. It is a meadow com­monly known by the name of Temple meadow or swamp. This at some future day will probably become a valuable resource. In 1807, a bridge was erect­ed connecting this town with Newmarket. It cost about S6,000, and, the toll amounts annually to about 5700. In the revolutionary war this town lost 23 of its in­habitants.

SUCCESS, an unsettled town­ship in Coos county, incorpo­rated in 1773, and bounded N. by Cambridge, E. by the Dis­trict of Maine, S. by Shel­burne, and N. W. by Maynesborough, comprising 29,813 acres.
In this town rises Narmargungimack river from a pond about 350 rods long and 225 wide, near the line of the state. Live river also has its source in this town.

SUGAR RIVER flows from the west side of Sunapee lake, and passing westerly into New­port, receives several branches from the north, and thence en­tering Claremont, falls into Connecticut river five or six miles below Cornish bridge. It is in contemplation to unite this river with the Contoocook by a canal, (see Sunapee lake.)

SULLIVAN, a township in Cheshire county, was incorpo­rated in 1787, and contains 516 inhabitants; bounded N. by Gilsum and Stoddard, E. by Stoddard and Nelson, S. by Roxbury and Keene, and W. by Keene and Gilsum, com­prising 12,212 acres. This town is watered by Ashuelot river, and has 2 religious societies, 1 meeting­house, and a settled minister. There are here 2 saw-mills and 1 grain-mill.

SUNCOOK RIVER has the source of its northern branch in a pond, which forms part of the boundary between Gilmanton and Gilford, and passing through the easterly part of Gilmanton, it receives the two Suncook ponds and also Small’s pond near the line of Alton. It thence enters Barnstead, where it passes through two other ponds of its own name, and receives the waters of Half moon and Brindle ponds. Just below these ponds it re­ceives a branch from Barring­ton, called Little Suncook riv­er, and another from Wild goose pond in the northeast part of Pittsfield. It thence flows through Pittsfield into Epsom where it receives an eastern branch from Suncook pond in Northwood. From this junction it flows 8 or 10 miles through Epsom and be­tween Allenstown and Pem­broke, and empties its waters into the Merrimack below Concord near the southern extremity of Allenstown. There is a great variety of mills on this river and its branches. (See Pembroke.)

SUNAPEE LAKE lies partly in Wendell, (Cheshire county,) and partly in Fishersfield, (Hillsborough county.) It is eleven miles long and about one mile and a half wide. Its outlet is on its west side through Sugar river. A canal has been contem­plated to connect the Connec­ticut and Merrimack river, and this lake has been proposed as the reservoir, it being situated on the height of land between the two rivers. It now dis­charges its waters through Su­gar river into the Connecticut. This would undoubtedly be the western course of the project­ed canal, but as to its eastern route there are differences of opinion. The most advantag­eous course has been said to be through Herrick’s cove and Small pond in its vicinity, and thence through Keazer’s pond near the north meeting-house in Sutton, and thence through Steven’s brook into Warner’s river, which empties into the Merrimack.

SURRY, a township in Ches­hire county, incorporated in 1769, and now containing 564 inhabitants; bounded N. by Alstead, E. by Gilsum, S. by Keene, and W. by Westmore­land and Walpole, comprising 7,917 acres. Ashuelot river flows through this town, and is here between 80 and 100 feet wide. There is one pond in this town, which is near the summit of a moun­tain. Through Surry the turn­
pike passes from Chester to Keene. Rev. B. Dalling, the first minister in this place, was settled in 1788. Rev. P. Howe is the present minister. There is here one religious society and a meeting-house, 2 grain-mills, 2 saw-mills, 1 clothing-mill, 1 carding-machine, 1 dis­tillery, and 2 trading stores.

SUTTON, a township in Hills­borough county, was incorpo­rated in 1784, and contains 1328 inhabitants; bounded N. by New-London, E. by Kearsarge Gore and Boscawen, S. by Warner and Bradford, and W. by Fishersfield, comprising 24,300 acres, 280 of which are water. Long pond in this town is 350 rods long and 80 wide. Hazen’s pond is about 150 rods in diameter. A branch, of Warner’s river flows through this town. Kearsarge mountain extends almost over the whole length of Sutton on its west side. Kearsarge hills are also in the same part of the town. On these high lands and in the meadows at their feet are found beds of excellent clay. Here also are found quarries of stones remarkable for their shape and qualities. They are prepared with little labour for hearths, etc. The soil in this town presents all the varieties of productive­ness and sterility; and, though the surface is diversified with a continued succession of hills and vales, and is often rough and mountainous, excellent crops of wheat are raised here, as well as the other staple produetions of the state.
In 1798, a mineral resemb­ling black lead was found in this town, and it has been as­certained to produce a dura­ble and handsome slate col­our. The principal road passing through Sutton is from Hopkinton to Dartmouth college. The prevailing sect here, are baptists, over whom Elder S. Ambrose was ordained in l782. Elder Taylor is also settled in this town. There are here 2 meeting-houses, 3 grain-mills, 2 saw-mills, 2 clothing-mills, 1 carding-machine, and 3 trad­ing stores. The annual average number of deaths in this town for the last 10 years has been 12. Two persons lately died here, one over 99, and the other over 100 years of age.

SWAMSCOT RIVER IS the Indian name of Exeter riv­er as far as the head of the tide, which is in the compact settlement of the town of Exe­ter. (See Exeter.)

SWANZEY,a township in Cheshire county, was incorporated in 1753, and now contains 1400 inhabitants; bounded N. by Keene, E. by Marlborough and Fitzwilliam, S. by Richmond, and W. by Winchester and Chesterfield: its area is 28,057 acres, 200 of which are water, Swanzey pond is 1 mile long
and 100 rods wide. Ashuelot river in its passage through this town has a breadth of 6 or 8 rods. The branch turn­pike crosses the northeast ex­tremity of the town. There are here 3 religious societies, 2 meeting-houses, 2 small villages, a cotton factory, distillery, carding-machine, 4 grain-mills, 12 saw-mills, and 3 clothing-mills. Rev. T. Harrington was the first minister of this town. He has been succeeded by Rev. Messrs. Carpenter and God­dard. Elder Cutler is the on­ly minister here at present.

SWIFT RIVER has its source among the mountains in the ungranted lands northwest of Whiteface mountain, and 6 or 8 miles from Sandwich. It takes an easterly course through Burton into Conway, where it empties into Saco river. There is another small river of the same name in Tamworth.

TAMWORTH, a township in Strafford county, was incorpo­rated in 1766, and contains 1134 inhabitants ; bounded N. by Burton, E. by Eaton, S.by Ossipee, and W. by Sandwich, comprising 28,917 acres.
Bear Camp river is the only considerable stream in this town. This has an easterly course into Ossipee pond. The rapidity of its current in times of freshets renders it almost useless for the purposes of mills. Swift river in this town is a fine stream and affords many valuable mill seats. A nail factory and a carding-ma­chine are erected on it. Con­way river falls into Bear Camp river near the centre of Tamworth. It has its source in Burton and passes through Conway pond. This is also a valuable stream for mills. A few rods from the meet­ing-house in this town, is a re­markable rock called ordina­tion rock, it being memorable as the place where the Rev. S. Hidden was ordained Septem­ber 12th, 1792. Its summit was sufficiently large to accodomate the minister and the whole of the council. There is in Tamworth a large church and society under the pastoral charge of Mr. Hidden. There is also a free-will baptist soci­ety here under Elder Web­ster. There are in this town
9 school-houses.

TEMPLE, a township in Hills­borough county, was incorpo­rated in 1788, and contains 941 inhabitants; bounded N. by Greenfield, E. by Lyndeborough and Wilton, S. by New-Ipswich and Mason, and W. by Sharon and Peterborough, comprising 13,700 acres. Sev­eral streams which fall into Sowhegan river, rise among the mountains in the westerly part of this town. The prin­cipal road from Amherst to Peterborough passes through this town. There is here 1 congregational society and 1 meeting-house, 4 grain-mills, 3 saw-mills, and 1 fulling-mill. Rev. S. Webster was ordain­ed here in 1771, and Rev. Noah Miles, his successor, in 1779.

THORNTON, a township in Grafton county, was incorpo­rated in 1781, and now contains 794 inhabitants; bounded N. and N. W. by Peeling, N. E. by Thornton’s Gore, S. by Campton, and W. by Ells­worth. Its area including Thornton’s Gore is 28,490 a­cres. This Gore is bounded E. by ungranted lands, and N. W. by Lincoln. Pemigewasset river flows through this town from north to south. The main road from Lancaster to Plymouth passes through Thornton. There are here 2 religious societies and 1 meet­ing-house, in which Rev. E. Esterbrook was the first or­dained minister.

TUFTONBOROUGH, a town­ship in Strafford county, was incorporated in 1795, and now contains 709 inhabitants; bound­ed N. W. by Moultonborough, N. E. by Ossipee, S. E. by Wolfeborough, and S. W. by Winnipiseogee lake, comprising 24,390 acres. Beach pond is on the line of this town, about 250 rods long and 100 wide. Hale pond and Linious pond are also in this town: the latter is near Win­ter Harbour bay. Near the southwest extrem­ity of this town, Melvin’s river, passing from Moultonborough, falls into the Winnipiseogee pond. There is here a baptist, methodist, and congre­gational society. There are 2 saw-mills and 2 grist-mills in this place.

UMBAGOG LAKE. The up­per part of this lake is in the District of Maine, and only a small part is in this state, in the towns of Errol and Cambridge. On the eastern line of New-Hampshire it is 2700 rods long. It extends into Errol about 300 rods, and about the same distance into Cambridge. From northeast to southwest its whole length is about 20 miles. In some places it is 10 miles wide, and in others not more than 100 rods. Its outlet is on its westerly side in the town of Errol, and its wa­ters flow into Margallaway river.

UNITY, a township in Ches­hire county, was incorporated in 1764, and in 1810, it contain­ed 1044 inhabitants ; bounded N. by Claremont and Newport, E. by Goshen, S. by Lempster and Acworth, and W. by Charleston, comprising 24,446 acres. The line which sepa­rates this town from Acworth, crosses Cold pond, leaving a­bout 150 acres of it in Unity. Perry’s mountain lies in the southwest part of the town. Little Sugar river rises near this mountain, and a branch of Sugar river in the easterly part of the town. The 2d N. H. turnpike passes through this place to Claremont, and also a very direct road from Goshen to Charleston. There is here a society of baptists and anoth­er of methodists; each of them has a meeting-house. There are in this town 2 grain-mills, 5 saw-mills, 1 clothing-mill, and 1 distillery.

WAKEFIELD, a township in Strafford county, lying on the eastern border of the state. It was incorporated in 1774, and now contains 1166 inhabitants; bounded N. W. by Effingham and Ossipee, E. by the District of Maine, S. E. by Milton,. and W. by Brookfield and Middleton. Lovell’s pond
is the largeSt in this town, and lies on its northeast side. It is 700 rods long and 275 wide. Province pond is about 450 rods long and 400 wide. Pine River pond is about- 100 rods long and 100 wide. There are several others of a smaller size. The principal branch of Piscataqua river has its source in this town, (see Salmon river.) The soil of this place is gen­erally good, but it is more fa­vourable for mowing and graz­ing than for tillage. There is here a baptist and a congregationalist society. Rev. Asa Piper, the first minister in the place, was ordained in 1785. There is here a meeting-house, a cotton factory, a carding-machine, 5 grain-mills, 3 saw­mills, 3 fulling-mills, and a handsome village containing several stores. Lovell’s pond in this town derived its name from Capt. John Lovell of Dunstable, who, in the year 1725, being on a scouting expedition in this quarter, with a company of 40 men, attacked by night a party of Indians, whom they found encamped by the side of a pond. Lovell and his companions surprised the ene­my, who were eleven in num­ber, and by his dexterous movements destroyed the whole party. Robert Macklin, a remarka­ble instance of longevity, died in Wakefield in 1787, at the age of 115. He was born in Scotland, and lived several years in Portsmouth in the oc­cupation of a baker. He fre­quently walked from Ports­mouth to Boston (66 miles,) in one day and returned in another. This journey he performed at the age of 80.

WALPOLE, a township in Cheshire county, was incorpo­rated in 1752, and now con­tains 1894 inhabitants; bound­ed N. by Langdon, E. by Alstead and Surry, S. by West­moreland, and W. by the western bank of Connecticut river. Its area is 24,301 acres. In the northwest part of the town is Fall mountain, extend­ing from Charleston about 550 rods to Bellows’ falls, and about 250 rods beyond. There is a bridge in this town at Bellows falls and another about 375 rods above Bellows ferry. A turnpike from Charleston to Keene, and another from Walpole upper bridge to Keene, pass through this town. Cold river falls into the Connecticut a little below Fall mountain. There is in this town only 1 religious society and 1 meet­ing-house. The first settled minister here was the Rev. Leavitt, and the present pastor is the Rev. P. Dickerson. There are here 4 grist-mills, 6 saw-mills, 2 full­ing-mills, 1 cotton factory, and 2 carding-machines.

WARNER, a township in Hillsborough county, was in­corporated in 1774, and in 1310, contained 1838 inhabitants; hounded N. W. by Sutton, Kearsarge Gore, and Salisbury, N. E. by Boscawen, S. E. by Hopkinton and Henniker, and S. W. by Bradford and Sutton, comprising an area of 27,571 acres.
This town was formerly cal­led Almsbury; and Warner river, which passes through it was called. Almsbury river. This river is the central branch of the Contoocook, and a large. number of streams fall into it as it passes through this town and through a part of Boscawen into Hopkinton. There are here 3 religious societies and 2 meeting-hous­es. Rev. William Kelly was ordained in this town in 1772, and died in 1813. The present ministers are the Rev. J. Woods and Elder E. Wilmarth. There are in this place 7 grain-mills, 11 saw-mills, 2 clothing-mills, 2 carding-machines, and 5 stores. No town in the state has better grazing land than Warner.

WARNER’S LOCATION, in Coos county, is bounded N. by ungranted lands and Mount Royse, E. by the District of Maine, and S. by Chatham and ungranted lands: it contains 2000 acres. A stream which empties into Cold River pond passes over the easterly side of this location.

WARREN, in Grafton county, was incorporated in 1763, and contains 506 inhabitants;
bounded N. by Coventry, E. by Peeling and Ellsworth, S. by Wentworth, and W. by Piermont, comprising an area of 27,720 acres. The wester­ly branch of Baker’s river flows through Warren from Moosehillock mountain, and a large part of Carr’s mountain lies in the eastern part of the town, and over its southeast extrem­ity the Coos turnpike passes. There is here 1 grain-mill and
3 saw-mills.

WASHINGTON, in Cheshire county, was incorporated in 1776, and contains 820 inhab­itants; bounded N. by Go­shen, E. by Bradford and Hillsborough, S. by Stoddard, and W. by Marlow and Lempster, comprising an area of 30,760 acres, 1,550 of which are water. There are here no less than 20 ponds. Through the centre of this town, a ridge of mountains extends from N. to S. on the summit of which a branch of the Contoocook has its source. A branch of the Ashuelot rises in a pond in the N. part of the town near Sunapee mountain. The Croydon and 2d N. H. turnpikes meet near the meeting-house in this place. Washington was formerly call­ed Campden. There are here 3 religious societies and 1 meeting-house. Rev. George Leslie was settled here in 1779, and Rev. C. Page is the present pastor. There are in Washington 2 grain-mills, 3 saw-mills, 1 clothing-mill, 1 carding-machine, 2 distille­ries; 2 oil-mills, and 3 trading stores.

WEARE, a township in Hills­borough county, was incorporated in 1764, and now con­tains 2630 inhabitants; bound­ed N. by Hopkinton and Hen­niker, E. by Dunbarton and Goffstown, S. by New-Boston, and W. by Deering and Francestown, comprising an area of 33,648 acres. A principal branch of Piscataquog river passes through this town. Near the centre of Weare is Mount William. Rev. Amos Wood was ordained here in 1789, and was suc­ceeded by Rev. John Cayford. Elders H. Buzzel and S. Streeter (an universalist) at present of­ficiate in this town. There are here 5 religious societies and 3 meeting-houses, 7 grain-mills, 8 saw-mills, 3 clothing-mills, 1 cotton-facto­ry, 4 carding-machines, 2 dis­tilleries, 1 oil-mill, and 5 trad­ing stores.

WENDELL, a township in Cheshire county, formerly call­ed Saville, was incorporated in 1781, and contains 447 in­habitants. It is bounded N. by Springfield, E. by Sunapee lake, which separates it from New-London and Fishersfield in Hillsborough county, S. by Goshen, and W. by Croydon and Newport, comprising 15,666 acres, 2,860 of which are water. About 2,720 acres of Sunapee pond are in this town, and form a noble sheet of water. Here is the principal source of Sugar river. From the southern extremity of the pond in Fishersfield to the N. W. point of the north bay the distance is 7 miles. This is the length of the pond from N. to S. There are three small ponds here containing 140 a­cres. The outlet of Sunapee pond is little more than 2 miles south of the centre of the town. The whole pond contains 4,095 acres. Sugar river flow­ing from it has a westerly course into Newport. There are in Wendell 3 corn-mills, 4 saw-mills, and 1 clothing mill. Elder N. Woodward, a bap­tist, was the first settled minis­ter in this town.

WENTWORTH, in Grafton county, was incorporated in 1766, and contains 645 inhabit­ants; bounded N. E. by War­ren, S. E. by Rumney, S. W. by Dorchester, and N. W. by Orford, comprising an area of 22,522 acres. The north and south branches of Poker’s riv­er unite in this town, and Pond brook, flowing from a small pond on the line of Orford, falls into the northern branch. In the N. E. part of the town is a part of Carr’s mountain. At Aiken’s bridge, which is thrown over the north branch of Baker’s river there is a small village, containing 10 or 12 houses, etc. There is in this town 1 meeting-house, 4 grain-mills, 5 saw-mills, 1 fulling-mill, a carding-machine, and a distillery.

WEST RIVER MOUNTAIN. (See Chesterfield.)

WESTMORELAND lies on Connecticut river in the north part of Cheshire county. It was incorporated in 1752, and contains 1,937 inhabitants; bounded N. by Walpole, E. by-Surry and Keene, S. by Chesterfield, and W. by Connecti­cut river, which separates it. from Putney in Vermont. Its area is 22,446 acres. There are here 5 religious societies and 3 meeting-houses, 2 of them for baptists and the other for congregationalists. The Rev. W. Goddard was the first minister of the place. Elders Bailey and Pratt have been his successors, both of whom still officiate. There is in this town a. pleasant village, 5 grain-Mills, 6 saw-mills, 2 clothing-mills, an oil-mill, 2 distilleries, and 4 trading stores.

WHEELWRIGHT’S POND is in the N. part of Lee and forms the source of Oyster river. This pond is memorable for the battle which was fought near it in 1690, between a scouting party of. Indians and two companies of rangers un­der Capts. Floyd and Wiswall, the engagement lasted 2 hours. Wiswall, his lieutenant, ser­geant, and 12 men were killed and several were wounded. Floyd continued the fight, till his men, wearied and wound­ed, drew off and forced him to follow. The enemy also retreated, without carrying off the wounded of our party.

WHITEFIELD, an irregular township in the S. W. part of Coos county, containing by the last census 51 inhabitants; bounded N. W. by Dalton and Lancaster, E. by Jefferson; S. by Bretton Woods, and S. W. by Bethlehem in Grafton coun­ty, comprising 20,800 acres. A part of Round pond and sever­al others lie in this town, from each of which John’s river re­ceives a tributary stream as it passes to Dalton. The main road from Plymouth to Lancaster passes over the west part of the town. From the N.W. extremity of Whitefield to Connecticut river the distance is about 4 miles.

WHITE MOUNTAINS. These mountains were first explored by Walter Neal and some oth­ers in 1631, who described them as a ridge extending a hundred leagues, on which snow lay the whole year. They visited them with the hope of. finding precious stones, and having picked up something like crystal, this was sufficient to give the ridge the name of Crystal hills. Dr. Belknap, (the historian of New-Hamp­shire) describes these moun­tains in the following manner; The White mountains are the most elevated part of a ridge; which extends N.E. and S.W. an immense distance. The area of their base is an irregu­lar figure, the whole circuit of which is not less than 60 miles. The number of summits with­in this area cannot he ascer­tained at present, the country around them being a thick wilderness; the greatest num­ber can be seen at once from Jefferson on the N. W. side. Here seven summits appear at one view, of which four are bald. Of these, the three high­est are the most distant, being on the eastern side of the clus­ter, one of these is the moun­tain, which makes so majestic an appearance all along the shore of the eastern counties of Massachusetts. It has latelv received the name of Mount Washington. To arrive at the foot of the mountain there is a continual ascent of 12 miles from the plain of Pigwacket, which brings the traveller to the height of land between the Saco and Ameriscoggin rivers. At this height, there is a level, about a mile square, part of which is now a meadow and was formerly a beaver pond, having a dam at each end, Here, though elevated more than 3000 feet above the level of the sea, the traveller finds himself in a deep valley. On the east is a steep mountain out of which issues several springs of clear water, one of which is the source of Ellis river, (a southern branch of the Saco) another is the foun­tain of Peabody river (a north­ern branch of the Ameriscoggin.) From this meadow to­ward the west there is an un­interrupted ascent in a ridge between two gullies, to the summit of Mount Washington. The eastern side of the mountain rises in an angle of 45 degrees, and requires 6 or 7 hours of hard labour to ascend it. Many of the precipices are so bald, as to oblige the traveller to use his hands as well as his feet, and to hold by the trees, which diminish in size till they are mere shrubs and bushes; above these are low vines bearing red and blueberries. The uppermost veg­etation is a species of winter grass, mixed with the moss of rocks. Having surmounted the upper and steepest precipice, there is a large area called the plain. It is a dry heath, composed of rocks covered with moss and bearing the appear­ance of a pasture in the begin­ning of winter. In some openings between the rocks, there are springs of water, in others dry gravel. Here the grouse or heath birds resort and are generally out of danger. The Sugar-loaf which stands on this plain is a pyramidal heap of grey rocks, which in some plac­es are formed like winding steps. This pinnacle has been ascended in an hour and a half. The traveller having gained the summit, is recompensed for his toil, if the sky be serene with a most noble and ex­tensive prospect. On the S. E. side, there is a view of the Atlantic ocean, the nearest part of which is 65 miles dis­tant on a direct line. On the W. and N. the prospect is bounded by the high lands, which separate the waters of the Ameriscoggin and Con­necticut rivers from those of Lake Champlain and the St. Lawrence. On the S. it ex­tends to the southernmost mountains of New-Hampshire, com­prehending a view of Lake Winnipiseogee. On every side of these mountains, are long winding gullies, beginning at the precipices below the plain, and deepening in the descent. In the winter the snow lodges in these gullies and being driven by the N.W. and N.E. winds from the top, is deepest in those on the southerly side. It is ob­served to lie longer in the spring on the S. than on the N. W. side. During nine or ten months, these mountains exhibit more or less of that bright appear­ance, which gives them the ap­pellation of white. In the spring, when the snow is partly dissolved, they have a pale blue complexion, approaching a sky colour, while at the dis­tance of eight miles, they have the proper colour of rocks. These changes are observed only by people, who live in constant view of them, and from these facts and observations, it may be concluded, that the whiteness of them is wholly caused by the snow. In the western pass of these mountains is a remarkable pass called the notch, the nar­rowest part of which is but 22 feet wide, between two per­pendicular rocks. From the height above, a brook descends and meanders through a meadow, which was formerly a beaver pond. It is surrounded by rocks, which on one side are perpendicular and on the other rise in an angle of 45 degrees, forming a strik­ingly picturesque scene. It is about 40 rods through this gap and then the land resumes its level appearance. This defile was known to the Indians, who formerly led their captives through it to Canada, but it was forgotten or neglected till the year 1771, when two hunters passed through it. It is now part of a road to Coos and Canada. This gap lies from Ports­mouth N. 20° W. 90 miles on a direct line, and from-Concord 4° E. 70 miles. These mountains are in lat­itude 44° 15′ N.; and the line of perpetual congelation in that latitude, as deduced from ob­servations made in Europe, is 7,872 feet above the level of the sea. From the greater coldness of American lati­tudes, this point in them must fall short of the above estimate. The altitude therefore of the White mountains cannot be sup­posed more than 7,800 feet above the level of the sea. These mountains are surround­ed by settled towns, except about 8 miles on the east side between Adams and Shelburne. Mount Washington is 82 miles on a direct line from Ports­mouth N. 17° W. and from Portland N. 55° W. and front Boston 120 miles N. 3° W. The following additional particulars are extracted from an account published in the Medical Journal, by a party of gentlemen from Boston, who visited these mountains in July, 1816, for the purpose of scien­tific observation. In the United States, ex­clusive, or possibly inclusive, of Louisiana, the highest point or ridge of land is undoubtedly that of the White mountains in New-Hampshire. From the earliest settlement of the coun­try these mountains have attracted the notice of the inhab­itants, and of mariners along the coast, by the distance at which they are visible, and the whiteness of their appearance during three quarters of the year. They were for a long time the subject of fabulous re­presentations; the Indians had a superstitious dread of them, and travellers who occasional­ly ascended their summits, re­turned with exaggerated reports of the difficulty and distance, as well as of the strange pro­ductions found on the more elevated parts of their surface. The earliest account of an ascent of the White mountains is given in Gov. Winthrop’s Journal, and appears to have taken place in the year 1642. This account is somewhat curious, if not otherwise, at least for its antiquity. “One. Darby Field, an Irishman, living about Piscat, being accompani­ed with two Indians, went to the top of the White Hill. He made his jour­ney in eighteen days. His relation at his return was, that It was about 160 miles from Saco, that after 40 miles travel, he did for the most part ascend; and within 12 miles of the top, was neither tree nor grass, but low savins, which they went upon the top of some­times, but a continual ascent upon rocks, on a ridge between two vallies filled with snow, out of which came two branches of the Saco river, which met at the foot of the hill where was an Indian town of some 200 people. Some of them accompanied him within 8 miles of the top, but durst go no fur­ther, telling him that no Indian ever dared to go higher, and that he would die if he went. So they staid there till his return, and his two Indians took courage by his example and went with him. They went mnay times”. Within the last 40 years the White mountains have been repeatedly ascended by different exploring parties, and several accounts of their pro­ductions and phenomena have been published. The object of this paper is to detail such ob­servations as were made by a party from Boston, who visit through the thick clouds for a good space, and within 4 miles of the top, they had no clouds but very cold By the way among the rocks, there were two ponds, one a blackish water, and the other reddish. The top of all was plain, about 60 feet square. On the north side was such a precipice as they could scarcely discern the bottom. They had neither cloud nor wind on the top, and moderate heat. All the country about him seemed a level, ex­cept here and there a hill rising above the rest, and far beneath them. He saw to the north, a great water which he judged to be 100 miles broad, but could see no land beyond it. The sea by Saco seemed as if it had been with­in 20 miles. He saw also a sea to the eastward which he judged to be the gulf of Canada ; he saw some great waters in parts to the westward, which he judged to be the great lake Canada river conies out of. He found there much Muscovy glass, they could see pieces 40 feet long, and 7 or 8 broad. When he came back to the Indians, he found them drying them­selves by the fire, for, they had a great tempest of wind and rain. About a month after, he went again with five or six of his company, then they had some wind on the top, and some clouds above them, which hid sun. They brought some stones which they supposed had been diamonds, but they were most chvstal.”—Winthrop’s Journal, p. 247. The relation of Darby Field, may be considered as in the main correct, after making reasonable deductions for the distance, the length of the Muscovy glass, and the quantity of wa­ter in view, which it may be suspected has not been seen by any visitor since his time. They are distant about 150 miles from Boston. Their Indian name according to Dr. Belknap, was Agiocochook. Our approach to them was made from the northwest, commeucing at the town of Lan­caster, a village situated on the Connecticut river, 25 miles from their base. From this town a road has been cut, passing through a gap of the mountains to Portland, and constituting the principal outlet of the Coos country. This road takes the course of the Israel’s river, a branch of the Connecticut, passing between the Pliny mountains on the left and the Pond cherry mountain on the right. Tne village of Lancas­ter is situated in a valley sur­rounded in several directions by very elevated ridges of land. A number of the summits in sight of this place could not be estimated at less than 3000 feet in height, judging from the experience we had acquir­ed of several hills of known altitude on the road, and the accounts given by the inhabit­ants of the time necessary for their ascent and descent. The road from Lancaster passes through Jefferson, (for­merly Dartmouth) Bretton Woods, and Nash and Saw­yer’s locations, to the notch of the mountains. This road in its course runs over the foot of the Pond cherry mountain. It lies for most of the way through thick woods but rare­ly, enlivened with the appear­ance of cultivation. At Playstead’s house, 13 miles from their base we had a fair view of the White Hills. They pre­sented the appearance of a con­tinued waving range of sum­mits, of which it was difficult to select the highest. At Rose-brooks, 41 miles from the notch, the view of them was very distinct and satisfactory. We could now clearly discern the character of the summits, five or six of which were en­tirely bald and presented the appearance of a grey and rag­ged mass of stones towering above the woods, with which the sides and base were clothed. In several places we observed a broad continued stripe descending the mountain and having the appearance of a reg­ular road cut through the trees and rocks from near the base to the summit of the mountain. On examining these with a tel­escope they were found to be channels of streams, and in several, the water could be seen dashing down the rocks. Between Rosebrooks and the notch is a plain, or rather a swamp, the waters of which pass off in different directions, partly to the Amonoosuck, a branch of the Connecticut, and partly by an opposite course to the Saco. After crossing several brooks running towards the former, we came to an­other stream, the water of which was so sluggish that it required some time to become satisfied that it was actually flowing in the opposite direc­tion. This stream has its ori­gin in a pond of one or two acres, situated near the road, and having no other inlet or outlet. This pond appears to be the principal source of the Saco river. The waters of this stream being collected from several sources proceed directly to­ward the side of the mountain. At the point where to all ap­pearance they must be inter­cepted in their course, there occurs one of the most extra­ordinary features of the place, well known by the name of the notch. The whole mountain, which otherwise forms a con­tinued range, is here cloven down quite to its base, afford­ing a free opening to the wa­ters of the Saco, which pass off with a gradual descent toward the sea. This gap is so nar­row that space has with difficulty been obtained for the road, which follows the course of the Saco through the notch eastward. In one place the river disappears, being lost in the caves and crevices of the rocks, and under the shelves of the adjoining precipice, at length reappearing at the dis­tance of some rods below. The notch gradually widens into a long narrow valley, in the low­er part of which is situated the town of Bartlett. There is no part of the moun­tain more calculated to excite
interest and wonder than the scenery of this natural gap. The crags and precipices on both sides rise at an angle of great steepness, forming a sup­port or basement for the lofty and irregular ridges above. One of the most picturesque objects in our view was a cliff presenting a perpendicular face of great height and crowned at its inaccessible summit with a profusion of flowering shrubs. For many miles below the commencement of the notch the eye meets on both sides a succession of steep and precip­itous mountains, rising to the height of some thousands of feet, and utterly inaccessible from the valley below. The sides of these mountains con­sist in some parts of bald rock, streaked or variegated by the trickling of water, in others they are covered with trees and shrubs. The occa­sional torrents formed by the freshets in the spring have in many places swept away the stones and trees. from their course, for a great distance, and left the vestiges of their way in a wide path or gully o­ver naked rocks. In some instances the fire had run over the sides of the mountain, destroying the vege­tation and leaving the dead trunks of the trees standing like stubble in a field, and pre­senting a singular appearance of desolation for some miles in extent. Several brooks, the tributaries of. the Saco, fall down the abrupt declivities, forming a succession of beauti­ful cascades in sight of the road. We were told that the wind sweeps through the notch at times with great violence. The lightning is said to strike frequently in the mountains from the clouds about their sides, and the sound of the thunder in this place is repre­sented as unusually loud and severe. The report of a mus­ket discharged in the notch, was followed by a long echo, reverberated for some time from both sides of the moun­tain. ” The White Hills have been ascended by various routes, from their different sides. The course which is usually con­sidered 4s attended with the least difficulties, is that which commences at the plain of Pig-wacket, at present the town of Conway,and follows the course of Ellis river, a northern branch of the Saco, having its origin high in the mountain.” The place of leaving the road, to follow the track of this stream is in the town of Adams about 20 miles from the summit of the highest part of the mountain. Of this dis­tance seven or eight miles may be rode over on horseback, the rest must be performed on foot. After leaving the bor­ders of cultivation, our course lay through thick woods, on a level or with a gentle ascent, not much encumbered with an under growth of bushes, for six miles. The walking was tolerably good, except the cir­cumstance of being obliged once or twice to ford the streams. Our encampment for the night, was made at the mouth of New river, a princi­pal branch of the Ellis. This river takes its name from the recency of its origin, which happened in October, 1775. At this time, during a great flood, that took place in con­sequence of heavy rains, a large body of waters, which hid formerly descended by other channels, found their way over the eastern brink of the mountains, and fell down toward the Ellis, carrying the rocks and trees before them in their course, and inundating the adjacent country. By this freshet the banks of the Saco were overflowed, cattle were drowned, and fields of corn were swept away and destroyed.  Since that period, the New river has remained a con­stant stream, and at the place where it descends the last prec­ipice, forms a splendid cascade of 100 feet in height. From this encampment, which was seven miles from the top of the mountain, we proceeded the next day, (July 2,) two or three miles by the side of Ellis river, on a grad­ual ascent, occasionally encum­bered by the trunks of fallen trees. We now left the Ellis, for one of its principal branch­es, called Cutler’s river, lead­ing directly towards the principal summit. After climbing by the side of this stream for a considerable distance, the trees of the forest around us began to diminish in height, and we found ourselves at the second zone or region of the mountain. This region is en­tirely covered with a thick low growth of evergreens, princi­pally the black spruce, and sit.. ver fir, which rise to about the height of a man’s head, and put out numerous, strong, hor­izontal branches, which are closely interwoven with each other, and surround the moun­tain with a formidable hedge a quarter of a mile in thickness. This zone of evergreens, has always constituted one of the most serious difficulties in the ascent of the White Hills. The passage through them is now much facilitated by a path cut by the direction of Col. Gibbs, who ascended the mountain some years since. On emerging from this thick­et, the barometer stood at 25, 93, giving our elevation above the sea, at 4,443 feet. We were now above all woods, and at the foot of what is called the bald part of the mountain.. It rose before us with a steep­ness surpassing that of any ground we had passed, and presented to view a huge, dreary irregular pile of dark naked rocks.”We crossed a plain or gentle slope, of a quarter of a mile, and began to climb upon the side. There was here a con­tinued and laborious ascent of half a mile, which must be performed by cautiously step­ping from one rock to another, as they present themselves like irregular stairs, winding on the broken surface of the moun­tain. In the interstices of these rocks were occasional patches of dwarfish fir and spruce, and beautiful tufts of small alpine shrubs, then in full flower.” Having surmounted this height we found ourselves on a second plain. This like the first, was covered with wither­ed grass, and a few tufts of flowers. Its continuity is in­terrupted by several decliv­ities, one of which we descend­ed to our left, to reach a brook that crosses it here, from the rocks above. There remained naw to be ascended only the principal peak, the one desig­nated in Winthrop’s Journal, by the name of the Sugar-loaf, and in Belknap’s New-Hamp­shire, by the name of Mount Washington. This we accom­plished in half an hour, by climbing the ridge to the north of it, and walking on this ridge to the summit. ” If the traveller could be tranvorted at once to the top of this mountain, from the country below, he would no doubt be astonished and de­lighted at the magnitude of his elevation, at the extent and va­riety of the surrounding scene­ry, and above all, by the huge and desolate pile of rocks, ex­tending to a great distance in every direction beneath him, and appearing to insulate him from the rest of the world. But the length and fatigue of the approach, the time occupied in the ascent, the gradual manner in which the prospect has been unfolding itself, are circum­stances which leave less novel­ty to be enjoyed at the summit, than at first view of the sub­ject, would be expected. The day of our visit was un­commonly fine, yet the atmos­phere was hazy, and our view of remote objects, was very in­distinct.. The Moosehillock, one of the highest mountains of New-Hampshire,situated in Coventry, near the Connecti­cut, was visible on the south. The Kearsarge, Double-head­ed mountains, and several oth­ers were in full view at the east. The country around in almost every direction, is un­even and mountainous. Its appearance is described by Josselyn, in his ” Rarities of New:-England,” published in 16f2, who says that the coun­try beyond the mountains to the northward, “is daunting terrible, being full of rocky hills, as thick as mole hills in a meadow ; and clothed with thick woods. Height of the White Moun­tains. The great distance at which these mountains are visible, and the apparent length of their ascent, have led to esti­mates of their height consider­ably exceeding the probable truth. The Rev: Dr. Cutler, who twice visited them, and took barometrical observa­tions computes the height in round numbers, at 10,000 feet above the level of the sea. Dr. Belknap, in his history of New Hampshire, is persuaded, that this computation is too moderate, and that subsequent calculations will make the height even greater. Mr. Bowditch has published in the transactions of the American Academy, a logarithmic calculation founded on the barom­eter, as observed by Dr. Cut­ler and Professor Peck, in 1804, which gives them an el­evation of 7,055. Capt. Partridge, an engin­eer in the United States service, visited the mountain some years since, and took barome­trical observations on several of the principal peaks. His observations now in possession of Professor Farrar at the University, give to the high­est summit an elevation of only 6103 feet. A mountain barometer, of Englefield’s construction, car­ried by Mr. Gray of our party, stood on the summit at noon at 24, 23 ; the accompanying thermometer being at 57. At the same day at Cambridge, the barometer stood at 29, 95, and the thermometer at 76. This difference of the barome­ter, after making the necessa­ry corrections for temperature, and variation in the surface of the cistern, would give, ac­cording to Sir H. C. Englefield’s formula, a difference of 6230 feet in the altitude of the two places. A logarithmic calculation was made, from the same _data, by Professor Farrar, which resulted in a difference of 6194 feet. This number being added to 31 feet, the height of Cambridge above the sea, will give 6225 feet, which may be assumed as the probable height of the White Hills, above the waters of the ocean. In favour of the correctness of the observations on which this computation is founded, it may be observed, that the ba­rometer employed was of the most approved and modern construction, being guarded against accidents with an ex­press view to its use in expe­ditions of this sort; that it went and returned without in­jury; and at the end of the journey agreed with other in­struments at the University, precisely as it had done before its removal. In confirmation of the pres­ent estimate, it may also be ob­served, that a geometrical measurement, taken by Dr. Shattuck, and others from the plain in front of Rosebrook’s house, gave to the summit an elevation of 4620 feet above that place. This being added to 1648, the barometrical height of Rosebrook’s above the sea, will give a total of 6268 feet, differing only 43 feet from our estimate.

WILTON, a township in Hills­borough county, was incorpo­rated in 1762,and contains 1017 inhabitants; bounded N. by Lyndeborough, E. by Milford, S. by Mason, and W. by Tem­ple: its area is 15,820 acres. This town is watered by sever­al branches of Sowhegan riv­er, which unite near its easter­ly extremity.
There is here 1 meeting­house and 1 society of congregationalists, over which Rev. J. Livermore was ordained in 1763, and removed in 1777. Rev. A. Fisk was ordained in 1778, and Rev. T. Bedee, the present pastor, in 1803. There are here 4 grain-mills, 4 saw­mills, 2 carding-machines, and 2 trading stores.

WILMOT or, a township in Hillsborough county, was in­corporated in 1807, and con­tains 298 inhabitants; bounded N. W. by Springfield, N.E. by Danbury, New-Chester, and Andover, S. E. by Kearsarge Gore, and S. W. by Sutton and New-London, comprising 14,780 acres. This town was in 1807, set off from New-London and Kearsarge Gore. A branch of Blackwater river has its source in this town and flows through it. There are here several mills.

WINCHESTER lies in the S. W. part of Cheshire county: it was incorporated in 1753, and contains 1478 inhabitants; bounded N. by Chesterfield and Swanzey, E. by Swanzey and Richmond, S. by Warwick, (Mass.) and W. by Hinsdale, comprising 33,534 acres, 600 of which are water. In Winchester is Humphreys’ pond, 200 rods long and 80 wide. Ashuelot river, in its passage through this town, receives Roaring brook and sev­eral other streams. The 6th N. H. and the Ashuelot turn­pikes pass through Winchester. There are in this place 3 re­ligious societies and 2 meeting-houses. Rev. M. Lawrence was settled here in 1764, and Rev. E. Conant in 1788. There are here 4 grain-mills, 9 saw­mills, 3 clothing-mills, 1 card­ing-machine, 1 cotton factory, 2 distilleries, and 2 stores.

WINDHAM, in Rockingham county; was incorporated in 1741, and contains 742 inhabitants; bounded N. by Londonderry, E. by New-Salem, S. by Pelham, and W. by Nottingham West and Londonderry: its area is 15,744 acres. One half of Policy pond lies in this town, and the other half in Salem; it is 420 rods long and 140 wide; Cabbo pond 600 rods long and 100 wide; Hitelite, Golden, and Mitchell’s ponds and other smaller ones are in this town. Beaver river forms the western boundary of Windham. The Londonderry turnpike crosses the eastern extremity of the town. There is here 1 meeting-house, in which the Rev. Johnson was ordained in 1760. Rev. J. Kinkeed, S. Williams, and the present minister Rev. S. Harris, have succeeded him. There are in this place several mills and stores.

WINDSOR, in Hillsborough county, contains 238 inhabitants, and is bounded W. by Cheshire county, N. by Hillsborough, and S. by Antrim, comprising 5,335 acres. There are here several small ponds,
containing each 50 or 60 acres. The 2d N. H. turnpike cross¬es the northern extremity of the town.

WINNIPISEOGEE LAKE is the largest body of water in New-Hampshire, being 22 miles in length from S.E. to N.W. Its breadth is very unequal, but in no place more than 8 miles. Some very long points of land project into this lake, and it contains several islands. The surrounding mountains give rise to many streams which flow into it. From the S. E. extremity of this lake called Merry-Meeting bay, to its N. W. point called Centreharbor, there is good navigation in the summer and a good road in the winter, which is much traveled by the people of the adjacent towns. The lake is frozen about 3 months in the year. Trout are caught here weighing from 5 to 25 lb. Cusk are also caught here. The waters of this lake are about 470 feet higher than the tide waters of Dover river.

WINNIPISEOGEE RIVER is the stream through which the waters of the above lake flow into Merrimack river. It issues from the southwestern arm of the lake at a place which is remarkable for the number of fish caught there. It then opens into Long bay between Meredith and Gilford, thence through a lesser bay to Meredith bridge, thence between Gilmanton and Sanbornton into Sanbornton bay, which is about 7 miles long and 3 wide. This river divides Sanbornton from Gilmanton, and flows between Sanbornton and Northfield to Pemigewasset river, (which see.) The whole distance from the lake to this junction with the Pemigewasset river is 20 miles. It is in contemplation to cut a canal from the lake to Merrimack, the waters of the lake being about 232 feet higher than those of the Merrimack, and about 438 feet higher than those of Charles river, where the Middlesex canal empties into it. It cannot be doubted that these canals would benefit the surrounding country by facilitating the transportation of its productions and enhancing the value of its lands.

WINNICONETT (commonly called Winnicot) river, rises in a large swamp in Hampton, and after a northerly course through a part of Stratham in­to Greenland, it meets the tide­waters about 200 feet from the Great bay.

WOLFBOROUGH, in Strafford county, was incorporated in 1770, and in 1810, contained 1376 inhabitants ; bounded N. W. by Moultonborough, N.E. by Ossipee., S.E. by Brookfield and New-Durham, and S. W. by Alton and lake Winnipiseogee, containing 28,600 acres, 400 of which are water. Smith’s pond, 1050 rods long and 556 wide, in the southeast part of the town, discharges its waters westerly through Crooked river into the lake. There are several other large ponds, viz. Crooked, Rust’s, Batton’s, and Sargeant’s ponds. At a place called Smith’s bridge there is a small village containing several mills, stores, etc. Rev. E. Allen, a congrega­tionalist, and Elder Townsend, a baptist, were the first ordain­ed ministers in this town. They were both ordained on the 25th of October, 1792. Elder Townsend is still in office. There are in this town 2 meet­ing-houses, 8 school houses, 4 grain-mills, 4 saw-Mills, 1 clothing-mill, and 1 carding-machine. A family of the name of Blake were the first who moved into this town. Mr. Blake and wife are still living. At the foot of a hill which stands on the bank of one of the ponds in this town, there is a spring strongly impregnated with a mineral substance which is said to give the water a quality similar to those of the Saratoga springs.

State of the State 1817–Part 6 of 7

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Taken from The New Hampshire Gazetter 1817

POPLIN, a township in Rock­ingham county, was incorpo­rated in 1764,and in 1810, contained 482 inhabitants; bound­ed N. by Epping, E. by Brent­wood, S. by Hawke and Sandown, and W. by Chester and Raymond, comprising 9,702 acres. In the northwest part of the town is a small pond, and its southerly part is wa­tered by Exeter fresh river. There is here a meeting-house, several mills, and a carding-machine. The inhabitants are principally of the methodist denomination.

PORTSMOUTH, the metropo­lis of New-Hampshire and its only seaport, lies on the south­west side of Piscataqua river. It was incorporated in 1633, and in 1810, it contained 6,934 inhabitants; bounded N. W. by Newington, N. E. by the river, S. E. and S. by Rye, and W. by Greenland and New­ington. Its area is 10,350 a­cres. The northeastern boundary of Portsmouth is by the Dis­trict of Maine, following the main channel of Piscataqua river. This line will include on Portsmouth side the follow­ing islands, viz. Goat’s, Pierce’s, Leach’s, Hospital, Shatley’s, and Salter’s. The compact part of this town contains about 225 acres, almost entirely surrounded by water, the distance being only 90 rods from the south mill­pond to the north pond. Into these ponds the tide flows, and
at their outlets are flood gates and mills. Portsmouth con­tains 927 dwelling-houses and 18 public buildings, viz. 3 con­gregational meeting-houses, 1 episcopal church, 1 meeting­house for baptists, 1 for meth­odists, and 1 for universalists, an academy, 5 school-houses, a court-house, gaol, alms-house, and 2 markets. A female asylum was incorporated here in 1808, and there are also 4 incorporated banks and sever­al insurance offices. An athe­naeum was recently established and promises to be a respecta­ble and useful institution. The houses erected in this town during the last ten years are generally of brick and of elegant architecture. In 1800, there were in this town 86 dwelling-houses of one story, 524 of two stories, and 21 of three stories, since which pe­riod the latter class have in­creased nearly one third in number and many have been erected of four stories. Ports­mouth pier or wharf was built in 1795, by an incorporated company, 340 feet in length and of an average width of 60 feet. On this wharf was erect­ed a handsome range of build­ings 300 feet long, three stories high,and divided into fourteen stores. This range was destroy­ed by the great fire in 1813. A new market house was built in 1800, 80 feet long, 30 wide, and two stories high, the up­per story of which is occupied as a town hall : a new fish mar­ket is also erected. Both of these markets are excellently supplied, especially the latter. The harbour of Portsmouth is in latitude 43° 5′ N. and in 70°4’W. long. from Greenwich: it is known to mariners by the following marks. Agamenticus, a remarkable mountain in the county of York, lies four leagues due N. Pidgeon hill on Cape Ann bears due S. 10 leagues, and the highest of the Isles of Shoals bears S. E. by S. distant S leagues from the entrance of the harbour. In the middle of the harbour’s mouth is Great-Island, on which stands the town of Newcastle, and on the northeast point of this island is the light-house. The following are directions for entering the harbour: ” Vessels coming from the east should keep in 12 fathoms wa­ter, till the light-house bears N. half a point E. or W. distant 3 miles to avoid a ledge of rocks which lie off the mouth of the harbour, then bear away for the light-house, keeping the western shore on board, and coming no nearer that shore than 9 fathoms, giving the light a proper birth and standing o­ver to the northern shore of the river where they may an­chor in 9 fathoms abreast of Sparhawk’s point. Ships com­ing from the southward should observe the same directions respecting the light and keep in 9 fathoms on the western shore.” Between the north side of Great Island and the Kittery shore is the main channel, about a mile wide and 9 or 10 fathoms deep. The anchorage is good, the shore is lined with rocks, and the harbour is land­locked on all sides and perfect­ly safe. The tide rises from 10 to 14 feet. The other en­trance on the south side of Great-Island is called Little Harbour; the water here is shoal and the bottom sandy. Between the upper end of Great-Island and the town is a broad deep still water, called the pool, where the largest ships may ride very safely. This was the usual station for the mast ships, of which seven have been loading here at once. In this place the Astrea ship of war of 20 guns was burnt in 1744. Portsmouth has convenient wharves and good anchorage. The water is deep enough for the largest vessels, and the harbour has so many natural advantages and is so capable of defence, that it might be made a very safe and commo­dious naval depot. Ships of war have been built here at early and recent periods. The Falkland of 54 guns in 1690, Bedford Galley of 32 guns in 1696, as also the Raleigh of 32, and Ranger of 18. In 1782, the America of 74 guns was built here and was presented by Congress to the king of France. In 1814, the Washington of 74 guns was launched. In 1765, there were here 199 clearances and 115 entries from foreign ports. In 1790, and in 1791, the number of entries were 223, of which 34 were ships, 87 were brigs, 84 were schooners, and 18 were sloops. The number was af­terwards much increased. In the year 1810, there belonged to this port 28 ships, 47 brigs, 10 schooners, 2 sloops, and 1 barge, all of them employed in foreign trade. There were also 20 fishing vessels and ma­ny coasters. This town is intersected by 32 streets, 40 lanes, 12 alleys, 4 roads, and 4 public squares. The principal streets are pav­ed. The Portsmouth Aqueduct Company was incorporated in 1797, and in 1800, the town was supplied with excellent water for domestic uses, from a spring in Newington about 3 miles distant from Portsmouth pier. It is carried into almost every street in the town, and on the north side of the pier is a water-house and pump where ships can be supplied at 10 cents per hogshead. The greatest number of deaths in this town in any one of the last 15 years was 150, and the smallest number 100. The first meeting-house in Portsmouth was erected in 1640, and a Mr. Gibson was employed to preach in it. In 1664, another was erected. In 1671, Rev. J. Moody, the first ordained minister was settled here. Mr. Moody was indicted by Gov. Cranfield for re­fusing to administer the sacra­ment to him after the manner of the church of England. He was imprisoned and was afterwards conditionally discharged. Rev. Nathaniel
Rogers was ordained here in 1699; who was descended from John Rogers the celebrated martyr in the reign of queen Mary. He died in 1723, and was succeeded by Rev. Jabez Fitch who died in 1746.
Rev. Samuel Langdon was ordained here 1747, and was made president of Harvard college in 1774.
Rev. Joseph Buckminster, D.D. was ordained in this town in 1779, and died in 1812, aged 61. Rev. John Emerson was installed in the old parish in 1715. In 1732, the Rev. Mr. Shurtleff was or­dained in the south meeting-house newly erected, and his successor Rev. Job Strong was ordained in 1749. Rev. Samuel Haven, D. D. was settled here in 1752, and died in 1806, aged 79. Dr. Haven and Dr.
Buckminster were among the most distinguished divines and eminent preachers and the most learned men of their country. Rev. T. Alden, was or­dained colleague with Dr. Ha­ven in 1799, and his successor is Rev. Nathan Parker the present minister. Queen’s chapel, now St. John’s church, was consecrated in 1734, and in 1792, an episcopalian society was incorpo­rated here. Rev. A. Brown was settled over it in 1736, Rev. J. C. Ogden in 1786, Rev. J. Willard and C. Burroughs have succeeded, the letter of whom is the present pastor. In 1761, a meeting-house was built in this town by an independent congregation­al society, over whom Rev. L. Drown was settled, and was succeeded by Rev. J. Walton its present minister. Mr. Robert Sandiman came over to this country about the year 1764, and formed a socie­ty in this town, who afterwards built themselves a meeting-house. Mr.Sandiman died in Danbury in 1771. David Humphreys, Esq. has for ma­ny years officiated as teacher of this little flock. The society of universalists in Portsmouth was collected by the Rev. John Murray, who
first preached his doctrines here in 1776. In 1784, Rev. Noah Parker was settled over this society. Rev. J. Richards, his successor, was ordained in 1799, and was succeeded by the Rev. Hosea Ballou. Rev. Sebastian Streeter is the pres­ent minister. In 1802, a baptist society was formed in this town by Elder Elias Smith. The church was gathered in 1803, and now consists of 175 members. The methodists also have a small society in this town. The situation and climate of Portsmouth are salubrious. The annual average number of deaths for 25 years past has been about 120, except the year 1798, when the town was visited by the yellow fever and dysentery. This epidemic destroyed 107 persons between the 20th of July and the 6th of October of that year. Of these 55 died of the fever and 52 of the dysentery. In the year 1623, David Thompson, a scotchman, with several others from London landed at the mouth of Piscataqua river on its S. side, at a place which they called Little-harbour. Here they erected salt-works and a house, which they afterwards called Mason-hall. In 1631, Humphrey Chad­bourne erected a house at Strawberry-bank. Several can­non also were placed during this year at the N. E. point of Great-Island. In 1632, the seacoast in this vicinity was alarmed by the piracies and depredation of Dixy Bull. In 1640, a grant of 50 acres of land was made to Thomas Walford and Henry Sherburne and their successors forever. In 1692, the small-pox rag­ed with great violence in Ports­mouth and Greenland, and few people being acquainted with its treatment, the mortality and sufferings were very great. In 1694, an attack was made upon the houses at Portsmouth plains by an Indian scouting party; 14 persons were kill­ed on the spot, several others were _wounded, and a number taken prisoners. The houses also were plundered and burnt. In 1697, William Partridge a native of Portsmouth was appointed lieutenant-governor.
In 1705, the line of pickets, which enclosed Portsmouth, extended from the mill-pond on the S. side of the town to the creek on the S. side, and crossed the street a few rods W. of the present site of the court-house. Portsmouth has suffered in a remarkable manner by fire. On the 26th December, 1802, a fire broke out in one of the banks and destroyed 120 buildings, principally in Market and Daniel streets. On the 24th December, 1806, another con­flagration destroyed about 20 buildings, including St. John’s church, but the most calamit­ous and destructive fire was on the 22d December, 1813. It swept over 15 acres and de­stroyed 173 buildings. These fires have been the cause of great improvements in the streets, the appearance, and police of the town.

POWOW RIVER, has its source in Kingston in Great pond and County pond, thence it passes the S. W. part of East-Kingston into Southamp­ton, thence into Amesbury, where it takes an easterly course and passes again into Southampton, thence returning to Amesbury it empties into the Merrimack between Salis­bury and Amesbury in Essex county, Mass. The falls on this river in Amesbury are re­markable. The water within the space of 50 rods falls 100 feet, carrying 1 bloomery, 5 saw-mills, 1 fulling-mill, and 1 snuff-mill, besides several oth­er auxiliary mills. The rapid­ity of the falls, the continuity of the dams, the variety of the mills, and their mechanism, to­gether with the irregularity of the houses, scenery, &c. give to this spot a singularly gro­tesque and romantic appear­ance and afford on the whole one of the most remarkable views in this country.

RAYMOND, in Rockingham county, was incorporated in 1764, and in 1810, contained 898 inhabitants; bounded N. by Nottingham and. Deerfield, E. by Epping and Poplin, S. by Chester, and W. by Candia and Chester, comprising 16,317 acres, of which 360 are water. Jones’ pond 250 rods long and 150 wide, and Governor’s pond 200 long and 100 wide are in this town, both of them empty­ing into Lamprey river. Exe­ter river passes the S. E. ex­tremity and Petuckawav river the N. E. extremity of this town. There is here 1 meet­ing-house, 2 religious societies, 1 of them of congregationalists, over which the Rev. Mr. Stickney was settled. There are in Raymond, 3 grain-mills, 4 saw­mills, and a fulling-mill.

RED HILL RIVER flows from Red hill pond in the town of Sandwich, and after a southerly course of about 6 miles fails into the N. E. arm of Winnipiseogee lake.

RICHMOND, a township in the S. part of Cheshire county, was incorporated in 1752, and in 1810, contained 1290 inhab­itants; bounded N. by Swansey, E. by Fitzwilliam, S. by Massachusetts, and W. by Winchester, comprising 23,725 acres. Here are several ponds, the waters of which fall into Ashnelot, and one of them is the source of Miller’s river. Ashuelot turnpike passes thru this town. There are here two societies of baptists and one of Friends, and two meeting-houses in a small village near the centre of the town. There are also in Richmond 5 grain-mills, 5 saw-mills, 1 clothing-mill, and 1 carding-machine. Elders Bellew and Aldrich were first settled here, Elder Billings is the present pastor.

RINDGE, in the N.E. part of Cheshire county, was incorpo­rated in 1760, and in 1810, con­tained 1226 inhabitants; bound­ed N.by Jaffrey and Sharon, E. by New-Ipswich, S. by Mas­sachusetts, and W. by Fitzwilliam, comprising 23,838 a­cres, of which 660 are water. There are in this town 12 ponds, the largest of which (Menomonock pond) has about 200 acres. Of the others some contain 100 acres and others are smaller. The wa­ters from some of them unite with the Menomonock, others
empty into Miller’s river and others into the Contoocook river. Red and yellow ochre, crystals, crystalline spars, aiad vitriol are found here. Rindge has a pleasant village lying on the turnpike, containing a con­gregational meeting-house, several mills, etc, Rev. Seth Dean was ordained here in 1765, and Rev. Seth Payson succeeded him in 1782, and is the pres­ent minister. In 1775, this town contained only 542 in­habitants.

ROCHESTER, in Strafford county, was incorporated in 1722, and contains 2118 in­habitants; bounded N. E. by Salmon fall river, which di­vides it from Lebanon, (in Maine,) S.E. by Somersworth and Dover, S. W. by Barring­ton, and N.W. by Farmington and Milton, comprising 26,609 acres. Cochecho river flows through this town from N. to S. and receives Isinglass river near Dover line. Near the centre of the town is a village called Norway plains, containing a meeting­house, a court-house, about 40 dwelling-houses, and several stores. There are also in this town 4 grain-mills,4 saw-mills, 2 carding-machines, and a cot­ton factory. One term of the district court of common pleas is held here annually. Rev. Amos Maine was or­dained in this town in 1737. His successors have been Rev. Messrs. Hill, Hall, and Haven, the latter of whom is the pre­sent pastor. In 1746, and in 1747, the Indians made excursions a­gainst this town in small par­ties, committing many depre­dations and some murders.

ROCKINGHAM COUNTY is bounded N. E. by Strafford county and Piscataqua river, E. about 14 miles by the sea, S. E. and S. by Massachusetts, and W. by Hillsborough coun­ty, comprising an area of 661, 646 acres of land and water. This county contains 46 town­ships, and according to the census of 1810, a population of 50,115 inhabitants, 8,404 of whom were legal voters. It has 80 meeting-houses, 6 acad­emies, 132 grain-mills, 161 saw-mills, 38 clothing-mills, 5 cotton and 2 woolen factories, 26 carding-machines, 5 paper-mills, 4 oil-mills, and 130 trad­ing stores exclusive of those in Portsmouth. In 1812, the returns of cat­tle and horses in this county were as follows; 19 stud-hors­es, 5,271 other horses, 205 of four years old, 334 of three years old, and 337 of two years old; 7,164 oxen, 3,335 of four years old, 16,913 cows, 8,433 of three years old cattle, and 9,019 of two years old. By the best estimates there were 61,340 sheep and 3,634 acres of orcharding.
The principal towns in this county are Portsmouth, Con­cord, Exeter, and Londonder­ry. In Portsmouth, as Well as in Exeter, there is a court­house and a county gaol. The superior court is holden for this county at Portsmouth and Ex­eter alternately. The courts of common pleas are also hold­en in those towns alternately. Probate courts are holden in Portsmouth, Exeter, and Lon­donderry.

ROXBURY, in Cheshire coun­ty, was incorporated in 1812, and is bounded N. by Sullivan, E. by Nelson and Dublin, S. by Marlborough, and W. by Keene, comprising about 6000 acres. This town was incorporated subsequent to the last census and of course its popu­lation has not been estimated. There is here a meetinghouse, a grain-mill, a saw-mill, and a clothing-mill.

RUMNEY, in Grafton county, was incorporated in 1767, and contains 765 inhabitants; bounded N. E. by Ellsworth, E. by Campton, S. W. by Gro­ton and Hebron, and N. W.by Wentworth, comprising an a­rea of 22,475 acres. In the north part of the town is Stinson’s pond 400 rods long and 280 wide, from which flows a considerable stream called brook, emptying into Baker’s river. This river passes the southerly extremity of the town. Stinson’s moun­tain lies near the pond, and a part of Carr’s and several oth­er mountains are in this town. There is here a meeting-house in which Rev., Thomas Niles was first settled. Elders C. Haines and Wilmouth have succeeded him, but at present it has no minister. Through this town on the south side of Baker’s river passes the great road from Plymouth to the Coos turnpike.

RYE, a township in Rocking­ham county, lying on the sea­coast opposite to the Isles of Shoals, was incorporated in 1719, and contains 1020 inhab­itants; bounded N. and N.W. by Portsmouth, N. E. by Lit­tle Harbour, E. by the sea, S. by Northampton, and W. by Greenland, comprising 7,780 acres. On the shore there are three very pleasant beaches, viz. Jenness’, Sandy, and Wallace’s. A bridge at Little Harbour unites the towns of Rye and Newcastle. The soil of this town is not naturally fertile, but it is made remark­ably productive by the assis­tance of seaweed, which is ascertained to be an excellent manure. Rev. Nath’l Morrill was set­tled here in 1726, Rev. Samuel Parsons in 1736, and the pre­sent minister Rev. Hunting­ton Porter in 1814. There is here 1 meeting­house, 2 school-houses, 3 grain and 3 saw-mills. In the fall of 1814, a boat from a British fleet approach­ed the shore at Rye, and on being fired upon by the inhabi­tants, it immediately returned with a loss; it is supposed, of several men.

SACO RIVER has its Source on the White mountains near what is called the notch, and in the vicinity of the source of the Lower Amonoosuck, which runs westerly into Con­necticut river. Saco river flows in a souther­ly course down the mountains about 12 miles, then taking an easterly direction it enters the town of Bartlett, where it re­ceives Ellis river, which rises in the easterly pass of the mountain near the source of Peabody river. Within the distance of half a mile from these mountains two large streams flow down the highest of the mountains, one of them into Ellis river. The former of these is Cutler’s river and the latter is New river. The latter made its appearance in October, 1775, during a long rain. In its course it broke down many rocks and trees and presented a wide spectacle of ruin. At its junction with Ellis river there is a noble cascade of 100 feet in height. Several, other branches of Saco river flow from other parts of the mountains. From Bartlett the course of the Saco is S. a­bout 10 miles to the lower part of Conway, where it receives Swift river from Burton, thence in an easterly course it passes into Fryburgh and Brownsfield in Maine, and from thence to the sea it has a southeaster­ly course of about forty-five miles. This river rises and over­flows very suddenly in rainy seasons and subsides very rap­idly after the cessation of the rains. In the great flood of 1775, when the New river broke out, the banks of the Saco were overflowed very suddenly, and the waters were of a deep red colour for sever­al days, probably from passing over iron ore. This appearance was superstitiously supposed to be that of blood, and was con­sidered as ominous of public calamity. On the subsiding of the waters, it was observed, that the bed of the river in some places was widened and the course of several of its branches changed. In a great freshet it has risen 25 feet, but its common rise is about 10 feet.

SALEM NEW, generally call­ed New-Salem, is in Rocking­ham county, was incorporated in 1750, and contains 1179 in­habitants; bounded N. by Londonderry, E. by Atkinson and the line of Massachusetts, 8. by this line and Pelham, and W. by Windham, comprising 15,600 acres. In this place are World’s pond, Captain’s pond, Policy pond, etc. all of which fall into Spiggot river. The soil here is well watered and fertile. The Londonderry turnpike passes through this town. Rev. A. Bailey was settled here in 1740, and Elder Samuel Fletcher in 1780. Rev. John Smith is the present pas­tor. There is here also a small society of methodists, another of baptists, a pleasant village of 12 or 14 houses, 4 grain-mills, 3 saw-mills, a woolen factory, a fulling-mill, and a carding-machine.

SALISBURY, a township in the N.E. part of Hillsborough county, formerly called Stephenstown, was incorporated in 1768, and contains 1913 inhab­itants; bounded N. by Ando­ver, E. by Merrimack river, which divides it from North­field, S. by Boscawen and War­ner, and W. by Kearsarge Gore and mountain, compris­ing an area of 28,600 acres. Blackwater river, a branch of the Contoocook passes the W. part of this town and forms sev­eral bays near the line of An­dover. A toll bridge connects the N.E. part of this town with Sanbornton. There is a very flourishing village at Webster’s falls, near the mouth of Winnipiseogee river. A part of Kearsarge mountain is in Salis­bury, and through this town passes the 4th N. H. turnpike from Dartmouth college to Concord. On this road in the S. part of the town is a flour­ishing village, containing 20 or 30 houses, stores, etc. There are in this town a congrega­tional and baptist society, 2 handsome meeting-houses, an academy, several grain and saw-mills, a clothing-mill, wire-factory, oil-mill, 2 card­ing-machines, and 6 trading stores. Rev. J. Searle was ordained here in 1773. The present ministers are the Rev. T. Worcester and Elder 0. Robinson.

SALMON FALLS RIVER is the eastern and main branch of the Piscataqua (which see.)

SANBORNTON, in the S. W. part of Strafford county, was incorporated in 1770, and con­tains 2,884 inhabitants; bound­ed N. W. by New-Hampton, N. E. by Meredith, E. by the Great bay, which divides it from Gilford, S.E. by Gilmanton, S. by Winnipiseogee lake, and W. by Pemgeway river, which divides it from Salisbu­ry, Andover, and New-Ches­ter; this river unites with Winnipiseogee lake in the S. W. part of the town, at which place the confluent streams be­come the Merrimack river. The bays and rivers, which al­most encircle this town meas­ure nearly 30 miles,and the bay between this town and Mere­dith is 3 miles wide. Salmon brook pond is the only pond in this town, and is 130 rods long And 50 wide. Salmon brook mountain is in Sanbornton. Re­publican ridge connects this town with Salisbury and Union bridge unites it to Gilmanton. There are in this town 3 re­ligious societies, 2 of baptists and 1 of congregationalists, each of them owning a hand­some meeting-house. Rev. J. Woodman the first minister in this town was ordained in 1771. The present ministers are Rev. J. Bodwell, Elders Crocket and Cheney. Sanbornton has 11 grain-mills, 13 saw• mills, 3 clothing-mills, 2 carding-ma­chines, 1 nail-factory, an oil-mill, a distillery. and 6 trading stores.

SANDOWN, in Rockingham county, was incorporated in 1756, and in 1810, contained 504 inhabitants; bounded N. by Chester and Poplin, E. by Hawke, S. by Hampstead, and W. by Chester and part of Londonderry, comprising 8,532 acres, of which 200 are water. The largest parts of Chub pond and of Angle pond are in this town, one on its eastern and the other on its northern line; the former is 140 rods wide and the latter 100, empty­ing itself into Exeter river, which passes through this town. Rev. Josiah Cotton the first minister here, was ordain­ed in 1759, and was succeed­ed, for a short time by the Rev. S. Collins. The inhabitants are generally baptists and methodists. There is here a meeting-house and several mills.

SANDWICH, in the N. part of Strafford county, was incor­porated in 1763, and contains 2,232 inhabitants; bounded N. by Sandwich mountains an unlocated tract, E. by Tamworth, S. by Moultonborough, and W. by Campton, Holderness and Thornton, compris­ing an area of 54,600 acres. Red Hill pond and Bear Camp pond are in this town, forming the sources of two rivers of the same names. In the northwest part of the town is part of Squam mountain and of Squam lake, (see Squaw:, lake.)
There are here three relig­ious societies; one of baptists, one of methodists, and one of friends. Elder Quimby is a settled preacher here. There are in Sandwich 6 grain-mills, 6 saw-mills, 1 clothing-mill, 1 carding-machine, and 3 trad­ing stores.

SAWYER’S LOCATION. (See Nash’s and Sawyer’s location.)

SEABROOK, in Rockingham county, is in the northeast ex­tremity of the state. It was incorporated in 1768, and con­tains 774 inhabitants ; bounded N. by Hampton Falls, E. by the sea, S. by the line of Mas­sachusetts dividing it from Salisbury, and W. by South­ampton and part of Kensing­ton, comprising an area of 3,307 acres. Gains’ brook waters the east part of the town and falls into the sea at Hampton. This part of the town is an extensive salt marsh. There are here two societies of congregationalists and one of friends, each having a meeting-house in a village of about 40 houses, etc. Rev. S. Perley was ordained here in 1765. The present pastor is Rev. E. Hull. Seabrook was formerly a part of Hampton. It is 9 miles from Exeter, the road passing through it from Portsmouth to Newburyport.

SHARON, in the west part of Hillsborough county, was in­corporated in 1791, and con­tains 446 inhabitants; bound­ed N. by Peterborough, E. by Temple, S. by New-Ipswich and Rindge, and W. by Jaffrey, comprising an area of 10,000 acres. Several small streams rise in this town and fall into Contoocook river. On the line be­tween this town and Rindge is a cragged mountain 200 feet higher than the surrounding country. The 3d N. H. turn­pike passes over the southwest extremity of this town.

SHELBURNE, in Coos county, was incorporated in 1769, and contains 176 inhabitants; bounded N. by Success and Maynesborough, E. by the District of Maine, S. by unlocated lands, and W. by Durand, comprising 45,140 acres. Ameriscoggin river in its passage through this town into Maine, receives Peabody and Moose rivers and several smaller streams. Mount Moriahand some other large moun­tains are in Shelburne. There are here 2 grain and 2 saw­mills:

SHOALS, ISLES OF, are seven in number and lie on the coast of New-Hampshire. The cel­ebrated John Smith gave his own name to them, but the in­gratitude of posterity has de­nied this small honour to his memory. Staten island be­longs to New-Hampshire, and on this is the town of Gosport. The others are in the District of Maine. They are inhabit­ed by about 100 fishermen and have a meeting-house, which serves as a land mark to sea­men. There has also been erected here by charity a par­sonage house. There is here good moorings and an artificial dock construct­ed by Mr. Haley. Vessels sometimes put in here in bad weather, but large ships cannot do this safely. From Star island to dry sal­vage rock the course is S. 4. W. 8 leagues to Portsmouth, N. N. W. 3 leagues to Newburyport bar, S. W. 7 leagues, N. lat. 42° 59′, W. long. 70° 33′. Rev. John Tuck was ordain­ed here in 1732, and died in 1773, aged 77.

SIMS STREAM rises in the mountains in Columbia from several ponds and springs, and falls into the Connecticut riv­er near the northwest extremi­ty of the town.

SMITH’S RIVER rises in Or­ange and Grafton, near Isin­glass mountain, and after an easterly course of 16 miles through Danbury and Alexan­dria, falls into the Pemigewasset river in the upper part of New-Chester. Its mouth is 20 yards wide.

SOCIETY LAND, in Hillsbor­ough county, contains 199 in­habitants; bounded N. by Deering, E. by Francestown, S. by Greenfield, and W. by Contoocook river which divides it from Antrim: its area is 3,300 acres. Crotchet moun­tain lies on its south and east line.

SoOMERSWORTH, in the south­east extremity of Strafford county, was formerly a part of Dover. It was incorporated in 1754, and contains 878 in­habitants; bounded N. W. by Rochester, N. E. by Salmon fall river which divides it from Berwick, and S. and S.W. by Dover, comprising an area of 10,048 acres. There are in this town several ponds, such as Cole’s pond 150 rods long and half as wide; Hum­phreys pond on the line of Dover, 200 long and 120 wide. Dover turnpike passes through the southeast part of this town and over Quampegan bridge into Berwick. Somersworth has one meeting-house. The Rev. James Pike was settled here in 1730, and he has been succeeded by the Rev. P. Thurston. There are in this town 3 grain and 3 saw­mills, 2 fulling-mills, and 1 trading store. The history of this town records a violent thunder storm in 1779, during which the meeting-house was consumed by lightning and its bell was melted and fell in a state of fusion.

SOUCOOK RIVER rises from three ponds in the southerly part of Gilmanton, one of which is Soon pond. The several branches unite in Loudon, and passing between Concord and Pembroke, fall into the Merrimack river below Garvin’s falls. On this stream is a large number of mills of various kinds.

SOUTHAMPTON, in Rocking­ham county, was incorporated in 1742, and contains 427 in­habitants; bounded N. by East-Kingston and Kensington, E. by Seabrook, S. by Amesbury, and W. by Newtown, com­prising 9,400 acres. Powow river flows through this town and affords many valuable mill seats. There is here one meeting-house. Rev. William Parsons was settled in this town in 1743, and Rev. N. Noyes in 1763. Southamp­ton was formerly a part of Hampton and granted by Mas­sachusetts.

SOWHEGAN RIVER has the sources of its southerly branch in New-Ipswich, Temple, Wilton, and Lyndeborough. A­nother branch flows from New-Boston and Mount-Vernon, and passes through Milford and Amherst. The two branch­es unite in the town of Merri­mack and fall into the river of that name opposite Litch­field.

SPIGOOT RIVER rises in Londonderry and Hampstead from island pond. After pass­ing through Salem and receiv­ing the waters of several ponds in that town, it falls into the Merrimack river between Methuen and Dracut in Massa­chusetts.

SPRINGFIELD, in Cheshire county, was incorporated in 1794, and contains 814 inhab­itants; bounded N. E. by Grafton, S. E. by Wilmot and New-London, and W. bv Croy­don and New-Grantham, com­prising 28,350 acres, 200 of which are water. Stallion pond in this town is 230 rods long and 140 wide; Silly pond is 240 long and about 80 wide. A branch of Sugar river has its source here. Through the N. E. part of the town passes the 4th N.H. turnpike. Spring­field is in the N. E. extremity of the county adjoining Hills­borough and Grafton counties. There are here 3 religious so­cieties, 1 meeting-house, 11 mills, and 1 store.

SQUAM LAKE AND RIVER. This lake lies on the borders of Holderness, Moultonborough, Sandwich, and Centre-harbor. It is about 6 miles in length and nearly 5 miles wide, containing probably a­bout 6,500 acres. It has sev­eral small islands, the largest of which is Fowler’s, 300′ rods long and 120 wide. This lake might easily communicate with Winnipiseogee lake, the distance between them being only 500 rods wide. The stream from Squam lake to Lit­tle Squam pond, (called Squam river) is 100 rods long, thence through the pond to its outlet is 400, thence to Pemigewasset river the distance is 1000 rods. The river and the pond are in Holderness.

STEWARTSTOWN is in the N. part of Coos county, and contains 176 inhabitants; bounded N. by college lands, E. by Dixville, S. by Cole­brook, and W. by Vermont, comprising 27,381 acres. Di­mond pond is in this town, forming the source of Dimond river. Bishop’s brook, Dead water river, and Mohawk river also have their sources here. Hall’s stream unites with the Contoocook in this town. On these several streams are nu­merous mills.

STODDARD, in Cheshire county, was incorporated in 1774, and contains 1139 inhabitants. It was formerly called Limerick, and is bound­ed N. by Washington, E. by Windsor and Antrim, S. by Nelson and Sullivan, and W. by Sullivan, Gilsum, and Mar­low. It contains 35,925 acres, 1100 of which are water. There are here 17 ponds, all of which discharge their waters into Ashuelot and Contoocook rivers. A ridge of mountains ex­tends more than half through this town. There are here 2 religious societies, 1 meeting­house, 4 grain-mills, 3 saw­mills, and 1 clothing-mill.

STRAFFORD COUNTY iS bounded W. and N. W. by Grafton county, N. by Coos county, E. by the District of Maine, and S. by Rockingham county, comprising 861,171 acres of land and water. This county contains 41,595 inhab­itants, 6,828 of whom are le­gal voters. It has 32 town­ships, and in 1813, it had 50 meeting-houses, 1 academy, 920 grain-mills, 127 saw-mills, 32 clothing-mills, 4 oil-mills, 4 cotton-factories, 1 woolen-fac­tory, 21 carding-machines, 10 distilleries, and 88 trading stores. In 1810, there were in this county 23 stud-horses, 4,444 other horses, 238 four years old, 312 three years old, and 495 two years old ; 5,685 oxen, 3,223 four years old; 12,874 cows, 8,682 three years old cattle, 9,395 two years old cattle, 1 mule, 1 jack, and 1,783 acres of orcharding. The principal towns in this county are Dover, Durham, Rochester, and Gilmanton. The superior court holds its sessions for this county at Do­ver, the common pleas are hol­den alternately at Rochester and Gilmanton, and the probate court is held also in these two towns. The county gaol is at Dover. Straffbrd sends 35 re­presentatives to the state leg­islature.

State of the State 1817–Part 5 of 7

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Taken from The New Hampshire Gazetteer 1817

LYME, a township in Graf­ton county, incorporated in 1761, and now containing 1670 inhabitants ; bounded N. by Orford, E. by Dorchester, S. by Hanover, and W. by Con­necticut river, comprising an area of 28,500 acres. There are several ponds in Lyme, which form the sources of Port’s, Grant’s, and Fairfield brooks. Grafton turnpike pass­es through this town to Orford bridge. There is here a small village containing a presbyte­rian meeting-house, 10 dwell­ing-houses, 3 stores, etc. There are also in other parts of the town a baptist meeting-house, sever­al grist and saw-mills, and a carding-machine. Rev. W. Connant was settled here in 1773, and was succeeded by the pres­ent minister, Rev. N.Lambert.

LYNDEBOROUGH, a township of an irregular shape, in Hills­borough county ; bounded N. by Francestown, E. by New-Boston and Mount-Vernon, S. by Milford and Wilton, and W. by Greenfield and Temple. It contains 20,767 acres, and 1074 inhabitants, was in­corporated in 1764. Among the mountains in the N. girt of the town Souhegan river has its source. Through oth­er parts of the town flow Piscataquog and Rocky rivers. Warner’s brook takes its rise near a mountain 1450 feet in height. On the S. side of this mountain stands the meeting­house of the town. There are also in the town 2 grain-mills,
2 saw-mills, a clothing-mill, and a nail factory. Rev. S. Goodridge was ordained here in 1768, died in 1809, and was succeeded in 1810, by the present pastor Rev. N. Mer­rill.

MAD RIVER has its source in a pond on a mountain in the ungranted part of Graf­ton county, about 10 miles N. from Sandwich. Taking a southerly course, it cruses S. E. extremity of Thornton and falls into Pemigewisset river at Campton to this junction from its source its course is southwest about 14 miles.

MADBURY, a township in Strafford county, incorporated in 1755, and now containing a population of 582 inhabitants; bounded N. E. by Dover, S. W. by Durham and Lee, and N. W. by Barrington, comprising an area of 8,125 acres. Bellamy bank river has its source in Chelsey’s pond in Barrington, passes through Madbury in a serpentine course and is the only considerable stream which waters the place. The soil here is of a good qual­ity and under excellent culti­vation. The inhabitants are generally baptists and have a meeting-house, in which El­der W. Hooper offciates.

MANCHESTER, a town in Hillsborough county situated on the eastern bank of Mer­rimack river. It was incorpo­rated in 1752, by the name of Derryfield, and in 1810, re­ceived its present name. It is bounded N. and E. by Chester, S. by Londonderry, and W. by Merrimack river, which separates it from Bedford and Goffstown, comprising an area of 15,071 acres, 550 of which are water. Massabesick pond lies partly in this town. Amuskeag falls and M’Gregore’s bridge are on the Merrimack between this town and Goffstown. Blodget’s canal is cut round the falls on the Manchester side. Through the lower part of the town Cohass brook flows from Massabesick pond to Merrimack river, and a canal is projected for the purpose of making this canal navigable for boats, rafts, etc. Manchester has 1 meet­ing-house, several mills, and a cotton and woolen factory. This town is the residence of Maj. Gen. John Stark, the hero of Bennington. There is an anecdote related of this ven­erable man, which’ is not gen­erally known, and for that rea­son may not be unacceptable here. While hunting when a young man with three com­panions on the banks of Ba­ker’s river he was captured by a party of Indians. He imme­diately gave the alarm to his brother William, who was in a canoe at some distance and who thereby escaped. For giving this alarm the Indians treated him with great cruelty and carried him to their headquarters near Memphremagog lake. They then adopted him as a son and clothed him in fine robes. This early captivity, from which he soon escaped, qualified him for the duties of a partisan officer in the succeeding war, from which station he was afterwards exalted to the rank of major general of the conti­nental army.

MARGALLAWAY RIVER has its source among the high lands, which separate Maine from Lower Canada, in the N. E. extremity of New-Hamp­shire, about 30 miles N. from Errol. After a southerly course of nearly 20 miles on the wes­tern border of Maine, it en­ters New-Hampshire at the S. E. part of the 2d grant to Dartmouth college, where it forms a junction with the unit­ed streams of Dead and Di­mond rivers. Thence after a southerly course of about 6 miles to Errol it receives the waters of Umbagog lake. Af­ter this junction the main stream is the Ameriscoggin river.

MARLBOROUGH, a township in Cheshire county, incorporat­ed in 1776, and now contain­ing 1142 inhabitants ; bounded N. by Roxbury, E. by Dublin and Jaffrey, S. by Fitzwilliam, and W. by Swansey and a part of Keene. Its area is 20,749 a­cres. The 3d N. H. and the Fitzwilliam turnpikes pass through this town. There are here several ponds, which form the source of some of the branches of Ashuelot river. The soil is rocky, suitable for grain and flax and particularly for grass. Rev. Joseph Cum­mings, the first minister in this town, was ordained in 1778, and dismissed in 1780. His successor, Rev. H. Fish, was ordained in 1793, and is still in office. Marlborough con­tains 1 congregational meeting­house, a manufactory of sithes and hoes, and another of earth­en ware, several mills, and 1 carding-machine. The annual average number of deaths in this town for 20 years past has been about 13. Capt. Andrew Calhoun, an officer killed in the revolutionary war, was of this town.

MARLOW, a township situat­ed nearly in the centre of Ches­hire county, was incorporated in 1761, and now contains 566 inhabitants; it is bounded N. by Acworth and Lempster, E. by Washington and Stoddard, S. by a part of Gilsum, and W. by Alstead, comprising an area of 15,737 acres. Several
branches of Ashuelot river rise in the small ponds of this town, and its western part is watered by a branch of Cold river. There is here a meet­ing-house in which Eider Caleb Blood was ordained in 1777. He has been suc­ceeded by Elders Becket, Dus­tin, and Bates, the latter of whom is now in office and be­longs to the order of methodists. Here are several grist and saw-mills, and 1 trading shop.

MASCOMY POND lies princ­ipally in the town of Enfield, adjacent to Lebanon. It is 1200 rods long and about 250 wide and contains 2,375 acres. The surrounding lands fully indicate that the surface of the pond was once 30 or 40 feet higher than its present level. There are also appearances of a sudden rupture, as there are no marks of any margin between its present and former height. Nearly a mile from its present outlet there is a declivity of rocks 40 feet higher than the present level of the water. These rocks exhibit proofs, that the water once passed over them, but it has now formed a channel through the solid earth, nearly a mile in length.

MASCOMY RIVER has the source of its northern branch in Smart’s, pond between Lyme and Dorchester. This branch has a southerly course to Ca­naan, where it receives the wa­ters of Smart’s and Goose ponds. In Enfield it receives the waters of East and Maid’s ponds and several others, and empties itself into the south­east side of Mascomy pond. The, outlet of this pond is its S. E. extremity in Lebanon and there receives the name of Mascomy river, which after a course of 7 miles, falls into the Connecticut a few miles below Lyman’s bridge.

MASON, a township in Hills­borough county, was incorpo­rated in 1768, and in 1810 con­tained 1077 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Wilton, E. by Milford and Brookline, S. by the state line, which separates it from Ashby and Townsend in Mass., and W. by New-Ipswich, containing 18,860 acres. Several small streams rise here and water the town, on which are many valuable mill seats. The village here is called Souegan village and contains 10 or 12 dwelling-houses and 2 stores. The 3d N.H. turnpike passes through the S. W. cor­ner of the town. The soil here is generally deep _and loamy, suitable to orchards and grain. The surface is rough and stony. Mason contains a meeting­house, a large grain mill, and several other mills, and a cotton factory of 500 spindles. Rev. J. Searles the first minister in this place was ordained in 1772, and was succeeded by, Rev. E. Hill in 1790, who is still in of­fice. Elder W. Elliot is set­tled over a baptist church in this town.
A species of ochre is found here; which in its natural state gives a good yellow, and after being burned yields a chocolate colour. In the northern part of the town is a remarkable gulf. A channel was dug to turn a small stream through a hill for the purpose of carrying of a small mill. Before it was completed, a sudden freshet raised the water in one night, so as to carry off the earth to the depth of 60 feet.

MAYNESBOROUGH, an unset­tled township in Coos coun­ty, containing 34,106 acres, and bounded N. by Paulsburgh; E. by Success, S. by Selburn and Durand, and W. by Kilkenny. Ameriscoggin river passes through its easter­ly part where it receives Levi’s river from Success, and the south branch of the Upper Amonoosuck from Paulsburgh. This township lies 12 miles N. of Mount Washington and the same distance W. from the eastern line of the state, and E. from Lancaster.

MEREDITH, in Strafford county, incorporated in 1768, contained in 1810, a population of 1940. It is bounded N. W. by New-Hampton and Centre-harbor, N. E. by the Great bay which divides it from Moultonborough, S. E. by Long bay and Winnipiseogee river which separates it from Gifford, and S. W. by Sanbornton bay and Sanbornton, comprising an area of 35,777 acres. Two large bays in this vicinity extend N. W. about 5 miles each, and on the line of Centre harbor is Meredith pond 2 miles in length and 1 in breadth. Two miles S. of this is another pond 300 rods long and 100 wide. The first of these empties into Meredith bay, and the latter into Sanbornton bay. They might be united by a canal of 2 miles. At Meredith bridge is a hand­some village containing about 15 dwelling-houses, several stores, mechanic shops, and a cotton factory. In the whole town there are 4 meeting: houses; several mills, a carding-machine, a nail factory, 2 distillaries, and 7 trading stores. The inhabitants are gener­ally of the baptist persuasion. Elder N. Folsom is the only ordained minister in the place. A canal has been projected from Winnipiseogee lake to Merrimack river, which would pass through Meredith, west of the bridge. This plan if completed, would afford to lumber and other heavy articles a water carriage to Boston and Newburyport from the centre of New-Hampshire.

MERRIMACK RIVER iS formed by two branches. The most northern of which, (Pemigewasset river) has its source among the White mountains. The other branch is a short stream which flows from Winnipiseogee lake. These form a junction at the S.W. extrem­ity of Sanbornton, on the line of Hillsborough county, and compose the Merrimack, the general course of which is S. by E. about 52 miles on a di­rect line (but about 80 miles as the river runs,) to the southern boundary of the state. From Sanbornton corner it passes be­tween Northfield, New-Salis­bury, Canterbury, and Boscawen. These towns are connected by bridges. The Merri­mack receives the Contoocook river on the northern line of Concord. From this junction the Merrimack passes in a ser­pentine course through the centre of Concord, forming a large tract of excellent intervale. Two bridges are thrown over the river, connecting the east­ern and western parts of Con­cord. The Merrimack, after leaving this town passes be­tween Pembroke and Bow. In Bow there is a canal on the western side of the river round Garvin’s falls, and just above these falls Turkey river emp­ties itself, as does Suncook riv­er at the lower extremity of Pembroke. About 400 rods below the mouth of the Sun­cook are the Isle of Hookset falls and bridge, over which passes the Londonderry turn­pike leading to Concord. Amuskeag falls are about 8 miles below; these consist of three large pitches within the dis­tance of half a mile making a fall of 80 feet. There is a ca­nal round these falls on the eastern side of the river and at this place. M’Gregore’s bridge connects Manchester and Goffstown. At the lower part of Goffstown Cohass brook empties itself. At the town of Merrimack, about 5 miles far­ther down, Souhegan river empties itself, as does the Nashua river 7 miles lower on the western side, flowing from the town of Dunstable. At this town it takes an easterly direction, passing into Tyngsborough, Chelmsford, etc. in Massachusetts, and at Newburyport it falls into the sea.

MERRIMACK, a township in Hillsborough county, incorpo­rated in 1746, and containing a population of 1047 souls ; bounded N. by Bedford, E. by Merrimack river, S. by Dun­stable, and W. by Amherst and Hollis. Babboosuck and Pennychunk ponds lie partly in this town, and Souhegan river here unites with the Merrimack. There are in this town a meeting-house, several mills, and 3 trading stores. Rev. Ja­cob Burnhap, D.D. was ordained here in 1772, and is still in office.

MERRY-MEETING BAY forms the southeastern arm of Winnipiseogee lake, extending about 5 miles therefrom into Alton.

MIDDLETON, in Strafford county, was incorporated in 1778, and contains 439 inhab­itants; bounded N. by Brook­field, E. by ‘Wakefield, S. by Milton, and W. by New-Dur­ham, comprising 9,840 acres. There is here a meeting-house in which Elder W. Buzzel officiates. The Great Moose mountain extends over the N. part of the town.

MILFORD, in Hillsborough county, is bounded N. by Mount-Vernon and Lyndeborough, E. by Amherst, S. by Hollis, and W. by Mason and Wilton, comprising an area of 15,402 acres. This town was incorporated in 1794, and in 1810, its population was 1118. A large portion of its land is intervale, lying on Souhegan river and its branches. Rev. H. Moore, the present minister was ordained over the congre­gational society here in 1812. There is also a baptist society without any settled pastor. There is here a meeting-house, a cotton factory erected in 1813, a screw factory, several mills, and 2 carding-machines.

MILTON, in Strafford coun­ty, was formerly a part of Rochester, and is bounded N. W. by Middleton, E. by Sal­mon falls river, which divides it from Shapley (in Maine,) and S.Vvr. by Farmington. Its area is 25,000 acres, and its number of inhabitants 1005. It extends more than 13 miles on Salmon falls river. Branch river crosses the S.W. extrem­ity of the town. Tenerife mountain lies on its easterly side, near which is Milton pond. The southerly extremi­ty of Milton is 9 miles and 82 rods distant from Wakefield. There are here 3 religious societies, 1 meeting-house, 3 grain-mills, 3 saw-mills, 1 clothing mill, and 3 trading stores.

MILLSFIELD, an uninhabit­ed township in Coos county, 7 miles W. of Umbagog lake and 35 N. from the White hills ; bounded N. by Dixville, E. by Errol, S. by Dummer, and W. by Erving’s location. It comprises 24,100 acres, and was incorporated in 1774. Clear stream waters its north­ern extremity and Phillip’s river with several branches of the Ameriscoggin its southern parts. There are here several ponds, the largest of which is 300 rods long and 140 wide.

MONADNOCK MOUNTAIN is in Cheshire county, on the line between Jaffrey and Dublin, 10 miles N. from Massachu­setts, 20 E. from Connecticut river. Its base is 1395 feet and its summit 3254 above the level of the sea. The diame­ter of its base is 5 miles from N. to S., 3 from E. to W. and its summit consists of a bald rock.

MOHAWK RIVER has its rise among Dixville mountains, and after a westerly course through Colebrook, receives some con­siderable streams from Stewartstown, among which is Bea­ver river. It empties itself in­to the Connecticut near the N. W. extremity of Stewartstown.

MOOSE RIVER has its source on the N. side of the White mountains near the township of Durand, through which it flows into the Ameriscoggin. Its mouth is in Shelburn. Its source is within 5 miles of that of Israel’s river, which falls in­to the Connecticut.

MOOSEHILLOCK, one of the highest ranges of mountains in the state, deriving its name from the great numbers of moose which were formerly found here. It is situated in the E. part of Coventry near Peeling. Baker’s river has its source on the easterly side of this ridge. Snow has been found on its summit in every month except July.

MOULTONBOROUGH, in Straf­ford county, lies on the N. ex­tremity of Winnipiseogee lake. It was incorporated in 1777, and its population in 1810, was 994 souls ; bounded N. by Sandwich and Tamworth, N. E. by a part of Ossipee, S. E. by Tuftonborough, and W. by Centreharbor and Squam pond, containing 32,163 acres. This place derived its name from Gen. Jonathan Moulton of Hampton, who was one of its earliest and largest proprie­tors, and New-Hampton, which was taken from it, was also named at his request after the place of his residence. Moultonborough lies near the S. W. side of the Great Ossipee mountain, and it is observ­ed, that in N. E. storms the wind passes over the mountain like water over a dam, and with such force, as frequently to unroof houses. The Rev. S. Perley was settled here in 1778, and removed the next year. His successor Rev. J. Shaw is still in office. There is here a pleasant village of 10 or 12 dwelling-houses, a meet­ing-house, 1 store, 4 grain-mills, 5 saw-mills, 2 clothing-mills, and a carding-machine. Red hill is in the N.W. part of the town, and Red hill river passes through its northerly part and falls into Winnipiseogee lake. The spotted fever prevailed here in 1813. It attacked some hundreds but carried off only 30 persons. Bears were formerly common in this town as in many other new settlements. In the au­tumn they frequently came down into the populous set­tlements and sometimes even to the maritime towns. It fre­quently devours young swine, but seldom attacks mankind.

MOUNT-VERNON, in Hills­borough county, was incorpo­rated in 1808, and contains 762 inhabitants. It is bound­ed N. by New-Boston, E. by Amherst, S. by Milford, and W. bv Lyndeborough, and con­tains 7,975 acres. This town is watered by Beaver brook, which has its source here, as also have several branches of Souhegan river. There is here a pleasant village containing a meeting-house, 12 dwelling-houses, 3 stores, etc. and sever­al mills. The 2d N. H. turn­pike passes through this village. Rev. J. Bruce was settled here in 1785, and was suc­ceeded in 1809, by Rev. S. Chapin the present pastor.

NARMARGUNGOWACK RIVER rises in the township of Success in several branches, which unite in Paulsburgh and there fall into the Ameriscoggin river.

NASH AND SAwYER’s LOCA­TIONS. This tract is bounded N. by Bretton Woods, E. by the White mountains, S. by Chadbourne and Hart’s loca­tions, and W. by ungranted lands. It contains 21,084 a­cres. The Jefferson turnpike passes through it.

NASIR’s STREAM has its source. in the N. E. part of the town of Stratford, and at Nor­thumberland it falls into the Amonoosuck 6 miles from Connecticut river.

NASHUA RIVER has its source in the south part of Boylston, (Mass.) and after a northerly course of 40 miles it passes into Dunstable, (N.H.) and empties itself into the Connecticut at Nashua village in Dunstable.

NELSON, in Cheshire coun­ty, was formerly called Packersfield and received its pres­ent name in 1814, by an act of the legislature. It is bounded N. by Stoddard, E. by Han­cock and Antrim, S. by Dub­lin, and W. by Roxbury, con­taining 22,875 acres and 1076 inhabitants. There are sever­al ponds in this town, such as Spoonwood pond, which com­municates with Long pond by a strait about forty rods long. Long pond runs circuit­ously into Hancock and then returns to Nelson; its length is 1300 rods. There are also Fish, Pleasant, and Roaring brook ponds, Centre pond and Berkshire near Dublin, com­prising in all about 1,879 acres of water. In the S. part of this town a branch of the Ashuelot river rises, and in its N. part a branch of the Contoocook. The surface of Nelson is mountainous like that of the adjacent country. Rev. J. Foster was ordained here in 1781. Rev. G. Newhall is the present minister. There is in this town a meeting-house, a cotton and woolen factory, 4 grain-mills, 3 saw-mills, and 1 clothing-mill.

NEW-BOSTON, in Hillsbo­rough county, was incorporat­ed in 1763, and contained by the last census, a population of 1810 souls. It is bounded N. by Weare, E. by Goffstown and Bedford, S. by Amherst and Mount-Vernon, and W. by Lyndeborough, comprising an area of 26,538 acres. Several branches of Piscataquog river flow through its S. W. extremity into Goffstown, and thru its S.E. part the 2d N.H. turnpike has its course. There is here a baptist and a presbyterian meeting-house, 7 school-houses, several mills, and a wire-factory incorporat­ed in 1812. Rev. Solomon Moore was settled in New-Boston in 1768, died in 1803, and was succeeded in 1806 by the Rev. E. P. Bradford the present pastor. Elder J.Stone was ordained over the baptist church in 1806, and is still in office.

NEW-CASTLE, commonly called Great-Island, is in Rock­ingham county, 2 miles E. from Portsmouth. It was in­corporated in 1693, and con­tains 592 inhabitants and 45 acres. This is the largest of those islands which lie at the mouth of the Piscataqua. It has a meeting-house, about 100 dwelling-houses, and at its N. E. extremity a fort and light­house. Rev. Joshua Moody was ordained here previous to the revolution of 1689, and has been succeeded by the Rev. Messrs. Shurtleff, Blunt, Chase, and Noble. Elder Thomas Bell resides here at present and occasionally prea­ches.

NEW-CHESTER, in Grafton county, was incorporated in 1778, and contained in 1810, a population of 895 inhab­itants ; bounded N. W. by Danbury and Alexandria, N.. by Newfound pond, E. by Pemigewasset river, and S. by Andover, comprising 23,456 acres. Grafton turnpike and a branch of Blackwater river pass over the S. W. part of the town, and over its norther­ly part flows Smith’s brook, which falls into the Pemigewasset river opposite New-Hampton. A ridge, called Ragged mountain, separates this town from Andover. There are here 3 religious societies, 1 meeting-house, 3 grain-mills, and 5 saw-mills. In the year 1796, twenty-five persons died here of the dysentery.

NEW-DURHAM, in Strafford county, was incorporated in 1762, and now contains 888 inhabitants ; bounded N. W. by Wolfeborough E.by Brook­field and Middleton, and S.W. by Farmington and Alton, comprising 22,625 acres. In 1749, this town, comprehend­ing a tract of land 6 miles square, was granted to Ebene­zer Smith and others, on con­dition that 40 families should be permanently settled in it within 5 years from the declar­ation of peace, and that within 2 years after, a meeting-house should be erected, public wor­ship supported, and a grain and saw-mill erected. Maj. Thomas Tash made early exertions in forwarding the settlement of this town, and built the 2 mills at his own expense. With the assistance of Paul March and others, the required number of settlers was obtained by a bounty of 50 a­cres of land to each settler. The town was incorporated by the name of New-Durham. Within the compass of the original grant are 5 ponds, the largest of which is Merry-Meet­ing-bay pond containing about 1000 acres. The surface of the town is very mountainous and part of the soil so rocky as to be unfit for cultivation. Mount Betty rises 630 feet a­bove the pond, which washes its base. Cropple-crown moun­tain is still higher. The soil here is generally too moist for grain, but suitable for grazing. Merry-Meeting river flows from the pond of that name and falls into Winnipiseogee lake. Ela’s river flows from Cold rain pond and passes a­bout 4 miles through New-Durham to Farmington, on both which streams are many good mill seats. On the lat­ter is a fall of 14 feet, within 4 rods of which, mills are already erected. Cocheco river also has its source in this town. The principal roads passing through New-Durham are from Wolfeborough and Gilmanton to Dover. There are some curiosities in this town, one of which is a remarkable fountain of wa­ter, over which a part of Ela’s river passes. By sinking a small mouthed vessel about 6 feet into this fountain, water may be obtained extremely cold and pure. The depth of it has never been ascertained although attempts have been made. Near the centre of the town is a mountain called Rat­tlesnake hill, the south side of which is nearly an hundred feet high, and almost perpen­dicular. In its fissures a vast number of rattlesnakes have their dens. Their numbers have recently diminished. About a mile northeast from this mountain is March’s pond, which abounds with a species of clay, much resembling when dried the common chalk in appearance and qualities. On the N. E. side of Shaw’s moun­tain is a remarkable cave, call­ed the Devil’s den, the entrance of which is about three feet wide and ten high. The outer room is twenty feet square; the inner apartments grow smaller, until at the distance of fifty feet into the mountain the passage becomes too small to be investigated. The sides both of the galleries and the rooms are composed of stone. They bear the appearance of having been once united, and were probably separated by some great convulsion of nature. Several other mountains in this town contain precipices and cavities, some of which are forty or fifty feet in depth. Col.Thomas Tash, who spent the last twenty years of his life in New-Durham, was born in Durham in 1722. He was en­gaged in the French war, first in the capacity of captain and afterwards in that of major. In 1755, the annual stores, while on their way to the north­ern army, were destroyed at a place called Half-way brook, between forts Edward and William Henry. Capt. Tash with 140 men was ordered to repair to this spot with assur­ances that the remainder of the battalion should immedi­ately follow. On arriving at the place of his destination he found the stores and wagons destroyed, the men killed, and the enemy gone off. Ascer­taining their rout, he pursued them in the woods about five miles, and attacked them while they were feasting upon their plunder. A warm action en­sued which lasted an hour, when the enemy, consisting of about 1000 French and Indians, perceiving the weakness of our force, attempted to surround it. At this critical moment the remainder of the battalion arrived under major Burbank. The enemy immediately fled, and were pursued by Tash many miles into the wilder­ness. In 1757, Tash was appoint­ed major and was stationed at No. 4. (now Charleston,) with 250 men. This was the first detachment of N. H. troops that ever occupied that impor­tant post. On the return of peace he settled in Newmar­ket, and in 1776, he received a colonel’s commission in the N. H. forces, and served one campaign. Toward the close of the war he removed to New-Durham, where he owned sev­eral farms and a large tract of wild land. There he devoted himself to agriculture, and died at the age of 87, leaving behind him a memory still dear and respected. Rev. Nathaniel Porter, a congregationalist, was ordain­ed in New-Durham in 1775, and dismissed in 1777. He was succeeded by Elder Ben­jamin Randall, a zealous and indefatigable preacher of the freewill baptist order, of which sect he was considered the head, and he obtained over it an extensive jurisdiction. He died in 1808, at the age of 60.

NEW-FOUND POND lies part­ly in Hebron and partly in New Chester. Its length from north to South is 6 miles, and its width about 22 miles. It con­tains 4,530 acres, nearly two thirds of which are in New-Chester.

NEW-FOUND RIVER flows from the pond of that name, and after a southerly course of 4 or 5 miles, falls into Pemigewasset river near Bridgewa­ter village.

NEW-GRANTHAM, in Ches­hire county, was incorporated in 1761, and now contains 864 inhabitants ; bounded N. by Enfield, (in Grafton county,) E. by Springfield, S. by Croy­don, and W. by Plainfield, comprising 24,900 acres, 300 of which are water. There is a pond in the northwest part of the town about 1 mile long and 160 rods wide. Croydon mountain extends through the west part of the town, and a turnpike passes over the north part of the mountain. This town in 1775, had only 74 in­habitants, and in 1810 its pop­ulation was 864: Here are the sources of several of the branches of Sugar river, on which are a number of mills.

NEW-HAMPTON, formerly called Moultonborough-Addition, lies in the west part of Strafford county, incorporated in 1777, and now contains 1293 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Pemigewasset river which separates it from Bridgewater and New-Chester, N. by Holderness, N. E. by Centreharbor, and S. E. by Sanbornton and Meredith, comprising an area of 19,422 acres. Pemigewasset pond lies on the border of Meredith, and is about 200 rods in diameter. There are several other small­er ponds in this town. In the westerly part of the town is a remarkable spring, from which a stream issues and falls into Pemigewasset river after run­ning about a mile. This stream is sufficient for the use of sev­eral mills, and is not affected by rains or droughts. A toll bridge unites this town to Bridgewater, from which there is a turnpike leading to Sanbornton. The soil here is rich and light and very favourable to various kinds of grain and grass. There are in New-Hamp­ton 2 meeting-houses, 2 school-, houses, and 2 distilleries. Rev. S. Hubbard was ordained over the congregational church here in 1800, and is still in office. Elder Dana, a baptist, is also settled in this town.

NEW-HOLDERNESS, in Graf­ton county, lies on the eastern side of Pemigewasset river. It was incorporated in 1761, and contains 883 inhabitants ; bounded N. by New-Hampton, E. by Sandwich and Centre harbor, S. by Centre harbor and New-Hampton, and W. by Pemigewasset riv­er, which separates it from Plymouth, comprising 24,921 acres, of which 2,500 are wa­ter. A part of Squam lake is in this town, and also Squam pond, through which Squam river runs and falls into the Pemigewasset in the southwest part of the town. Squam mountain lies in its northeast part. Rev. R. Fowle was ordained here in 1789, over an episcopalian church. There is here a paper-mill, several grain-mills, one clothing-mill, a carding-machine, and a dis­tillery.

NEWICHAWANNOCK RIVER is the west and main branch of the Piscataqua. It is called Salmon falls river as far as the lower falls in Berwick, where it assumes the above name, which it retains till it unites with the Cochecho, and flows on to Hilton’s point.

NEWINGTON, in Rockingham county, contains 503 inhabi­tants, and is bounded W. by Great and Little bays, N. E. by Piscataqua river, which separates it from Kittery, E. by Portsmoath, and S. by Greenland. At Fox point in the northwest part of the town, Piscataqua bridge is thrown over Piscataqua river to Goat island, and thence to Durham shore. Goat island is about 48 rods long and of unequal breadth. There is on it an excellent tavern owned by the proprietors of the bridge.
Newington was formerly a part of Portsmouth and Dover. Its soil is excellent and pro­duces grain abundantly. The orchards here are very productive. Piscataqua bridge was built in 1794; it is 2600 feet in length, of which 2244 are plank. The chord of the cen­tral arch, which unites the two islands, is 244 feet. It is con­sidered a masterly piece of ar­chitecture, and was constructed by Timothy Palmer of Newburyport. Rev. Joseph Adams, a con­gregationalist, was the first minister in this town. He was ordained in 1714, and was suc­ceeded in 1787, by the Rev. J. Langdon, who continued in office 23 years. The annual average number of deaths in Newington is computed to be 7. There is here 1 meeting-house and 2 school-houses. There is a spring in this town, which, besides supplying a grain-mill nearly all the year, is the foun­tain of the Portsmouth aque­duct. In May, 1690, a party of In­dians under one Hoopwood attacked Fox point in this town, destroyed several houses, kill­ed 14 persons, and took 6 pris­oners. They were pursued by Capts. Floyd and Greenleaf, who recovered some of the cap­tives and part of the plunder, after a severe action, in which Hoopwood was wounded. Died in this town March 5th, 1765, Mrs. Elizabeth Hight, aged 100. She never used medicine during this long life. She was married four times, had 8 children and 300 descendants more or less re­mote.

NEW-IPSWICH, in Hillsbor­ough county, was incorporated in 1762, and contains 1395 in­habitants. It is bounded N. by Temple and Sharon, E. by Mason, S. by the line of Mas­sachusetts, and W. by Rindge (in Cheshire county.) Its a­rea is 20,260 acres. The west side of the town is watered by a branch of Contoocook river, and its east side by a branch of the Souhegan river. One branch of the- latter river rises in a pond in this town and a­nother has its source on a moun­tain. The 3d N. H. turnpike passes through the centre of this town. There is here a handsome village, 2 meet­ing-houses, an academy, 2 cot­ton and 2 woolen factories, an oil-mill, several grain and saw­mills, 1 clothing-miil, a carding-machine, and 4 trading-stores. Rev. S. Farrar was ordained here in 1760, and di­ed in 1809, aged 71. He was succeeded by the Rev. R. Hall the present minister. Elder S. Parkhurst was settled here in 1814.

NEW-LONDON, in Hillsbor­ough county, was incorporated in 1779, and contained in 1810, a population of 692; bounded N. by Wilmot, S. and E. by Sutton, and W. by Sunapee pond which separates it from Wendell. Its area is 13,560 acres, 2000 of which are wa­ter. In this town lies part of Great Sunapee pond, and also Little Sunapee about 500 rods long and 170 wide,_forming a principal source, of Blackwater river. The soil here is gener­ally hard and rocky, but it well rewards the labour of agriculture. New-London has several hills or mountains, such. as Bunker’s, Dole’s, and Messer’s. The summit of Kearsarge mountain is six miles from the central village. The principal road passing through this town leads from Hopkin­ton to Hanover. There are here 2 baptist meeting-houses. Elder Job Scammons was or­dained here in 1779, and El­der Enoch Huntingdon in 1814. The annual average number of deaths in this town is about 10. There are here several mills and 2 or 3 trading stores.

NEWMARKET, in Rocking­ham county, was incorporated in 1726, contains 1061 inhab­itants and is bounded N. by Durham and Lee, E. by the S. W. branch of Piscataqua river, S. by Exeter, and W. by Epping, comprising an area of 11,082 acres. Piscasick river passes through this town, and Lamprey river crosses its N. W. extremity and falls in­to the Great bay near its N. E. corner where there is a consid­erable village. At a place called Newfields there is another village, containing about 20 houses and several shops, etc. Rev. John Moody was ordain­ed here in 1730, and died in 1778, aged 73. He has been succeeded by the Rev. Messrs. Tombs and Thurston. Elder J. Broadhead and Elder Osborn, both methodists, occasion­ally preach here. There are in the town three religious so­cieties, several mills, stores, etc. From the year 1731 to 1770, there were in this town 948 births and 554 deaths, av­eraging about 28 of the former and 14 of the latter annually. This town was formerly a part of Exeter and was purchased of the Indians in 1638, by Wheelwright and others. Sev­eral instances of Indian cruel­ty and capture occurred in the early history of this place. Col. Winthrop Hilton, who :was killed by the Indians in Epping (then Exeter,) was bu­ried in Newmarket. The inscription on his monument is still legible and his descend­ants are still living in this vi­cinity. Mrs. Shute is now liv­ing in this town, who was cap­tured by the Indians in 1755, when 18 months old. She liv­ed with them till the age of 14.

NEWPORT, in Cheshire coun­ty, was incorporated in 1761, and contains 1427 inhabitants; bounded N. by Croydon; E. by Wendell, S. by Unity, and W. by Claremont, comprising an area of 25,267 acres. It lies about 8 miles E. from Connecticut river and the same distance from Sutton. Sugar river flows through Newport and receives here a number of its branches. The Croydon and Cornish turnpikes unite in this town and pass on to Am­herst. There is here a hand­some village of about 20 hous­es and several stores. The town contains a baptist and a congregational meeting-house, a cotton factory, several mills, and a carding-machine. Rev. John Ramele was the first min­ister here, and Rev. A. Wines is the present pastor.

NEWTOWN, in Rockingham county, was incorporated in 1749, and contained in 1810, a population of 454 ; bounded N. by Kingston, E. by South­ampton, S. by Massachusetts, and W. by Plaistow, compris­ing 5,250 acres. County pond lies partly in this town. There are here 2 religious societies and 1 meeting-house. Rev. J. Ernes was ordained in 1759. Rev. D.Tewkesbury is the pres­ent pastor.

NORTHFIELD, in Rocking­ham county, was incorporated in 1780, and contains 1057 in­habitants ; bounded N. by Sanbornton, E. by Gilmanton, S. by Canterbury, and W. by Salisbury and Boscawen, comprising 19,636 acres. There are here 2 small ponds, viz. Chesnut pond, flowing in­to the Winnipiseogee, and Sondogardy pond, flowing into the Merrimack river. At the N.W. part of the town near Webster’s falls Winnipiseogee riv­er falls into the Pemigewasset. A bridge over the latter river connects this town with New-Salisbury, and another o­ver the former unites it to Sanbornton. There is here a meeting-house common to all sects; several mills, stores, etc.

NORTH OF LATITUDE 45° is a tract of land belonging to the state of New-Hampshire; bounded as follows, beginning at the state’s land No. 3. and running N. 61° E. by the Dis­trict of Maine 3500 rods to the high lands, thence by the high lands, which separate Lower Canada from the United States to the most N. W. branch of Connecticut river, thence down said branch to latitude 45°, thence by said latitude to lands No. 3. containing 163,353 acres. On this tract is the great lake Connecticut.

NORTHAMPTON, in Rocking­ham county, was incorporated in 1742, and contains 651 in­habitants. It is bounded N. by Greenland, E. by Rye and the sea, S. by Hampton, and W. by Stratham, and contains 8,465 acres. This was former­ly a part of Hampton. Rev. Nathaniel Gookin was settled here in 1739. He has been succeeded by the Reverend Messrs. Hastings, M’Clure, Thurston, and French. The latter gentleman is still in office. There is here 1 meet­ing-house and 7 grain-mills.

NORTH RIVER has its source in North river pond on the line between Northwood and Not­tingham. After a southerly course through Nottingham, Epping, and a part of Lee it falls into Lamprey river near the N. E. corner of Epping and the line of Newmarket. This stream affords many val­uable mill privileges, on most, of which are erected mills of various kinds.

NORTHUMBERLAND, a town­ship in Coos county, lying on Connecticut river at the mouth of the Upper Amonoosuck. It was incorporated in 1779, and contained in 1810, a pop­ulation of 281; bounded N. by Stratford, E. by Piercy, S. W. by Lancaster, and W. by Connecticut river. Its area is 20,430 acres. It is in this town near Cape-Horn moun­tain, that the Upper Amonoosuck falls into the Connecticut. There are here several ponds and mountains. The soil is fertile though broken and une­ven. A bridge connects this town with Maidstone in Ver­mont nearly opposite Guild­hall. There is here a meeting­house, 2 grain-mills, a saw­mill, and a carding-machine.

NORTHWOOD, a township of elevated land in RoCkingham county, formerly a part of Nottingham. It was incorpo­rated in 1773, and contained in 1810, a population or 1095, of whom 230 were legal voters. Northwood is hounded N. E. by the line of Strafford county, which separates it from Bar­rington, S. E by Nottingham, S. and S.W. by Deerfield, and N.W. by Epsom and Pittsfield, comprising an area of 17,075 acres, 1054 of which are water. There are here 6 ponds, viz. Suncook pond 750 rods long and 100 wide, Gennis’ pond 300 long and 150 wide, Long pond about 300 long and 50 wide, Harvey’s pond, of an el­liptical form, about 200 long and in some places 40 wide; a part of Great-Bow pond is al­so in this town and also part of North river pond, Pleasant pond, and Little-Bow pond, the latter of which has two out­lets; on the N. E. it discharg­es its waters into Great-Bow pond, which is the head of Is­inglass river, and on its north­erly side a brook flows from it into Long pond, the waters of which pass into the Merrimack through Suncook pond and river. The northerly branch of Lamprey river has its source in this town near, the N. W. extremity of Saddle-back moun­tain, which is a ridge of high land separating this town from Deerfield. On the easterly side of this ridge are found crystals and crystalline spars of various colours and sizes. Black lead is also found here. There are no consider­able water-falls in this town. The height of its land is such, that the waters flowing from the farm of the late G. Clark, Esq. fall into three different rivers, Suncook, Lamprey, and Dover, and indeed the waters, which fall from different parts of the roof of a building on this farm run into two different riv­ers, the Piscataqua and Merri­mack. The soil in Northwood is generally of a moist quality. It is excellently suited for grazing, and in mild seasons favourable to corn and grain. The N. H. turnpike passes through this town from Ports­mouth to Concord. It has here a direct course from E. to W. of 8 miles. Rev. Ed­mund Pilsbury, the first minis­ter in this town, was ordained in the year 1779, over a bap­tist society and continued here till 1809. Rev. J. Prentiss was ordained in 1799 over the congregational society and is still in office. Rev. Eliphalet Merrill, the present successor of Mr. Pilstmry, was ordain­ed in 1804. These two socie­ties are nearly equal in number and each has a meeting-house. There are in Northwood 6 school-houses, 4 grain-mills, 7 saw-mills, a clothing-mill, and 8 trading stores. The situation of this town is pleasant, and more elevated than any land between it and the sea. From its height, vessels entering the Piscataqua harbour may be seen with the assistance of glasses. From this place the light house at Portsmouth bears S. E. and the highest mountain in Gilford N. 16.0 W. The first house in this town was erected in 1762, and is now standing near the baptist meeting-house. Two of the first settlers are now living here in honourable old age. The annual average number of deaths is about 9.

NOTTINGHAM, in Rocking­ham county, was incorporated in 1722, and now contains 1063 inhabitants ; bounded N. E. by Barrington, S.E. by Lee and part of Epping, S. by Ep­ping and Raymond, and W. by Northwood and Deerfield, comprising 25,800 acres, of which 300 are water. There are here several ponds, such as North river pond contaning about 80 acres, Petuckaway pond of about 170 acres, Quincy pond about 45 acres, and others of a smaller size. In the westerly part of the town near Deerfield are Upper, Middle, and Lower Petuckaway mountains. Petuckaway river has its source in this town in a pond of the same name. Little river and sever­al other small streams also rise in Nottingham. North river passes through this town and through its northerly part the N. H. turnpike has its course. Rev. S. Emery was settled here in 1742, and Rev. B.Butler in 1758. Samuel Dyer, a free-will baptist, is the present minister. There is a congre­gational meeting-house situ­ated in a pleasant and compact part of the town called the square. There are in the town 3 grain-mills and 4 saw-mills.

NOTTINGHAM WEST, a township in Hillsborough coun­ty, incorporated in 1746, and now containing 1379 inhabit­ants ; bounded N. by Litch­field and Londonderry, E. by Pelham, ‘S. by Lyndeborough, (Mass.,) and W. by Merri­mack river, which separates it from Dunstable, comprising 17,379 acres. In this place is Massabesick pond 230 rods long and 70 wide, and adjacent to the town is Otternic pond about 25 rods wide. There are here 2 meeting-houses, 3 religious societies, 2 of baptists and 1 of congregationalists. Rev. N. Merrill the first min­ister in this town, was ordain­ed in 1737, and was succeeded by Rev. J. Strickland in 1772. Elder Daniel Merrill is settled here over a baptist church. There are in this town 3 grain-mills, 3 saw-mills, and 1 trad­ing store. Capt. James Ford was a resident in this town. He was with Gen. Stark at Bennington and was there mor­tally wounded.

OLIVERIAN RIVER. The most easterly branch of this river rises on the west side of Moosehillock mountain and its northern branch from Owl-head mountain, both in the town of Coventry. These branches unite in Haverhill, (N. H.) forming Oliverian riv­er, which empties itself into the Connecticut.

ORANGE, formerly called Cardigan, is in Grafton county. It was incorporated in 1790, and contains 229 inhabitants; bounded N.E. by Groton and Hebron, S. E. by Alexandria and part of Danbury, S.W. by Cushing’s Gore, and N. W. by Dame’s Gore and Canaan, comprising 21,976 acres. In this town is the source of the southerly branch of Baker’s river and of the northerly branch of Smith’s river. Cardigan mountain extends through its centre from N. to S. and Grafton turnpike passes over its S.W. extremity. In the S. W. part of this town is found a very valuable species of ochre. It is found in great abundance, deposited in veins and of a su­perior quality to that which is imported. Two men will dig and prepare for market about 80 pounds of this in a day.

ORFORD, in Grafton county, was incorporated in 1761, and contained in 1810, a population of 1265 ; bounded N. by Piermont, E. by Wentworth, S. by Lyme, and W. by Connecticut river, comprising an area of 27,000 acres. There are sev­eral ponds in this town, the largest of which is Baker’s pond, 260 rods long and 160 wide, forming the source of the westerly branch of Baker’s riv­er. Indian pond is in the north part of the town near Stadion mountain. A stream called Jacob’s brook rises in Orford and empties itself into Con­necticut river above the bridge, which connects this town with Fairlee in Vermont. On this stream are 10 mill-dams. Sun­day and Cuba mountains lie, near the centre of this town, and Smart’s mountain in its S. E. extremity, forming the boundary of four towns, viz. Orford, Wentworth, Dorches­ter, and Lyme. Rev. John Sawyer was set­tled here in 1787, and was succeeded by the present minister, Rev. Samuel Dana. There are here 2 religious societies and 2 meeting-houses, and near the river is a pleasant village containing about 25 houses, through which the turnpike passes to Orford bridge. There are in this town several grain and saw-mills, a clothing-mill, and a carding-machine.

OSSIPEE, a township in Straf­ford county, was incorporated in 1785, and now contains 1205 inhabitants; bounded N. by Tamworth, N. E. by Great Ossipee pond, S. E. by Wake­field, and S. by Wolfeborough, Tuftonborough, and Moultonborough, comprising 36,795 a­cres. This place was former­ly called New-Garden. Its form is very irregular, its length being nearly 15 miles from N. W. to S. W. and its width in some places not more than 4 or 5. There are here several ponds, of which Dan Hole pond on the borders of Tuftonborough is the largest, be­ing about 400 rods long and 200 wide. The others are on an average 100 rods each in diameter. Bear pond has no discoverable outlet. Pine river flows through the easterly part of this town, and Bear Camp river passes its northern extremity, emptying itself into Great Ossipee lake. The soil here is generally fertile. Ossipee contains 2 religious soci­eties, 1 baptist meeting-house, 5 grain-mills, 3 saw-mills, and 1 carding-machine.

OSSIPEE GORE,. a township in Strafford county, incorpora­ted in 1785, and now contain­ing 425 inhabitants; bounded N. E. by Eaton, S. E. by Ef­fingham, and S. W. by Ossipee, comprising 10,331 acres. Ossipee lake lies principally in this town, and is about 1000 rods long from north to south, and about 600 rods wide. It receives Bear Camp river on its west side and Pine river on its south. The waters of this lake are discharged through Ossipee river.

OSSIPEE RIVER. flows from Great Ossipee lake or pond and forms a large bay or rath­er the bays, connected With each other, in the whole about 800 rods long and 600 wide. On the southeast line of Ossipee these waters are contract­ed into Ossipee river, which flows in a southeast course through Effingham into the district of Maine, and falls into Saco river, about 15 mileS east of Ossipee pond.

OSSIPEE MOUNTAIN is in the west part of the town of Ossipee adjacent to Moultonborough, and about 4 miles. west from Ossipee lake. Its altitude has never been ascer­tained. On its east side the northwest wind is peculiarly severe.

OYSTER RIVER has its source in Wheelwright pond in the town of Lee, near the south­east extremity of Barrington. It flows from the east side of the pond in a northeast course to Madbury. Thence turning southerly it crosses the line which separates Lee from Dur­ham five times within the distance of two miles. It thence takes an easterly course, and raising through Durham, meets the tide waters at the falls.

PAULSBURGH, a township in Coos county, containing about 20 inhibitants; bounded N. by Dummer and Cambridge, E. by Success, S. by Maynesborough, and W. by Kilkenny, comprising 34,507 acres. The Upper Amonoosuck and the Ameriscoggin rivers pass thru this town, the former in a north­erly course to the Connecticut, and the latter in a southerly course to the Merrimack. In the southwest part of the town is a large mountain, adjoining Maynesborough, and in its N. E. part near Cambridge there is another. There are 2 mills in this town. The centre of Paulsburgh is 15 miles east from Northumberland on Con­necticut river, and about 7 miles west from the District of Maine, and about 22 (by the road) from Lancaster court­house.

PEABODY RIVER rises in the eastern pass of the White mountains, where also rises Ellis river, a branch of the Saco. The sources of these two rivers are within the dis­tance of a few feet from each other. Peabody river flows in a northerly course from the northwest part of Adams to Shelburne, where it falls into the Ameriscoggin. From its source to its mouth its length is about 10 miles.

PEELING, in Grafton county, was incorporated in 1763, and in 1810, contained 203 inhabi­tants; bounded N. E. by Lin­coln, S. E. by Thornton, S.W. by Thornton and Ellsworth, and W. by Warren, Coventry, and Landaff, comprising 33,359 acres. There are here sever­al ponds, the largest of which is Elbow pond about 60 rods in diameter. The middle branch of Pemigewasset river passes through this town. In Peeling there are three large mountains; Cushman’s mountain in its north part, Blue mountain in its centre, and Black mountain in its northwest part. Among these mountains a branch of the Amonoosuck, a branch of Baker’s river, and Moosehillock brook have their sources. Although the surface here is mountainous the roads are good, and a turn­pike is projected from Bath to this town. There are but 2 mills in this town.

PELHAM, in Rockingham county, was incorporated in 1746, and in 1210, it contain­ed 998 inhabitants; bounded N. by Windham and Salem, S. E. and S. by Dracut, (Mass.) and W. by Nottingham West. Its area is 16,333 acres, of which 280 are water. There are here two ponds, Island pond of about 178 acres, and Gumpas pond of about 100. Beaver river flows through the town and receives the waters of these ponds. The surface of the town is generally even, although there are. several swells of valuable land. Rev. James Hobbe was ordained here in 1765, and was succeeded by Rev. James Moody. Rev. John Church, the present minister, was set­tled in 1798. There is here 1 meeting-house, 3 grain-mills, 3 saw-mills, 1 clothing-mill, a carding-machine, and 3 try fling stores. During the ten years ending in 1808, the number of deaths in this town was 121, of which 32 were of consumption.

PEMBROKE, in the south part of Rockingham county, was incorporated in 1759, and now contains 1153 inhabitants; bounded N. E. by Chichester, E. by Epsom, S. E. by Suncook river which separates it from Allenstown, S. W. by Merri­mack river dividing it from Bow, and N. W. by Suncook river dividing it from Con­cord. It contains 14,060 acres. Two bridges are erected o­ver the Suncook, one connect­ing this town with Concord, and the other leading to Allenstown; over the latter of which the Chester turnpike passes. Near the junction of the Suncook and Merrimack are several valuable mill seats, on which are erected a cotton fac­tory, 2 paper-mills, an oil-mill, a nail factory, carding-ma­chine, etc. Beside these, there are in the town 4 corn-mills, 5 saw-mills, and a clothing-mill. Pembroke street is nearly three miles long, on which are about 50 dwelling-houses, 5 stores, and 2 meeting-houses. The soil of this town is gen­erally good, and its local situa­tion is remarkably pleasant. It was called Suncook by the In­dians, and was granted by Massachusetts under the name of Lovewell’s town. Rev. Aaron Whitman was settled here in 1736. He has been succeeded by the Rev. Messrs. Emery, Colby, Mitchell, and Burnham, the latter of whom is the present minister.

PEMIGEWASSET RIVER, the western, branch of the Merri­mack, flows from the ridge called the height of land. Its several sources are on the Moosehillock mountain, the southwest part of the White mountains, and in the town of Franconia. On its western side it receives Baker’s river, a stream from New-Found pond, Smith’s river, and many smaller streams. Its average course is south about 50 miles, passing through Lincoln, Peeling, Thornton, Campton, and by Holderness, Plymouth, Bridgewater, New-Chester, and Andover. It empties into the Winnipiseogee at the lower part of Sanbornton. After this junction the main stream becomes the Merrimack.

PETERBOROUGH, a township in the southwest part of Hills­borough county, lying about 25 miles west from the Con­necticut and tile same distance east from the Merrimack, was incorporated in 1760, and in 1810 contained 1537 inhabi­tants; hounded N. by Han­cock and Greenfield, E. by Greenfield and Temple, S. by Sharon, and W. by Jaffrey and Dublin, comprising an area of 23,780 acres. The surface of this town is mountainous, and its soil is enriched by numerous brooks and small streams, favourable to meadow and pasturage ground, .and supplying many valuable mill seats: A prin­cipal branch of Contoocook river passes near the centre of this town, and also Goose riv­er flowing from Dublin and falling into the Contoocook at Smith’s mills. Near this junc­tion is the principal village, which is much indebted for its origin and growth to the indi­vidual exertions of the Hon. S. Smith. Here are about 25 dwelling-houses, 2 stores, 3 cotton fac­tories, a paper-mill, an oil-mill, grain-mill, fulling-mill, saw-mill, carding-machine, mechanic shops, etc. On the Contoocook in other parts of the town are 2 other cotton facto­ries, a woolen factory, 2 grain-mills, and 2 saw-mills. Peterborough is one of the most considerable manufactur­ing towns in the state. No one has so many factories. The principal roads leading through the town are from Am­herst to Keene, and from Han­cock to New-Ipswich. There is here 1 meeting-house, in which Rev. J. Morrison was ordained in 1759. He was succeeded by Rev. D. Annan in 1779. Rev. E. Dunbar, the present minister, was settled in 1799.

PIERCE, in Coos county, was incorporated in 1794, and in 1810, contained 211 inhabit­ants; bounded N. by Stratford and ungranted lands, E. and S. by Kilkenny, and W. by Northumberland, comprising 50,630 acres. Piercy’,s pond is on the E. side of the town, the waters of which fall into the Upper Amonoosuck in the town of Paulsburgh. Near the N.E. extremity of Piercy the north and south branches of the Amonoosuck form a junction. This river receives Nash’s stream in the northerly part of the town, as it flows from Strat­ford. Mill and Pilot moun­tains are in this place. There are here only two mills.- The course on a straight line from the centre of this town to the mouth of the Upper Amonoosuck is about 6 miles.

PHILLIP’S RIVER flows part­ly from Columbia and Dix­ville mountains and partly from a large pond in the state’s land No. 1. thence enlarging itself as it passes through the towns of Millsfield and Dummer, and taking a westerly course, it passes through Kil­kenny and enters Piercy, where it unites with the Upper Amonoosuck.

PIERCE’S ISLAND is in Piscataqua harbour, between this and Seavey’s island the main channel passes. On each of them batteries and entrench­ments were prepared in 1775, and again in 1814. The cur­rent is here narrow, rapid and deep, and the shore hold and rocky. (See Piscataqua har­bour.)

PIERMONT, in Grafton coun­ty, was incorporated in 1764, and in 1810, contained 877 in­habitants; bounded N. E. by Haverhill, E. by Warren, S. W. by Orford, and W. by the west side of Connecticut river, which divides it from Brad­ford in Vermont, comprising about 25,800 acres. Eastman’s ponds lie in this town near Warren; they unite and fall into Connecticut river in Piermont. Black mountain lies on the south side of this place and Stallion mountain on its north­ern side. The Coos turnpike passes through the N. E. part of the town. There is here 1 meeting-house and 2 religious societies, 2 grain-mills, 3 saw­mills, 1 fulling-mill, and 1 distillery. The inhabitants are
generally farmers, and manu­facture their own clothing.

PINE RIVER flows from a pond of that name in Wake­field. After a N. W. course through Ossipee and part of Effingham, it falls into Great Ossipee lake.

PISCATAQUA RIVER iS the only large river, the whole course of, which is within the state. Its source is a pond hear the S. W. corner of the town of Wakefield, and is on the line of the District of Maine. Its general course thence to the sea is S. S. E. a­bout 40 miles. It divides this state from York county, (Maine) and is called Salmon falls river from its source to Berwick lower falls, where it takes the name of Arezvichawannock, which it bears until it meets the river Cochecho flowing from Dover. The conflu­ent stream thence passes to Hilton’s point 7 miles from the sea.
The western branch is form­ed from the Swamscot river flowing from Exeter, the Winnicot river flowing from Stratham through Greenland, and Lamprey river, which divides Newmarket from Durham. These empty into a bay 4 miles wide, called the Great bay. These waters in their further progress are contracted into a smaller bay, where they receive Oyster river from Durham and Black river from Dover. They form a junction with the other branch at Hilton’s point. The tide rises in all these bays and branches as far up as the falls in each. It forms a rapid current, especially in the season of freshets, when the ebb con­tinues about two hours longer than the flood; some of the ferries would be impassable were it not for the numerous eddies, formed by the indentures of the shore. At the lower falls in each river are landing plac­es, where lumber and other country produce is discharged, so that each branch affords a convenient trading place not more than 15 or 20 miles from Portsmouth, with which a con­stant communication is kept up. This river therefore from
the situation of its branches is extremely favourable to navi­gation and commerce.

PISCATAQUA HARBOUR is one of the finest on the conti­nent, having sufficient depth of water for vessels of any burden. The adjacent lands pro­tect it from storms so effectu­ally that ships may ride here safely in any season of the year. The current here is so narrow and rapid that the harbour never freezes. It is so well forti­fied by nature that very little labour is requisite to make it impregnable. The islands in this harbour are numerous; the largest of them is Great-Island or New-Castle, now in­corporated into a township (which see.) On this island stands a light-house and the principal fort, called Fort Con­stitution. Near the site of this fort, one was erected as early as 1660, under the command of Richard Cutts, Esq. In 1795, this was completely pre­pared, mounted with 16 cannon and manned with a company of men now under the command of Capt. Walbach. In the summer of 1814, Fort Constitution was put in a complete state of defence, and another was erect­ed at Jeffrey’s point on the easterly part of the island, an­other on Kittery point called Fort M’Clary and another on Pierce’s island called Fort Washington, and several other fortifications were thrown up on the main islands.

PISCATAQUOG RIVER. Its most southerly branch rises in Francestown and its most northerly in Henniker and Deering. These after passing through Weare and New-Bos­ton form a junction on the W. side of Goffstown, through which town the stream passes to the N.E. extremity of Brad­ford where it falls into the Merrimack river after a south­erly course of about 20 miles.

PISCASICK RIVER rises in Brentwood and passes through Newmarket into Durham, where it falls into Lamprey riv­er about one mile from the northern boundary of New­market. On this stream are numerous mill seats.

PIGWACKET, the Indian name of Conway, Fryburgh, and the towns adjacent.

PITTSFIELD, in Rockingham county, was incorporated in 1782, and contained in 1810 a population of 1050; bounded N. E. by Barnstead, S. E. by Barrington and Northwood, S. W. by Epsom and Chichester, and N.W. by Loudon and Suncook river. It comprises 14,921 acres, 94 of which are wa­ter. In the S.E. part of this town is Catamount mountain, on the summit of which is Berry’s pond, and on its E. side is Wild-goose pond, about 100 rods in diameter. On the W. side of this pond the magnetic needle
is materially affected. The soil of this town is very fertile. There are here 3 grain-mills, 5 saw-mills, 2 fulling-mills, 2 carding-machines, and several trading stores. The first minister in Pitts­field was the Rev. R. Page. El­ders Sargeant and Knowlton of the baptist order are now set­tled here. There is also in this town a small society of Friends. The number of deaths here from 1781 to 1814, was 379. The•spotted fever pre­vailed in this town in 1813 and 14, of which 75 persons died in those two years. The annual average number of deaths is about 9.

PLAINFIELD, a township in Cheshire county, incorporated in 1761, and containing in 1810, a population of 1462; bounded N. by Lebanon, S.E. by New-Grantham, S. by Cornish, and W. by Connecticut river, which divides it from Hartland in Vermont. At the lower part of this town in Connecticut river is Hart’s island about 150 rods long and 35 wide. Waterquechy falls are adjacent to this town, a bridge was erected here in 1807. Plainfield is watered by a small stream flowing from Croydon moun­tains, on which are erected sev­eral mills. This town contains a handsome village of 10 or 12 dwelling-houses, several stores, and 2 meeting-houses. Through this place passes the Croydon turnpike. The pres­ent ministers here are Rev. J. Dickerson of the congregation­al and Elder Cram of the bap­tist order.

PLAISTOW, a small township in Rockingham county, incor­porated in 1764, and now containing 462 inhabitants; bound­ed N. W. by Hampstead, N.E. by Kingston and Newtown, S. E. and S. W. by Haverhill, (Mass.,) and W. by Atkinson, comprising about 5,843 acres. A small stream from Hamp­stead and another from New­town meet in Plaistow and run­ning southerly pass into Ha­verhill between Plaistow meet­ing-house and the S. corner of Atkinson. There are 3 grain-mills, 2 saw-mills, and 1 full­ing-mill. Here are 2 religious societies and 1 meeting-house. Rev. James Cushing was set­tled here in 1730, and was succeeded in 1765, by Rev. G. Merrill. Elder John Herriman is the present minister and was ordained in 1812.

PLYMOUTH, a township in Grafton county, is situated at the junction of Baker’s and Pemigewasset river. This town was incorporated in 1763, and in 1775, it contained 382 inhabi­tants, and in 1810, it contained 937 ; hounded N. by Campton, E.by Pemigewasset river, S. by Bridgewater, and W. by Hebron, comprising 16,256 acres. The Mayhew turnpike pass­es through the westerly part of this town. In the north­east part is a pleasant village, containing about 22 dwelling-houses, a meeting-house,court-house, 4 stores, and a distillery. In this town are also 4 mills, etc. Rev. Nathan Ward was set­tled here in 1765. The pre­sent minister is the Rev. D. Fairbanks.

State of the State 1817–Part 4 of 7

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Taken from The New Hampshire Gazetter 1817

GREENFIELD, a township in Hillsborough county, incorpo­rated in 1791, and containing in 1810, a population of 980.-it is bounded N. by a part of Hancock and Francestown, E. by Francestown and Lyndeborough, S. by Temple, and W. by Peterborough, and con­tains 16,904 acres, 187 of which are water. Contoocook river separates this town from Hancock. There is here one pond about 200 rods long and 100 wide, besides several oth­ers of less note. A part of Crotchet mountain rises from the north part of this town, and there is also a mountainous tract in the southerly part. Greenfield contains a congregational meeting-house, (in which Rev. J. Walker was, ordained in 1812,) several mills, and 2 stores.

GREENLAND, a township in Rockingham county, incorpo­rated in 1703, and now containing 592 inhabitants ; bound­ed N. by the Great Bay and Newington,. E: by Portsmouth and Rye, S. by Northampton, and W. by Stratham, compris­ing 6,335 acres. The land here which borders upon the bay is of an uncommonly good quality, and in a high state of cultivation. This part of the town is celebrated for produc­ing excellent cider, large quan­tities of which are sold here annually. The soil in other parts of the town is light and sandy but not unproductive. Rev. William Allen, the first settled minister in this town, was ordained in 1707, and died in 1760, at the age of 84. His successors have been the Rev. Messrs. M’Clintock, Neal, and Abbot. The latter gentleman is the present minister. There is here a spacious meeting­house for the congregationalists, and a very convenient one for the joint use of the metho­dists and baptists. There are also in this town 3 grist-mills, 2 saw-mills, and several trading shops.

GROTON, a township in Graf­ton county, incorporated in 1761. It was formerly called Cockermouth. Its population in 1810, was 549. It lies about 15 miles N. of Dartmouth col­lege, and is bounded N. E. by Rumney, S. E. by Hebron, S. W. by Orange, and W. by Dor­chester, and contains 16,531 acres. The northerly part of the town is watered by several branches of Baker’s river, and a number of streams which fall into New Found pond have their sources here. There is in Groton an iron furnace for casting hollow ware. This furnace is heated by wood, and the fire is kept alive by the action of air put in motion by the falling of water through a box, etc. The first minister in this town was the Rev. S. Perley, who was ordained in 1779, and was succeeded by the Rev. William Rolf, who is the pre­sent pastor. There is here 1 congregational and 1 baptist society, 1 meeting-house, 2 grain-mills, 4 saw-mills.

HALL’S STREAM rises in the highlands which separate Ver­mont from Lower Canada, and falls into Connecticut river at the N. W. extremity of Stewartstown.

HALE’S LOCATION iS situat­ed in Coos county, and is bounded N. and W. by ungranted lands, E. by Conway, and S. by Burton. It is 800 rods in length and 173 in width at its north, and 320 at its south extremity.

HAMPSTEAD, a township in Rockingham county, was in­corporated in 1749, and con­tained in 1810, a population of 733. It is bounded N. by Hawke and Sandown, S. E. by Plaistow, S. by Atkinson, and W. by Londonderry, and con­tains 10,623 acres, 400 of which are water. There is here Wash pond, containing about 200 acres, and a part of Island pond about the same size. The Rev. Henry True was settled here in 1752, and died in 1782. The Rev. John Kelly is the present minister. There is a pleasant village in this town comprising 10 or 12 dwelling-houses, a meeting-house, and several trading shops.

HAMPTON, a township in Rockingham county, lying on the seacoast. It was incorpo­rated in 1638, and contains a population of 990. It is bound­ed N. E. by Northampton, S. E. by the sea, S. W. by South Hampton, and N. W. by a part of Exeter, and contains 18,129 acres. Hampton was called by the Indians Winicowett. Its first minister was Stephen Bachelder, who was settled in 1638, and dismissed in 1641. His successors have been Timothy Dalton, John Wheelwright, (a brother of the celebrated Mrs. Hutchinson,) Seaborn Cotton, John Cotton, Nathaniel Gookin, Ward Cotton, Ebenezer Thayer, William Pidgeon, Jes­se Appleton, (now president of Bowdoin college,) and J. Webster, the present pastor. Hampton is a valuable and nourishing township, contain­ing two meeting-houses, and in its compact part, many hand­some buildings and several shops. An academy has re­cently been opened here, which has much promise of useful­ness. Between the years 1731 and 1791, there were in this town 884 deaths and 1725 births, of which latter 897 were males and 828 females. The largest number of deaths in any one year was 69, and the smallest number was 7. In the year 1737, 69 persons died here, 55 of them by the throat distem­per. On the same year there died of that disease, 99 in Portsmouth, 88 in Dover, 210 in Hampton falls, 127 in Exe­ter, 11 in Newcastle, 37 in Gosport, 44 in Rye, 18 in Greenland, 21 in Newington, 22 in Newmarket, 18 in Stratham, 113 in Kingston, 10 in Durham, and 22 in Chester, in all about one thousand deaths from July, 1736 to September 1737.
In the year 1754, the same disease again visited Hampton and carried off 55 persons. In the year 1638, the gener­al assembly authorized Mr. Dummer of Newbury, together With John Spencer to erect a house in Hampton, which was afterward called the bound house, although it was intend­ed as a mark of possession rather than of limit. This step having been taken toward population, a petition praying leave to settle here, was presented to the assembly by a number of persons chief­ly from Norfolk in England, and the prayer was granted. They commenced operations by laying out the township in­to 147 shares, and having form­ed a church, they chose Stephen Bachelder for their minister, with whom Timothy Dalton was afterwards associated. The original number of inhab­itants was 56, among whom were John Moulton, Christo­pher Hussey, William Sargeant, etc. In July, 1617, the Indians having commenced their work of depredation and death, the government ordered 200 friend­ly Indians and 40 English sol­diers under the command of Capt. Benjamin Swett of Hampton and Lieut. Richard­son to march to the falls of Taconee on Kennebeck river; in the course of the march, Swett discovered in the place now called Scarborough, three parties of Indians stationed on a plain. He separated his men in the same manner and pre­pared to attack them. The en­emy continued to retreat, till they had drawn our men about two miles from the fort, and then turning suddenly upon our youthful and unexperienced soldiers, they threw them into confusion. Swett, with a few of his most resolute companions fought bravely on his retreat, till he came near the fort where he was killed and 60 more left dead or wounded. On the 17th of August, 1703, a party of 30 Indians under Capt. Tour, killed 55 persons in Hampton, among whom was a widow Mussey, celebrated as a preacher among the quakers, by whom she was much lamented.

HAMPTON FALLS, formerly a part of Hampton, was incor­porated in 1712, and now con­tains 570 inhabitants; bounded N.E. by Hampton, S.E. by the salt marsh, S. by Seabrook, W. by Kensington, and N. W. by Exeter, and contains 7,400 a­cres. Theophilus Cotton, the first minister settled here, was or­dained in 1712, and died 1726. His successors have been Rev. Joseph Whipple, Jonah Bailey, Paine Wingate, Samuel Langdon, D. D., and the pressent minister, Rev. J. Abbot. There are here 2 meeting-houses, 1 for congregationalists and another for baptists, S grist-mills, 2 saw-mills, 1 clothing-mill, and 1 carding-ma­chine. From July 26, 1730 to September 26, 1736, there were 210 persons destroyed here by the throat distemper, 160 of whom were under the age of 10, 40 between the ages of 10 and 20, 9 above 20, and several more than 30 years old.

HANCOCK, a township in Hillsborough county, incorpo­rated in 1779, and now contain­ing 1184 inhabitants; bounded N. by Antrim, E. by Green­field, S. by Peterborough, and W. by the line of Cheshire county, which divides it from Nelson, comprising within the limits 19,372 acres. The south branch of Contoocook river separates this town from Greenfield. There is here a pleasant village, containing a­bout 15 dwelling houses, stores, etc. a meeting-house, a cot­ton and woolen factory, 5 grist-mills, 5 saw-mills, 2 cloth­ing-mills, and 1 carding-machine. Rev. Reid Page was ordained here in 1791, and is the present minister.

HANOVER, a township in Grafton county, incorporated in 1761, and now containing 2135 inhabitants; bounded N. by Lyme, E. by Canaan, S. by Lebanon, and W. by Connecti­cut river. It is about 6 miles square and contains 27,745 a­cres of land and water. In the river in front of the town there are three small islands, the largest of which is 75 rods long and 20 wide. Moose moun­tain extends across the town from N. to S. at a distance of 5 miles from the river. Graf­ton turnpike passes through the N.E. part of the town to Or­ford. At a short distance from the colleges there is a handsome bridge, which con­nects this town with Norwich. There are in Hanover 2 meet­ing houses, centrally situated near the colleges, and 4 relig­ious societies, 3 of which are of the congregational, and of the baptist denomination. The edifices of Dartmouth college are situated on a hand­some plain in this town, about half a mile from the river in latitude 43° 33′. This institu­tion derived its name from the right Hon. William, Earl of Dartmouth, who was one of its first and most generous bene­factors. It was founded by the pious and benevolent Dr. Eleazer Wheelock, who in 1769, obtained a royal charter, wherein ample privileges were granted and suitable provision was made for the education of Indian youth, in such a manner as should appear most expedi­ent for civilizing and christian­izing them, also for the instruc­tion of English youth in all the liberal arts and sciences. The institution, thus established, gradually grew into an use­ful and flourishing seminary. In 1754, Dr. Wheelock, having collected large donations from different parts of England, Scotland, and America, and es­pecially from Mr. Joshua Moor of Mansfield, established a school for the instruction of In­dian youth in Stockbridge, Massachusetts, to which he gave the name of Moor’s school. As the number of candidates for this school increased, it be­came necessary to erect suitable buildings. That part of the country, where it was first established, having become populous, a removal was de­termined on. When this in­tention became publicly known, proposals were made by many private and public characters in several of the neighbouring col­onies. The prudent foresight of the founder, sanctioned by the advice of the trustees in England in whose hands the donations were lodged, and at the head of whom was the Earl of Dart­mouth, induced him to accept proposals, which were made by the governor of New-Hamp­shire and other gentlemen in this state. The town of Han­over was accordingly fixed upon as the most convenient situ­ation for the school. His ex­cellency governor Wentworth soon annexed a charter for an university, December 13,1769, which received the name of Dartmouth college from its principal benefactor. The college received large donations of land including the whole township of Landaff, be­sides many other wild tracts in different situations, amounting in the whole to 44,000 acres. A valuable lot of 500 acres in Hanover was selected as the site of the school and college. Besides these donations of land, the sum of 340 pounds sterling was subscribed to be paid in labour, provisions, and materi­als for building. In September, 1770, Dr. Wheelock removed his family and school into the wilderness. At first their accommodations were similar to those of other new settlers. They erected log-houses, which they occupi­ed till better edifices could be prepared. The number of scholars at that time was 24, 6 of whom were Indians. In 1771, the first commence­ment was held, and degrees were conferred on four stu­dents, one of whom was John Wheelock, the son and succes­sor of the founder. The funds of this institution consist chiefly of lands, which are increasing in value with the growth of the country. The annual revenue from these lands is not far from $2000 and that arising from tuition has been $2100. The number of students has generally averaged 100. A grammar school con­sisting of about 50 or 60 schol­ars is annexed to the college. The immediate instruction and government of the college is entrusted to the president, (who is also professor of his­tory,) a professor of mathematics and natural philosophy, a professor of languages, a professor of divinity, and two tutors. During the forty-three years since the college was founded, it has conferred de­grees upon 1163 students, of whom 330 have been clergy­men. The whole number of students during that period has been 1387, of whom 225 have died. There is attached to this sem­inary a handsome library and a complete philosophical apparatus. In 1786, a new college was erected three stories high, and 150 by 50 feet, containing 36 rooms for students. There are several other buildings be­longing to the institution. In consideration of the present con­test, which is now pending on the con­cerns of this institution, a particular ac­count of its present government is omitted. In 1815, the trustees removed from office the president (Hon. John Wheelock) and appointed Rev. Fran­cis Brown as his successor. In the course of the same year the legislative and executive government of New-Hampshire erected a new board of trustees and appointed a new set of executive officers, to whom the old trustees and the old officers refuse to surrender the property or the instruc­tion of the college, until it shall be ju­dicially decided, whether the legislature have any power to make the above interference. The students generally have followed the old government al­though the new-officers have taken possession of the public rooms, the li­brary, apparatus, etc. The old gov­ernment consist of president Brown, and professors Adams and Shurtleff. The new officers are the Rev..William Allen (acting President,) and profess­ors Dean and Carter. We express no opinion on the merits of the unhappy controversy which has produced this singular situation of the college. It is ardently hoped, that the questions Pending will soon be decided and the institution resume its former useful­ness and prosperity. Hon. John Wheel­ock died in April, 1817.Commencement is holden on the first Wednesday of Au­gust. There are three vaca­tions, the first from commence­ment three and a half weeks, another from the first Monday of January, eight and a half weeks. The medical depart­ment here is respectable and extremely useful. It was es­tablished in 1798. For the lectures on anatomy the pro­fessor is furnished with valuable preparations, and in the chemical department there is a well furnished laboratory. The lectures on anatomy, surgery, chymistry, materia medica, and the theory and practice of physic commence on the first Wednesday of October and continue eight weeks. There are about 4000 volumes in the college library, and about 2000 in the libraries formed by the students. Moor’s Indian school is con­nected with the college, having the same trustees and president. Its annual revenue is from 1400 to $600.

HAVERHILL, a township on Connecticut river in Grafton county, incorporated in 1713, and containing in 1810 a pop­ulation of 1105; bounded N. E. by Bath, E. by Coventry, S.W. by Piermont, and W. by Connecticut river, containing 34,340 acres. Sugar loaf moun­tain lies on the eastern side of the town bordering on Coventry. Oliverian river passes through the southerly extremi­ty of Haverhill and falls into Connecticut river at the com­pact village. Fisher’s brook passes above the centre of the town and falls into the river at the Great Oxbow or little lend. There have been three bridges thrown from this town to New­bury, (Vt.) There is a hand­some village in the southwest part of the town, containing 50 or 60 dwelling-houses, an elegant meeting-house, a court­house, a county-prison, an academy, 2 smaller meeting-houses, 3 grain-mills, 5 saw-mills, 1 clothing mill, a carding-machine, and an oil-mill. Iron ore is found in this town and also a quarry of free-stone suitable for hearths and chim­ney pieces. The superior court hold its sessions here for the county of Grafton.

HAWKE, a township in Rock­ingham county, incorporated in 1769, and now containing 412 inhabitants: bounded N. by Poplin, E. by Kingston, S. by Hampstead, and W. by Sandown, extending over 7000 acres. Exeter river passes over the N. W. extremity of the town, and a part of Chub pond lies in that part of the town which borders on Sandown. Hawke was formerly a part of Kingston. The Rev. John Page was settled here in 1763, and died in 1783, at the age of 43. There is here an ancient meeting-house and sev­eral mills.

HEBRON, a township in Graf­ton county, containing a popu­lation of 563. Its shape is ir­regular and is bounded N. by a part of Rumney, E. and N. E. by Plymouth, S. E. by Bridgewater and a part of Alexandria, S.W. by Orange, and N. W. by Groton. It contains 13,350 acres, 1500 of which are water. Hebron has 1 meet­ing-house, several school-hous­es, mills, and a distillery.

HENNIKER, a township in Hillsborough county, situated on the banks of Contoocook river, containing in 1810, a population of 1608, and bound­ed N.W. by Warner and the S. E. extremity of Bradford, N. E. by Hopkinton, S. E. by Weare and the N. part of Deering, and S.W. by Hillsbo­rough, comprising an area of 26,500 acres, 135 of which are water. There are only two consid­erable ponds in this town, Long pond, 270 rods long and 80 wide, and Round pond. Contoocook river passes through the town from W. to E. On the banks near the centre of the town is a pleasant village, containing about 25 dwelling-houses, 2 meeting-houses for congregationalists, and 1 for quakers, 1 oil-mill, and 1 distillery. In another part of the town there is 1 meeting-house, 4 grist-mills, 6 saw-mills, 1 clothing-mill, and 1 carding-machine. Rev. Jacob Rice was ordained here in 1769, and his successor Rev. Moses Sawyer is still in office.

HILLSBOROUGH, a township in the county of that name, in­corporated in 1772, and now containing 1592 inhabitants; bounded N. by Bradford, E. by Henniker, S. by Deering and Antrim, and W. by Wind­sor and a part of Washington, comprising an area of 27,320 acres, 500 of which are water. There are several ponds in this town, the largest of which, Lion pond, is about 300 rods long and 200 wide. Contoocook river waters this town, and the 4th N. H. turnpike passes through it. There is here a small village, containing 10 or 12 dwelling-houses, 4 grist-mills, 6 saw-mills, 1 facto­ry, 1 carding-machine, and 1 distillery. The Rev. J. Barnes was ordained here in 1773, Rev. Stephen Chapin and Seth Chapin the present minister have been his successors.

HILTON’S POINT on Piscataqua river forms the S. E. ex­tremity of the town of Do­ver where. the main river is formed by the junction Newichawannock and Cochecho rivers with the southern and western branches. From this point to the sea the distance is 7 miles, and the course S.to S.E. The current is here so rapid that it never freezes.

HINSDALE lies in the S.W. extremity of Cheshire county, and is bounded S. by Connect­icut river which separates it from Vernon (Vt.,) N. and E. by Chesterfield. Its southern line extends to Massachusetts and adjoins North­field. Its area is 14,000 acres. Hinsdale was incorporated in 1753, and in 1810, it con­tained 740 inhabitants. Ashuelot river forms its junction here with the Connecticut. The 6th N. H. turnpike passes through this plane to Brattleborough (Vt.) West river moun­tain rises from the bank of the river, near the borders of Ches­terfield. This town was for­merly called Fort Dummer, and its situation is pleasant. There is here a baptist and a congregational meeting-house, several mills, and a few stores. Fort Dummer was built in 1740, at the expense of Massa­chusetts, and there was also an­other fort here, called Hinsdale and Bridgeman fort. On the 26th of June, 1746, a party of Indian’s attacked Bridgeman fort, killed one per­son and captured several oth­ers. The inhabitants dared not go to mill without a guard, and several of them under the command of captain Willard discovered a party of the enemy in ambush near the mill, whom they put to flight with the loss of their packs. On the 8th of December, 1747, Hinsdale fort was bravely defended by four families, a fort was burnt and several persons were killed and others taken prisoners. In July, 1775, Mr. How and Mr. Grout of this town were attacked from an ambush, and How was killed. The Indians proceeded to the fort, where the families of these men resided. The people within, hearing their approach and being anxious to learn the cause of the firing they had just heard, impatiently opened their doors upon the savages, whom in the dusk of the evening they mistook for their friends. The families consisting of 14 per­sons were made prisoners, a­mong whom was the wife of How. (See Belknap, Vol. III.)

HOLLIS, a township in Hills­borough county, incorporated in 1746, and containing in 1810, a population of 1529 ; bounded N. by Amherst and Milford, E. by Dunstable, S. by the line of the state, W. by Brookline, comprising 19,620 acres. There are here several ponds, viz. Flint’s, Penechunck, Long, and Rocky ponds, averaging from 3 to 600 acres each. Nissitisset river crosses its S. W. extremity, and Nashua river its S. E. on which are two falls of eleven feet each. There is here a small village contain­ing a congregational meeting-house. Rev. Daniel Emer­son was settled here in 1743, and died in 1810, aged 86. Rev. Eli Smith, his successor, is the present pastor. There are in this town many valuable mill seats and several mills.

HOPKINTON, a township in Hillsborough county, incorpo­rated in 1765, aid now contain­ing 2216 inhabitants; bounded N. by Boscawen and Warner, E. by Concord, S. by Bow, Dunbarton, and Weare, and W. by Henniker, comprising 26,967 acres. Contoocook river has a serpentine course through this town and receives Blackwater and Warner riv­ers. There is in this town a handsome village containing about 50 dwelling-houses, a con­gregational meeting-house, several stores, mechanic shops, etc. There is also in other parts of the town a baptist and sev­eral other meeting-houses. The soil in Hopkinton is generally of an excellent quality. Rev. Stephen Scales was ordained here in 1757, and removed in 1770, his successors have been Rev. Elijah Fletcher, Jacob Cram, and Ethan Smith the present pastor. Elder Abner Jones was ordained over the baptist church in 1814. Hop­kinton is upon the whole a handsome and flourishing town. One term of the supe­rior court and one of the common pleas is held here annu­ally. On the 27th of April, 1746, a party of Indians entered one of the garrisoned houses in this town, the door having been ac­cidentally left open. Eight of the people were carried off, and several of them died in captivity.

INDIAN STREAM rises in the high lands which divide this state from Lower Canada, and is undoubtedly the most north­ern branch of Connecticut riv­er. From its source to Stewartstown, a distance of S0 miles, its course is direct.

ISINGLASS RIVER has its source in Bow pond on the county line between North­wood and Barrington, receives the waters of several ponds in Barrington and falls into Cochecho river at the south part of Rochester.

ISRAEL’S RIVER receives a southerly branch which flows from the northern side of the White hills and the township of Durand, and a northerly branch from Kilkenny and Northumberland. These branches, unite at Lancaster in a main stream which falls into Connecticut river, on the wes­terly side of Lancaster village. This is a beautiful stream, and bordered with highly cultivat­ed lands.

JAFFREY, a township in Ches­hire county, incorporated is 1773, and containing in 1810, a population of 1336; bounded N. by Dublin, E. by Cheshire county line, which separates it from Sharon and Peterbor­ough, S. by Rindge and Fitzwilliam, and W. by a part of Fitzwilliam and Marlborough, comprising an area of 25,600 acres, of which 987 are water. The north boundary of the town crosses the Grand Mo­nadnock mountain, which is more than 2000 feet in height. Long pond in the north part of the town is 400 rods long and 140 wide. Gilmore pond is 300 long and 180 wide. The 3d N. H. turnpike passes through this town, and near it is a min­eral spring about one mile S.E. of the Grand Monadnock. A company has been incorporat­ed for the management of its waters. Red ochre has been found near the spring, and in its vicinity have been discover­ed black lead, copper, alum, sulphur, and an ore yielding from the action of a common forge, a copper coloured metal. On the N.W. side of the moun­tain a have has been discover­ed, difficult of access, although it has an area. 80 feet square. Here is found also that rare and valuable tree, the moun­tain ash. A company was incorporated in this town in 1813, for the manufactory of cotton and woolen goods, their fac­tory is situated on the turn­pike. It is the uppermost fac­tory on Contoocook river, and is intended to employ 1000 cotton spindles. There are several mills in its vicinity. Another company has been incorporated in this town for manufacturing the various kinds of crockery and earthen ware. Belonging to this com­pany is an extensive mine of white clay in the town of Monkton (Vt.) whence it is trans­ported to Jaffrey. This clay has been analyzed and compared by skilful chemists with that from which the European white ware is made and no difference in quality has been discovered. The practicabili­ty of the above plan has been fully ascertained by the pro­gress already made in the manufacture. Rev. Laban Ains­worth, was ordained here in 1782, and is still in office. There are here a baptist and a congregational society, for each of which there is a meeting­house.

JEFFERSON, a township in Coos county formerly called Dartmouth, lying on the banks of Israel’s river, which passes from its southern to its wes­tern extremity. It was incor­porated in 1765, and now con­tains about 200 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Barker’s location and a part of Lan­caster, E. by Kilkenny, S. by ungranted lands and Bretton Woods, and W. by Bretton Woods and Whitefield, comprising. 26,076 a­cres, 300 of which are wa­ter. Pondcherry pond in this town is 200 rods in diameter, and forms the source of one of the branches of John’s river. Pondcherry bay is about 200 rods long and 100 wide. In the N. E. part of the town lies Funny mountain and in the S. W. part is Pondcherry moun­tain. The Jefferson turnpike passes through this place to Lancaster. There are here 2 grain-mills and 1 saw-mill.

JOHN’S RIVER has the source of its most southerly branches in Bretton Woods, Whitefield, and Dalton, of its middle branch in Pondcherry pond, and of its northern, in Martin’s meadow in Lancaster. These branches unite in the upper part of Dalton in a main stream, which falls into the Connecticut river at the upper bar of the 15 miles falls. The mouth is here 30 yards wide.

KEARSARGE MOUNTAIN, in Coos county, lies on the divid­ing line between Bartlett and Chatham. This is the third range of mountains in the state. Its height has not been ascer­tained. A gentleman, who resides in the neighbourhood of this range observes, that in Octo­ber, 1812, he went in company with two of his neighbours to view the mountain, which lies on the north of Conway, and while ascending was astonish­ed at the singular appear­ance of the stones, which form the body of the mountain as well is of those which lie on its surface. They all appear to have been once in a fluid state, or to have composed the bot­tom of some sea. The large masses, as well as the de­tached pieces, were full of small pebbles of all sizes, forms, and colours, confusedly thrown together and cemented. The small stones retain their per­fect shape in the solid mass of which they form a part. The whole appearance in short, in­dicated, that these pebbles were once in a separate state and were consolidated by some unknown cause.

KEARSARGE MOUNTAIN, in Hillsborough county, lies part­ly in Kearsarge Gore and part­ly in Sutton. Its easterly ex­tremity extends to New-Salis­bury and Andover. This is one of the second range in the state.

KEARSARGE GORE, in Hills­borough county, lies on the southerly side of Kearsarge mountain. It contains 152 in­habitants, and is bounded N. by Wilmot, E. by Salisbury, S. by Warner, and W. by Sutton, comprising an area of 428 acres. In the year 1807, that part of Kearsarge Gore together with a part of New-London was incorporated into a town by the name of Wilmot.

KEENE, one of the princi­pal townships in the county of Cheshire, was incorporat­ed in 1752, and in 1810, con­tained 1646 inhabitants; bound­ed N. by Gilsum, Surry, and Westmoreland, E. by Surry and Roxbury, S. by Swansey, and W. by Chesterfield and Westmoreland, and contains 23,843 acres.
Ashuelot river passes through this town and receives here the eastern branch of Beaver brook. The 3d N. H. turn­pike has its course through here, and meets the branch and Chester turnpikes and several other principal roads. Keene contains a very handsome vil­lage of about 60 dwelling houses, a meeting-house, bank, court-house, gaol, and several stores, etc. About a mile from the village, a canal is cut from Ashuelot river, on which is a woolen factory, an oil-mill, and several other mills. The Rev. Jacob Bacon was settled here in 1738, and has been succeeded by the Rev. Messrs. Carpenter, Sumner, and Hall, the latter of whom died in 1814. This town was formerly called Upper Ashuelot. In 1746, the Indians commenced their depredations here, and in the course of the next year they formed a plan to surprise the fort in this place. In the evening they concealed themselves in a swamp, where they intended to lie till the people should go out to their work the next morning, when they were to rush in and surprise the fort. Ephraim Dounan who happened to go out very early discovered the ambush and gave the alarm. He brave­ly defended himself against 2 Indians, from one of whom he took a gun and a blanket, which he carried to the fort. The Indians succeeded in burn­ing several houses and barns, and from the bones found a­mong the ashes, it was ascer­tained that several of the ene­my were destroyed in the flames. John Bullard and Na­than Blake were taken captive and carried to Canada where Blake remained 2 years. He died in Keene 1811, at the age of 99. He was one of the first settlers of this place, to which he moved in 1736, from Wrentham, (Mass.) He married a second wife at the age of 94. Two of his broth­ers lived to the age of 90, and a sister to 100.

KENSINGTON, a township in Rockingham county, incorpo­rated in 1737, and now con­taining 781 inhabitants; bound­ed N. by Exeter, E. by Hamp­ton Falls, S. by Southampton, and W. by East-Kingston. Kensington was formerly a part of Hampton. Rev. Joseph Fogg was settled in this town at the time of its incorporation and died in 1800. There are here two religious societies and two meeting-houses.

KILKENNY, a township in Coos county, of an irregular form and mountainous surface, incorporated in 1774, and now containing only 28 inhabitants; bounded N. E. by Durand, Mainsborough, Paulsburg, and Dummer, N. and S. by ungranted lands, and W. by Bar­ker’s location, Jefferson, Lan­caster, and Piercy, and con­tains 15,906 acres. A branch of Nashes stream crosses the northerly extremity of this town and Israel’s river its southern.

KINGSTON, a township in Rockingham county, incorpo­rated 1694, and now contain­ing a population of 746; bound­ed N. by Brentwood, E. by East-Kingston, S. by Newton and Plaistow, and W. by Hampstead and Hawke, con­taining 12,188 acres, of which 800 are water. Great pond, containing about 500 acres, and about 300 acres of County pond are in this town. In these ponds Powow river has its source.
Rev. Ward Clark was set­tled here in 1725, and died in 1737. Rev. Messrs. Secomb, Tappan, and Thayer have been his successors. A post road leading from Boston to Ports­mouth passes through this town. There is here an ex­tensive plain on which stands a commodious meeting-house.

LAMPREY RIVER has its source in the town of North­wood, on the W. side of Saddleback mountain. Taking a south­erly course, it passes into Deer­field and receives the waters of Martin’s pond, and in Candia a stream called Second riv­er falls into it. Thence it pass­es into Raymond, where it re­ceives a western branch. Thence taking a southerly di­rection, it unites with the wa­ters of Jones’ pond in Deer­field, and thence as it flows on through Epping, it receives Petuckaway river, and after a bend to the N. E. it receives North river. After a course thence through Lee to Dur­ham, it unites with Piscasick river from Newmarket. It meets the tide water about two miles above the Great bay.

LANCASTER, a township in Coos county, on the eastern bank of Connecticut river, in­corporated in 1763, and con­taining in 1810, a population of 717 inhabitants. It is bound­ed N. E. by Northumberland and Kilkenny, S. E. by Bar­ker’s location and a part of Whitefield, S. W. by Dalton, and W. by Connecticut river, containing 23,480 acres. It lies about 50 miles above Han­over. In this town is Martin’s meadow pond, about 260 rods long and 150 wide, and also Martin’s meadow hill on the north side of the pond. The village is about one mile dis­tant from the river, and con­tains a meeting-house, court­house, gaol, etc. Through this village passes Israel’s river which falls into the Connecticut at the Great Oxbow. In­dian brook waters the other extremity of the town. Lan­caster is united by a bridge with Guildhall (Vt.) There are here several grain-mills and saw-mills, an oil-mill, a clothing-mill, and a carding-machine, a nail-factory, and 2 distilleries. The Rev. J. Willard is the minister here.

LANDAFF, in Grafton coun­ty was incorporated in 1794, and now contains 650 inhabit­ants. It is bounded N. E. by Concord (Vt.) and a part of Franconia, E. by Lincoln and a part of Peeling, S. W. by Coventry, and W. by Bath, comprising 29,200 acres. Through this town passes the Wild Amonoosuck river, on the north bank of which it is contemplated to extend the Bath turnpike. Over the west extremity of Landaff the Great Amonoosuck passes. Landaff mountain, Cobble mountain, and Bald head mountain are in this town. Landaff was granted to Dartmouth college in 1769. There is here a methodist meeting-house, 2 corn-mills, and 2 saw-mills, 2 distil­leries, and 4-shops. The first ordained minister of the town was Elder Royse. The centre of Landaff is about 9 miles E. from Connecticut river.

LANGDON, a township in Cheshire county, 5 miles east from Connecticut river, incor­porated in 1787, and now con­taining 632 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Charleston, E. by Acworth and Alstead, S. by Acworth and Walpole, and W. by Charleston, com­prising 9,891 acres. The Ches­hire turnpike leading from Walpole to Charleston passes through this town. Cold river flows through Langdon and here receives its northern branch, which passes through U­nity, Acworth, and Charleston.

LEBANON, a township lying in the S. W. part of Cheshire county, incorporated in 1761, and now containing 1808 in­habitants; bounded N.by Han­over, S. E. by Enfield, S. by the line of Cheshire county, which separates it from Plain­field, and W. by Connecticut river which separates it from Hartford (Vt.) its area is 22,998 acres. The Croydon turnpike and the 4th N. H. turnpike pass through this town to Lyman’s bridge. At this place White river empties itself into the Connecticut. Here also the White river turnpike meets the two roads above mentioned. Mascomy river flows through Lebanon from a pond of the same name on the borders of Enfield. There are here 2 re­ligious societies and 1 meeting­house for the congregationalists, over whom Rev. J.Porter was ordained in 1772. Leba­non contains 8 grist-mills, 9 saw-mills, 3 clothing-mills, 1 distillery, and 4 shops.

LEE, a township in the south part of the county of Strafford, incorporated in 1766, and now containing a population of 1329 inhabitants; bounded N. by Madbury, E. by Durham, S. by Newmarket and Epping, and W. by Nottingham and Barrington, comprising an a­rea of 11,467 acres, 165 of which are water. In the north part of the town lies Wheelwright pond, containing about 165 acres, and forming the principal source of Oyster river. From the N. W. extremity of Newmarket, Lamprey river enters Lee, and after a serpentine course of about seven miles it passes into Durham. Anoth­er part of the town is watered by Little river and North riv­er. Through the north part of Lee the N. H. turnpike passes from Portsmouth to Concord. There is here a Friend’s meeting-house and another for
the baptists; several grist and saw-mills, 1 clothing-mill, a carding-machine, and several shops. Lee was formerly a part of Durham and Dover. The first settled minister here was Elder S. Hutchins, who has been succeeded by Elder Elias Smith, and the present pastor Elder J. Osborn.

LEMPSTER, a township in Cheshire county, incorporated in 1761, and containing in 1810, a population of 845 inhabi­tants. It is bounded N. by Unity, E. by Goshen and Washington, S. by Marlow, and W. by Acworth, compris­ing an area of 21,410 acres. Near the border of Washing­ton is a pond about 320 rods long and 80 wide, arid another lying partly in Marlow 420 long and 70 wide, besides several others of a smaller size. Lempster is also watered by Sugar river and two branches of Cold river. The easterly part of the town is mountainous, over which part passes the 2d N. H. turnpike from
Amherst to Claremont. In this town also the Charleston turnpike branches off. There are here 7 school-houses, and 1 congregational meeting­house. Rev. E. Fisher was the first and only minister ever settled in this town. He was ordained in 1787, and is still in office. In 1812, eighteen persons died in this town, and twelve of them of the spotted fever. In 1813, five others died of that disease. This fever first appeared in Lempster on the 20th of March, 1812, and con­tinued spreading its malignant contagion till the 3d of April. In 1813, it again appeared a­bout the middle of April, and in June it assumed the form, of the mild typhus. In 1803, twenty-four children died here in two months of the scarlatina anginosa.

LINCOLN, a mountainous township in Grafton county, incorporated in 1764, and now containing 100 inhabitants; bounded N. by Franconia, E. by ungranted lands, S. by Peeling, and W. by Landaff, comprising an area of 32,456 acres. In this town is situated the Hay-Stack mountain, which is said to be the highest land in the state excepting the White mountains. There are also several other lofty eminences in this town. Through the centre of Lin­coln passes Pemigewasset riv­er in a northerly direction. The waters descending from the mountains here flow partly into the Merrimack and partly into the Connecticut. In the north part of this town there are two large gulfs, made by an extraordinary discharge of water from the clouds in 1774.

LITCHFIELD, a small town­ship in Hillsborough county, lying on the east side of Mer­rimack river opposite to the town of Merrimack. It was incorporated in 1749, and con­tained in 1810, 382 inhabitants. It is bounded E. by London­derry and Nottingham West, S. by Nottingham West, and W. by the Merrimack. In this town are Cromwell’s falls and ferry, Thornton’s and Reed’s ferries, and Moor’s falls. At Thornton’s ferry the Mer­rimack is 50 rods wide, and in other points about 28. There are in this town several mills and one meeting-house. Rev. Samuel Cotton was ordained
here in 1765, and removed in 1781. His successors have been Rev. Messrs. Rand and Kennedy, and another gentle­man lately ordained.

LITTLETON, a township in the northern extremity of Graf­ton county, incorporated in 1784, and now containing 876 inhabitants. It is bounded N. E. by Dalton, S. E . by- Beth­lehem, S. W. by Concord and Lyman, and W. by Connecti­cut river, which separates it from Waterford and Concord in Vermont. Its area is 24, 217 acres. Littleton extends on the banks of the Connecticut about 14 miles. It is connected with Concord, (Vt.) by a handsome bridge. The southern part of the town is watered by the Amonoosuck river. There are here several mountains, viz. Bluberry, Black, and Iron moun­tains. There are in this town several mills, a meeting-house, and about a dozen dwelling-houses.

LITTLE HARBOUR. (See Newcastle.)

LONDONDERRY, a large and respectable town in Rocking­ham county, was incorporated in 1722, and contained in 1810, a population of 2766 inhabi­tants. It is hounded N. by Chester and Manchester, E. by Hampstead, Sandown, and Atkinson, S. by Salem, Wind­ham, and Nottingham West, and W. by Litchfield, comprising an area of 44,100 acres. Derry pond in this town is the principal source of Beaver’ river. Several other small ponds in the west part of the town empty themselves into this river. A turnpike passes here leading to Chester. There are in Londonderry 2 presbyterian meeting-houses, an acade­my, 5 grist-mills, S saw-mills, 2 clothing-mills, 2 carding-ma­chines, and 6 trading stores. The first minister here was the Rev. James M’Gregore, who was ordained in 1719, when the town was called Nuffield. He died in 1729. Rev. M. Clark was his successor, who died soon after his settlement. Rev. Alexander Thompson was ordained in 1734, and died in 1791, at the age of 81. His successors have been the Rev. Messrs. Brown and Parker, the latter of whom is the pre­sent pastor. Over the second parish the Rev. D. M’Gregore was ordained in 1737, and died in 1777. He was succeeded by Rev. William Morrison in 1783, who still continues in office. Londonderry was settled in 1718, by a company from Ire­land, of whom the following is a brief history. A compa­ny of Scotch presbyterians had been settled in the province of Ulster, in the reign of James I. They had borne a large part of the sufferings which were the common lot of Pro­testants at that unhappy period, and were thereby inspired with an ardent thirst for civil and religious liberty. A young man of the name of Holmes, son of a clergy­man, had traveled to Ameri­ca, and carried home such a favourable report of the coun­try, as induced his father with three other presbyterian min­isters, viz. James M’Gregore, William Cornwell, and Will­iam Boyd, and a large part of their congregations to emigrate into this country. Having con­verted their property into mo­ney, they embarked in five ships on the 14th of October, 1718, of whom about one hun­dred families arrived in Bos­ton. Sixteen of these families soon determined to settle cn a tract of land of which they heard good reports, which was then called Nuffield, and now Londonderry. Early in the spring the men left their fami­lies in Haverhill, (Mass.) and erected some huts near a brook, which falls into Beaver river. On the evening after their ar­rival (April 11th, 1718,) at this spot, a sermon was preached by Mr. M’Gregore under a large oak tree, which to this day is regarded by the poster­ity with real veneration. On the first administration of the sacrament here, there were two ministers and sixty-five com­municants. The majority of these first settlers had resided in or near Londonderry in Ire­land, where they had endured the sufferings of a memorable siege. John Barr, William Caldwell, and Abraham Blair, with several others, who had suffered in that siege, and em­barked for America, were, by a special order of king William, exempted from taxes in every part of the British dominions. The first settlers in this town lived :to the average of 80, many to 90, and others to 100. The spotted fever prevailed here in 1814, and carried off 52 persons.

LOUDON, a township in Rock­ingham county, incorporated in 1673, and now containing a population of 148 inhabitants. It is bounded N. E. by Gilmanton, S. E. by Pittsfield and Chichester, S. W. by Concord, and N. W. by Canterbury, comprising 28,257 acres. Suncook river, flowing from Gilmanton, passes through the western part of this town: Into this river are emptied the waters of crooked pond, Rol­lins’ pond, and several others which fit in this town. In Loudon there are 2 meet­ing-houses, 5 grist-mills, 2 carding-machines, 3 distilleries, and 4 trading shops. Rev. J. Tucker was ordained here in 1789. This town was formerly a part of Canterbury.

LOVEWELL,’S POND is at the head of the westerly branch of Salmon falls river, in the town of Wakefield.

LYMAN, a township in Graf­ton county, about 13 miles above Haverhill, incorporated in 1761, and containing 948 inhabitants; bounded N. E. by Littleton, S. E. by Concord, S. W. by Bath, and N. W. by Connecticut river, which di­vides it from Barnet in Ver­mont. The soil and productions of Lyman are similar to those of other towns in the northern part of the state. The pine and hemlock indicate the most valuable qualities in the soil. Over Indoes falls in this town a bridge has been erected. Two miles above this spot is Ste­phen’s ferry. Burnham’s riv­er has its source in this town, and falls into the Amonoosuck at Concord. Lyman mountain, which is in fact a continuation of Gardner’s mountain, ex­tends from Landaff through this town in a north and south direction. On its summit is a pond 100 rods long and 80 wide, which forms the princi­pal source of Burnham’s river. Copper and emery mixed with iron ore have been found in this town, In the year 1812, the spotted fever prevailed in Lyman: it attacked 70 persons, of whom only one died. It is a remarkable fact, that of the three first families who settled in this town there were twenty sons, of whom seventeen are now living here. One of the twenty died by casualty and the other two live elsewhere.
There are in Lyman 3 grist­mills, 3 saw-mills, 2 clothing-mills, 1 carding-machine,2 dis­tilleries, and an oil-mill.

State of the State 1817–Part 3 of 7

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Taken from The New Hampshire Gazetter 1817

DURHAM, a township in Strafford county, lying on Oys­ter river at the junction with the Piscataqua. It contains a population of 1449, and is bounded on Madbury S. 63i° E. 1040 rods, thence S.54.1° E. to Cedar “point; on Lee N. 16*°E. 5 miles and 66 rods; on Newmarket S. 803° E. 700 rods to a rock,thence S.561° E. 264 rods to the head of the creek, thence to Chelsey’s little island which is the S. corner boundary, thence by Great and Little bay to Cedar point, com­prising an area of 14,970 acres. The N.H. turnpike from Ports­mouth to Concord passes through this town. The first settled minister in Durham was the Rev. Hugh Adams, who was ordained in 1717, and dismissed in 1739. The Rev. Nicholas Gilman, Hugh Adams, and Curtis Coe have been his successors, all of them congregationalists. The compact part of the town, near the falls contains a handsome meeting-house, 37 dwelling-houses, and 7 stores and small shops. In this town resided Maj. Gen.Sullivan and Col.Adams of the revolutionary army, Hon. George Frost and Ebenezer Thompson were also citizens of Durham. The annual av­erage number of deaths in this place for many ‘years past has been computed at less than 15. In Durham is situated that re­markable rock weighing 60 or 70 tons and lying so exactly poised on another rock as eas­ily to be moved with one hand. Durham was included in Hilton’s patent which was granted in the year 1630. In September, 1675, the Indians made an attack at Oyster riv­er, then a part of Dover and now constituting Durham. They burned two houses, killed several men and carried away two captives. Two days after this attack they made another, destroyed several houses and killed two persons. These re­peated insults and depreda­tions roused the indignation of our people and forced them to retaliate. About 20 young men, most of whom were from Dover, obtained permission from major Waldron to make an attempt against the Indians in their own way. Having scattered themselves in the woods, a division of them discovered a party of five Indians in the field near a deserted house, some of whom were gathering corn, while the oth­ers were preparing to roast it. Our people were at such a distance from their compan­ions, that they could not make any signal to them without dis­covering themselves. Two of them crept silently toward the house and rushing suddenly upon the two Indians, who were busy at the fire, knocked them down with their guns. The other three took the alarm and escaped. In 1694, when a large part of the inhabitants had march­ed to the westward, the In­dians who were dispersed in the woods about Oyster river, having diligently, observed the number of men in Hucking’s garrison, rushed upon eighteen of them, as they were going to their morning devotion, and having cut off their retreat to the house put them all to death ex­cept 1 who fortunately escaped. They then attacked the house, in which there were only two boys beside the women and children. The boys kept them off for sometime and wounded several of them. At length the Indians set fire to the house and even then the boys would not surrender till the Indians had promised to spare their lives. The latter however  murdered three or four of the children, one of whom they fixed upon a sharp stake in the view of its mother. The women and children were carried captive, but one of the boys made his escape the next day. The next spring the Indians narrowly watched the frontiers to determine the safest and most vulnerable points of at­tack. The settlement at Oys­ter was selected for destruc­tion, and preparations being at length completed following the incur­sion, Sieur de Villieu with a company of 250 Indians and a French priest marched for this devoted spot. Oyster river is the stream which falls into the west branch of the Piscataqua river just below the present site of Durham. The settle­ments were on both banks of the river. Here were twelve garrisoned houses amply suffi­cient for the reception of the inhabitants, but not apprehending any danger, many of the fami­lies remained in their unfortified houses, and those who were in the garrisons were but indifferently prepared for a siege, as they were destitute of powder. The enemy approached the place undiscovered and halted near the falls. Here they separated into two divi­sions, one of which was to go on each side of the river and plant itself in small parties in ambush near the houses and to be ready for the attack at sun­rise, for which a single gun was to be the signal. One John Dean, whose house stood near the falls, happening to rise very early for a journey before the dawn of day, was shot as he came out of his door. This fir­ing partially deranged the plan, as several parties who were at a distance, had not then arrived at their stations. The inhabit­ants also, being generally a­larmed, some of them had time for escape and others to prepare for defence. The sig­nal being thus given, the attack commenced on all points, where the enemy was ready. Of the twelve garrisoned hous­es five were destroyed, Ad­ams’, Drew’s, Edgerly’s, Meader’s, and Beard’s. The ene­my entered Adams’ without resistance where they murder­ed fourteen persons, whose graves can still be traced., Drew surrendered his garrison on promise of security but he was put to death. One of Iris children, only nine years old, was compelled to run through a line of Indians as a mark for their hatchets. Edgerly’s gar­rison was evacuated, the peo­ple having fled to their boats, one of whom was mortally wounded in attempting to es­cape. Beard’s and Meader’s were also evacuated and their inhabitants escaped. The unfortified houses were all set on fire, the people being either put to death or captured in them. Some escaped by concealing themselves in the bushes and elsewhere. Thomas Edgerly having hid himself in his cel­lar preserved his house though it was twice set on fire. The house of John Bass the minis­ter was destroyed together with his valuable library. He waa absent at the time and his wife and family fled to the woods. The wife of John Dean who was the first person shot, was taken with her daugh­ter and carried about two miles up the river, where they were left under the care of an old Indian, while his companions returned to their bloody work. The Indian complained of a pain in his head, and asked the woman what would relieve him, she replied, occapee, (which is the Indian name for rum) and of which she knew he had carried away a bottle from her house. The medicine being very agreeable to his taste he repeated the dose. He soon fell asleep from its effects and she seized the opportunity to escape into the woods, where she lay concealed till the danger was over. The other seven garrisons were resolutely and successful­ly defended. The gate of Burnham’s happened to be left open through the night. A man within, who had been kept a­wake by the toothache, hear­ing the alarm gun, roused the people and secured the en­trance, just as the enemy had reached it. Finding themselves disappointed at this point, the Indians immediately ran to Pitman’s, a defenceless house and forced open the door at the. moment that he had burst his way through that end of the house, which adjoined the garrison, to which he and his family happily escaped. Their bloody purpose being thus a gain defeated, they attacked the house of John Davis, who after a short resistance sur­rendered on terms which were basely violated, as he and his whole family were either kill­ed or made prisoners. Thom­as Beckford preserved his house in a singular manner. It was situated near the river and surrounded by a palisade. Hearing the alarm before the enemy had reached his house, he sent off his family in a boat and then fastening his gate he undertook alone the defence of his house. Contemning alike the promises and threats of his besiegers, he kept up a con­stant fire at them, changing his dress as often as he could, and giving orders aloud, as if he had a company with him. Find­ing their exertions unavail­ing, the enemy withdrew, leav­ing Beckford the sole master of a fortress which he had de­fended with such admirable ad­dress. Three other garrisons, being seasonably apprized of the danger, were resolutely de­fended, and two Indians were killed in attacking them. Jones’ garrison, was surrounded be­fore day, but its owner, hearing his dog bark and fearing that wolves were near, went out at that moment to secure some swine and returned uninjured. Having on his return ascend­ed his wall, and observing the flash of a gun, he immediately dropped backward, and the ball entered the very place where he stood. The enemy from behind a.rock continued firing on the house for some time and then abandoned it. Dur­ing these transactions the French priest took possession of the meeting-house and em­ployed himself in writing on the pulpit with chalk, but the house itself received no dam­age. Those parties of the enemy, who were on the other side of the river, having completed their work of destruction, as­sembled in a field adjoining Burnham’s garrison, where they insultingly displayed their prisoners and derided the inhabitants, supposing themselves out of the reach of the guns, one of them was shot from the sentry box from the garri­son. Both divisions having then met at the falls where they had separated the evening be­fore, marched to Capt. Wood­man’s garrison.  The ground being broken and hilly, they made their approach without difficulty and kept up a continu­al fire at the hats and caps, which our people held on sticks above the wall. At length fear­ing that the inhabitants from the neighbouring settlements would collect against them, the Indians retreated, having killed or captured between 90 and 100 persons and destroyed 20 houses, 5 of which were garrisoned. Among the pris­oners were Thomas Drew and his wife who were recently married. He, was taken to Canada, where he continued two years and was then ran­somed.  She was carried to Norridgewock, where she was detained four years and endur­ed every thing but death. She was delivered of a child in the winter, unsheltered from the storms, and being unable to nurse it, the Indians put it to death. After her return to her husband she had a family of 14 children. She lived to the age of 89 and her husband to that of 93. They died within two days of each other and were buried in the same grave.

In 1703, the Indians made another incursion and killed one man. In 1704, several persons were murdered by them, and in 1705, a small par­ty attacked the house of John Drew, where they put eight people to death and wounded several others. The garrison was near but was at that time without a man in it. The wo­men, finding their case desper­ate, put on the hats of their husbands and dressed them­selves in other respects like men, and by keeping up a brisk fire, they actually drove the enemy off, before they had plundered or even attacked the house. John Wheeler accost­ing this party and mistaking them for friendly Indians, un­fortunately fell into their pow­er and was killed, together with his wife and four child­ren. Two of his sons secret­ed themselves in a cove by the bank of the river. In 1707, two men were captured from Durham, and two Others were murdered as they were on a journey from that town to Do­ver. In 1707, a party of Mohawks attacked a company of our men who were at work in the woods under the direction of Capt. Chesley. At the first fire they killed seven and wound­ed another. Chesley, with his few surviving companions continued a brisk fire on the ene­my, and for some time kept them off, but he at length fell, overpowered by numbers. He was deeply lamented as a brave officer. In 1724, the Indians made another incursion into this town, formed an ambush near the road and murdered several persons. The family of Col. John Da­vis of this town (who died at the age of 88,) were equally remarkable for longevity and superior, stature. Five of them lived till the age of 85, and one to that of 99.

EAST-KINGSTON, a town­ship in Rockingham county, situated in the southerly part of that county. It was incor­porated in 1733, and contains 442 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Exeter, E. by Kingston, S. by Southampton, and W. and N. W. by Kingston, and contains 6,200 acres of excel­lent land. Powow river cros­ses the S. W. extremity of this town. The Rev. Peter Coffin was settled here in 1772, and has long since removed. There is here but one meeting-house. This town contains 3 corn-mills and 2 saw-mills. From the year 1740 to 1771, the deaths in this town were 283, making an annual average of about nine. The greatest num­ber in any one year was 21, and the smallest number 2. Since 1771, the proportion has remained nearly the same.

EATON, a township in the northerly part of Strafford county, incorporated in 1766, and containing in 1810, 535 in­habitants ; bounded N. by Con­way, E. by the eastern line of the state, S. by Ossipee Gore, and W. by Tamworth, contain­ing about 27,637 acres. There are several ponds in this town ; Six Miles pond, in the western part of the town, Cook’s, Lit­tle, Blair’s, etc.; and in the S. E. extremity of the town rises Legion mountain. There are 5 saw-mills, 5 grain-mills, and 1 clothing-mill. Elder Jackson is the only settled minister here.

EFFINGHAM, a township in Strafford county, incorporated in 1678, and now containing 876 inhabitants : bounded N. W. by Ossipee Gore, E. by the state line, which separates it from Parsonsfield, S. E. by Wakefield, and S. W. by Ossipee, comprising an area of 34,938 acres. The great Ossipee river passes through this town in a westerly course, over which is here a toll bridge 500 feet in length. There is a pond near this river 400 rods long and 270 wide. ‘ On the western side of this town lie the Green mountains. Rev. G. Burt was ordained here in 1803, and dismissed soon after. There are in Effingham three relig­ious societies and 2 meetinghouses, 4 grain-mills, 4 saw­mills, a clothing-mill, and a carding-machine.

ELLIS RIVER rises on the easterly side of the White hills in several small streams, near the source of Peabody river, and separating into two streams which unite in Ad­ams, empties into the Saco at Bartlett.

ELLSWORTH, a township of mountainous land in Grafton county, bounded’ N. by Peel­ing, E. by Thornton, S. by Rumney, and W. by Warren. Its whole population is 142, and its area 15,606 acres. There is a small pond in the S. E. part of the town, from which a stream flows into Pemigewasset river, and in the north part of the town is situa­ted Cat mountain. There is here 1 corn-mill and 1 saw-mill.

ENFIELD, a township in the lower part of Grafton county, incorporated in 1761, and now containing 1291 inhabitants. It is bounded N. E. by Canaan, S. E. by Grafton, S. W. by Cheshire county line which di­vides it from New-Grantham, and W. by Lebanon, compris­ing in this space 24,060 acres. On the N. W. side of this town lies the greatest part of Mascoma pond, which is about 1100 rods long and 250 wide. There are here also East pond, Maid pond, and several smaller ones, in the whole comprising 2210 acres of water. The fourth N. H. turnpike leading to Lyman’s bridge passes be­tween Mascoma pond and the mountain. At the west end of the pond stands the principal village, containing 30 or 40 dwelling-houses and a hand­some meeting-house. There is also a village of the shakers at the S. E. end of the mountain near a small pond,  Stony brook runs through the south part of the
pond, and Mascoma river falls into the pond of that name. Enfield contains 4 grain-mills, 5 saw-mills, 1 clothing-mill, 2 carding-machines, and an oil-mill.

EPPING, a town in Rocking­ham county, (formerly a part of Exeter,) incorporated in 1639, and now containing a population of 1182. It is bound­ed N. by Nottingham and Lee, E. by Newmarket and Brent­wood, S. by Brentwood and Poplin, and W. by Nottingham and Raymond, and contains 12,760 acres. Lamprey river passes through Epping entering its southwest corner. In this town Patuckaway and North rivers fall into Lamprey river, the former in its western and the latter at its southeast part. On these streams are 4 grain-mills, 6 saw-mills, and 1 cloth­ing-mill. The soil of Epping is excel­lently adapted to almost all sorts of grain, grass, flax, etc. In the orchard of Capt. Towle of this town there is an apple-tree which in one year pro­duced between 50 and 60 bush­els. The first minister of Epping was the Rev. Mr. Cutler who was ordained in 1747. Rev. Josiah Stearns, his successor, was ordained in 1758, and died in 1790. Rev. Peter Holt, the present minister, was ordained in 1793. In Epping there are 4 meeting-houses and 8 school-houses. In the revolutionary war there were ten died among those who went from this town. The annual average number deaths is about 13.

EPSOM, a township in Rock­ingham county, bounded N. by Pittsfield, E. by Northwood, S. by Allenstown, and W. by Pembroke and Chichester. It contains about 19,200 acres, and in 1810 its population was 1156. Suncook river passes through the westerly part of Epsom and receives Little Suncook from several small ponds in North­wood. The Rev. John Tuck was ordained here in 1761, and was succeeded by the Rev. E. Ha­zeltine who died in 1813. Rev. J. Curtis was settled in 1815, and is the present minister. The principal village in Ep­som contains about 20 houses, a congregational meeting-house, a school-house, and several small stores. This town, like most others of its size in the state, has several religious so­cieties. There are here many valuable mill seats. There are 7 grain-mills, 9 saw-mills, 2 clothing-mills, 2 carding-ma­chines, and a cotton factory. Maj. Andrew M’Clary, a native of this town, fell at the battle of Breed’s hill on June 17, 1775, after defend­ing with a few compan­ions a temporary entrenchment thrown up a few hours before. Attacked by an overpowering force of the enemy they re­treated about one mile. The major in this action displayed great bravery and presence of mind. Inflamed by an ardent patriotism, like the Roman Ca­millus, he left his plough on the first intelligence of war, and volunteered in the cause of his brethren, in which he was soon called to a command which he executed to his lasting honour.

ERROL, a township in Coos county, situated on the western branch of Umbagog lake. It was incorporated in 1774, and contains only 38 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Wentworth’s location, E. by the district of Maine, S. by Suc­cess and Paulsburgh, and W. by Millsfield, and contains 35,400 acres, 2,800 of which are water. Margallaway and Clear streams here unite with another stream flowing from Umbagog lake, and form in junction Ameriscoggin river. From the centre of this town to Stratford on Connecticut river the distance is 25 miles.

ERVING’S LOCATION is in Coos county, 118 miles from Portsmouth, bounded N. by Dixville, E. by Millsfield, and W. by Columbia and ungranted lands No. 1.

EXETER, called Swamscot by the aborigines, an ancient post town in Rockingham coun­ty, pleasantly situated at the head of tide waters and navi­gation on the southwest branch of Piscataqua river, and equi­distant from the metropolis and Newburyport in Essex county, Massachusetts. Exe­ter was incorporated in the year 1639, and contained ac­cording to the last census, 1759 inhabitants. The township is of an irregular figure, of an area of 11,800 acres, and has for its boundaries Newmarket N. by E.; Stratham E. and N. E.; Hampton and Hampton-falls S. E.; Kensington S.; and Brentwood on the W. Exeter Fresh river takes its rise from a small pond in Sandown, running thence on the corn­ers of Hawke and Poplin, thence into Chester and thence again into Poplin, Raymond, Brentwood, and Exeter, near what are termed Pickpocket mills, pursuing from thence an easterly course till with­in one mile of the falls where it receives Little river from the west, and mingles shortly after with the tide wa­ters of the Swamscot, in the midst of a fine trading and manufacturing settlement. Ex­eter is the second considerable town in the state, 50 miles N. of Boston, and 402 N. E. of Philadelphia. It has a bank with a capital of two hundred thousand dollars. It was for­merly the seat of government, and many of the public offices of the state are still kept here. The public edifices are two congregational churches, a bap­tist meeting-house, an elegant academy, a handsome court­house, and a gaol. Beside the celebrated Phillips Exeter Academy there are here two English schools and ten or a dozen private schools chiefly for females. It is well situat­ed for a manufacturing town, and has 2 fulling-mills, 2 card­ing-machines, 2 oil-mills, a woolen factory, 2 extensive cotton factories, a spinning and weaving factory, a tin ware, comb, and morocco factory, a gin distillery, iron works, a manufactory of ordnance and small arms, a paper mill, a great number of saw and grist­mills, a printing-office, book­store, book-bindery, etc. etc. The saddlery, shoe-making and chaise-making business is also carried on here to a very great extent. In 1776, Col. Samuel Hobart erected a powder-mill in this town capable of manu­facturing 2,400 pound of pow­der per week. It is not now in operation. Before the rev­olution ship-building was an extensive and profitable branch of business here, and vessels of five-hundred tons burden were built and floated down the fiv­er to Portsmouth and sold, or employed in the West-India trade. Since the last war it has altogether declined. Spec­imens of bog iron ore and some considerable copper pyrites have been discovered in this town. Vitriol also, com­bined in the same stone with sulphur, is found in its neigh­bourhood. In the year 1789, the remains of an Indian skel­eton were dug up on the east side of the river in this town. It was in a perpendicular posi­tion and enclosed in a birchen hollow log. Some strings of wampum and twelve spoons, apparently of European manu­facture, were found near it. The skull was entire, the teeth remained in the jaws, and the hair, which was long, straight, and black, had suffered neither decay nor injury. Phillips Exeter Academy in this town is a highly respecta­ble, useful, and flourishing in­stitution. It was founded by the Hon. John Phillips, LL.D. in 1781. A part of its funds is appropriated to the support of candidates for the ministry or indigent scholars recommend­ed for their genius and learn­ing. There are in this acade­my nearly 80 scholars. It has a well selected library and a handsome philosophical appara­tus. The board of trustees consists of seven gentlemen, of whom the Hon. J. T. Gilman is president. The immediate in­struction of the students is en­trusted to a principal, a pro­fessor of mathematics and nat­ural philosophy, and an assist­ant. The Rev. John Wheelwright the principal settler of this town, in 1638, removed from Braintree, (Mass.) then a part of Boston, where he was set­tled in the ministry. In the same year he united with sev­eral others in making a settle­ment in Exeter. He was a gentleman of talents, piety and learning. The Indians did not com­mence their depredations a­gainst this place till the year 1675, at which time they kill­ed several persons here. In July, 1690, Col. Winthrop Hilton’s garrison in this place was attacked and some lives were lost. In June, 1697, this town was preserved in a re­markable manner from a deep laid plot which the Indians had formed against it. The enemy were planted in ambush near the town, and were discovered by some children who had ven­tured from home without a guard. The savages retreat­ed without the loss on our side of more than one person. In 1710, Col. Winthrop Hilton with a party of his neighbours, while at work in a field situate in that part of Exeter which is now called Epping, were attacked by the Indians, who barbarously mur­dered the colonel with two of his party, and captured two others. Emboldened with this success the enemy immediately entered the settlement and kill­ed several other persons, some of whom were children.

FARMINGTON in Strafford county was formerly a part of Rochester. It was incorpo­rated in 1722, and in 1810, con­tained 1272 inhabitants; bound­ed N. E. by Milton, S. E. by Rochester, S.W. by Barrington, and N. W. by New-Durham, comprising 20,811 acres. Cochecho river flows through the N.E. part of this town, and the Frost mountains extend through it from N. to S. From the summit of this ridge, called Mount Washington, the sea­coast and a large part of the state may be seen. There is in this town a handsome meet­ing-house, several mills, and trading stores.

FISHERSFIELD, a township in Hillsborough county, incor­porated in 1778, and now con­taining 563 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by New-London, E. by Sutton, S. by Bradford, and W. by Cheshire county line which divides it from Go­shen and Wendell, comprising an area of 19,332 ‘acres. In the north part of the town lies Sunapee pond. Todd pond is on its southerly side. The latter is about 500 rods long and 60 wide. The westerly side of the town is broken and elevated, but most of its land is suited for grazing. There is in this town a baptist meet­ing-house, 8 or 10 mills, and 3 stores.

FITZWILLIAM, a township in Cheshire county, situated on the southerly line of the state, which separates it from Royalston and Winchendon in Massachusetts. It is hounded by Richmond on the W., Marl­borough on the N., and Jaffrey and Rindge on the E., and con­tains 26,900 acres, 400 of which are water. In this town lies South pond, which is 320 rods long and 90 wide in its narrow­est part; and also Sip’s pond, 200 rods long and 100 wide. Fitzwilliam was incorporated in 1773, and its population is now 1310. It is situated on the height of land south of the Monadnock mountain, and its surface is hilly. The soil is rocky but well adapted to grass and to the cultivation of vari­ous kinds of grain. The low lands are covered with pine, hemlock, and spruce. There are here also some valuable and productive meadows. Near the centre of the town is a large hill remarkable for the beauti­fully romantic prospect which it affords; and in the northwest part of the town is Gap moun­tain, which at a distance ap­pears to be part of the Monad­nock, and on which are found the common substances called whetstones. About half a mile north of the centre of the town four turn­pike roads meet, viz. one from Keene, one from ‘Winchester, one to Templeton, and one to Ashby, (Mass.) ; the two last lead to Boston. There is a village here comprising about 20 houses, a meeting-house, 3 stores, and several mechanics’ shops. At the south end of South pond an enterprising citi­zen opened a canal through the bank of the pond at some dis­tance from its natural outlet, and erected upon it a grist-mill, which promises to be produc­tive and useful. At the north extremity of the town there is a village of about 15 houses, besides a grain-mill, a fulling-mill, and a carding-machine. Several looms and machines for spinning wool have been in op­eration here during the past summer.
The first church in this town was formed on the 27th of March, 1771, on congregation­al principles, over which the Rev. Benj. Brigham was or­dained pastor. This gentle­man died on the 11th of June, 1799, in the 58th year of his age and the 29th of his minis­try. His successor was the Rev. Stephen Williams, who was dismissed in November, 1802. The Rev. John Sabin, the present minister of the place, was ordained on the 6th of March, 1805. Brig. Gen. James Reed, a revolutionary officer, was a cit­izen of this town, and reflected honour upon it by his courage as a soldier and his excellences as a man. The average annual number of deaths in this town for the last seven years has been about 14. In the year 1812, 16 persons died here of the throat distemper.

Fox POINT. (See Newing­ton.)

FRANCESTOWN, a town in Hillsborough county, bounded N. by Deering, E. by New-Boston, S. by Lyndeborough and Greenfield, and W. by Greenfield, and containing 18, 760 acres, of which 660 are water. In 1810 its population was 1451. This town derived its name from Frances, the wife of Gov. John Wentworth. It was in­corporated in 1772, and then included what was once called New-Boston-Addition, togeth­er with a part of Society Land and Lyndeborough. The soil here is uneven and stony, but its qualities are warm and moist. There are some small intervales which are very produc­tive. The original growth here was beech, birch, red oak, ma­ple, hemlock, and pine. There are many springs in the town, and on its easterly side is Haunt­ed pond, about 300 rods long and 225 wide; and also Plea­sant pond, about 350 rods square, in which the 4th branch of Piscataqua river has its rise. The highest land in this town is Crotched mountain, the summit of which is more than 600 feet above the plain in the cen­tre of the town. About half way up this mountain there is a small pond, always full and yet always of a shallow depth. One of the summits of this mountain is covered with woods, the other is almost a solid ledge of rocks, affording a very extensive prospect to the southwest. The second N. H. turnpike passes through this town near its centre in a southerly direction. Another important road, leading from the southwesterly part of the state to Concord, crosses the turnpike in this town. The first permanent settle­ment here was made about the year 1760, by one Carson, a Scotchman. In 1773, the in­habitants had so increased by emigration, chiefly from Ded­ham, (Mass.) that a congrega­tional church was gathered here by the Rev. Samuel Cot­ton, minister of Litchfield. It consisted at first of 18 mem­bers, and in 1792 of 148, since which time a large number has been added. No other relig­ious society has ever existed in this town excepting a small one of Scotch presbyterians, which in 1792, united with the congregationalists. Rev. Mo­ses Bradford is the first and on­ly minister ever settled in this place. He was ordained in September, 1790, and to his exertions is the town in a great measure indebted for its res­pectable character and its pros­perous condition. From its settlement to 1790, the whole number of deaths was about 100. From 1790 to May, 1814, the deaths amounted to 401, a large proportion of whom were infants. In 1812, thirty-three persons died here of the dysentery; the whole number of deaths in that year was 45. Exclusive of the ordinary pro­portion of other mechanical business, there are here four large tanneries, a manufactory of musical instruments, and one of earthen ware. The compact part of the town con­sists of about 25 dwelling-hous­es, with a handsome meeting-house, several stores, etc. There are also 7 school-houses. The school committee in March, 1814, reported that exclusive of the small scholars who at­tend in the summer only, there were in these schools during the past winter, 450 scholars, of whom 82 were in the study of English grammar. The farmers of this town have recently paid increased at­tention to the raising of sheep. The introduction of the merino breed has become an interest­ing and profitable concern. There are two flocks of sheep in this town, containing in them both more than 600. The ag­ricultural and general condi­tion of this place has of late been flourishing. A mail stage passes through Francestown twice a week to and from Bos­ton. There are here two quar­ries of free stone, one in the easterly and one in the southerly part of the town. The for­mer was discovered in 1813. It is not extensive, and has not been much worked. The lat­ter is productive, and probably inexhaustible. It was first worked about ten years ago. Its colour is white, mingled with a dark shade. It is easi­ly manufactured with the saw or chisel, and is susceptible of a high polish. Although of a soft nature, it is very adhesive and heavy, 12 cubic feet weigh­ing one ton. After it is pre­pared at the quarry, it is sold for $1,42 cts. per cubic foot. It is used for hearths, stoves, etc. In several parts of this town, large rocks of a globular form are found directly poised on the surface of others. Curiosities of this kind, of which the cause is certainly mysterious, are common to many places in this state. Clay of a superior qual­ity for bricks is found in large quantities in this town, and in some spots there have been seen strong indications of iron ore. Indeed several large pieces of good purity have been found. Richard, who has long resided in this town, was captured by the Indians during the last French war in the year 1756._ Although guarded by two warriors, he was able by superior strength and agility to effect his escape, but not without the loss of all his clothes. He wandered entire­ly naked between the lakes George and Champlain for six days, eating nothing but berries and bark. To elude his pur­suers he was obliged to swim across the Hudson river three times. He is now living in good health at the age of 77.

FRANCONTA, (formerly Mor­ristown,) lies in the upper part of Grafton county, near the western side of the White mountains which form its eas­tern boundary. Lincoln and Landaff are its southern, Con­cord its western, and Bethle­hem its northern boundary. The great Hay Stack mountain is on the southeasterly extrem­ity of this town, and French and other mountains are within its limits. It contains 32,948 acres. Several branches of the great Amonoosuck rise in these moun­tains and pass through this town. Franconia was incor­porated in 1760, and in 1810, contained 358 inhabitants. There is here an extensive iron factory establishment. The company was incorporated December 18th, 1805, and is com­posed principally of Boston and Salem gentlemen. The works, consist of a blast furnace with a reservoir of water near the top as a precaution against fire, an air furnace, a steel furnace, a pounding machine to sepa­rate the iron from the cinders, a forge with four fires and two hammers, a turning lathe, and a trip-hammer shop with four fires and two hammers. There are also in this town a powder magazine, a saw-mill, a grist-mill, 10 or 12 dwelling houses, a store, and a ware­house. Most of the ore wrought here is conveyed from Concord mountain about 3 miles from the furnace. There is also a large tract of coaling ground belonging to the company, and a highly impregnated mineral spring about two miles from the furnace. Not very far from this establishment are the up­per works, called ” the Haver­hill and Franconia iron works,” which were incorporated in 1808. These are built on the same plan as the former, but their operations are not as yet so extensive.

GILFORD, a township in Strafford county, formerly a part of Gilmanton, incorporat­ed in 1727, and now containing about 1200 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Winnipiseogee lake, E. by Alton, S. by. Gilmanton, and W. by a long bay which divides it from Gilmanton. There are here several large mountains. The sum­mits of two of them are within 200 rods of each other, and about 2000 feet above the level of the town. On the souther­ly part of Gunstock mountain is Suncook pond, which forms the northerly source of Suncook river. Gilford has two meeting-houses, which belong to no particular denomination of christians, 3 trading stores, 4 grain-mills, 3 saw-mills, and a carding-machine. The free will baptists have here a large church and society under the care of Elder Richard Martin, an aged and respectable minis­ter. There is also a society of the regular baptists under the care of Elder Morrison. At Meredith bridge, which unites this town to Meredith, is a handsome village containing a­bout 25 dwelling-houses, stores, etc. A meeting-house was late­ly erected here by the inhabi­tants of the two towns for the common use of all orders of christians.

GILMANTON, a township in Strafford county, incorporated in 1727, and containing in 1810, 4,338 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Gilford, E. by Alton, S. E. by Barnstead, S. W. by Rockingham line, and N.W. by Winnipiseogee lake and bay which separates it from Sanbornton, comprising an area of 58,448 acres. Suncook river rises here in a pond of that name on Gilford line, the wa­ters of which fall into another pond of the same name, which is larger than the former, being about 350 rods long and 175 wide. From thence it falls in­to a third pond of the same name 500 rods long and half as wide. There are several small­er ponds in this town, in one of which is the source of Bow Cook river. There are in Gilmanton 5 meeting-houses, 20 school­houses, a court house, a cotton factory, a nail factory, 9 grain-mills, 10 saw-mills, 2 clothing-mills, a carding-machine, an oil-mill, and 9 trading stores. A handsome academy was incorporated and built here in 1794, and opened for the recep­tion of students December,1797. It has generally from 30 to 50 students. Its funds are about $5000, raised by subscription. There is here a congregational church and society recently un­der the charge of the Rev. I­saac Smith, who died in March, 1817. There are several baptist societies, and one of friends. One term of the common pleas fur the 1st district, is holden here annually. Hon. Joseph Badger, who settled in this town in the year 1760, was its first magistrate, and was high 3 instrumental in its growth and prosperity. He was for many years judge of probate, and resigned that of­fice at the age of 70.

GILSOM, a township in Ches­hire county, incorporated in 1763, and now containing 513 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Alstead and Marlow, E. by Sullivan and Stoddard, S. by Keene, and W. by Surry. The eastern branch of Ashuelot river passes through this town. Gilsum has 1 meeting­house, 2 grain-mills, and 2 saw­mills. Elisha Fish who died in 1807, was its first ordained minister. The annual average number of deaths in this town is not more than 6. In 1813, 10 died here of the spotted fever.

GOFFSTOWN in Hillsborough county, is situated on the wes­terly side of Merrimack river, it is bounded N. by Dunbarton, E. by Merrimack river, S. by Bedford, and W. by New-Boston and part of Weare, and contains 29,170 acres. It was incorporated in 1761, and in 1810, contained 2000 inhabitants. In the S. W. extremity of the town are the two Unconoonock mountains, and in the S. E. part is the Amoskeag bridge and falls. Piscataquog river passes through this place. In 1771, Rev. Joseph Currier was settled here in the congrega­tional order. Cornelius Wa­ters and D.L. Morrill, have been his successors. There are in this town 2 religious socie­ties, 1 meeting-house, 8 trad­ing-stores, 1 cotton factory containing about 30 spindles, 7 grain-mills, 20 saw-mills, 2 clothing-mills, and 2 carding-machines.

GOSHEN, a township in Ches­hire county, incorporated in 1791, and in 1810, containing 563 inhabitants. It is bound­ed N. by Newport and Wen­dell, E. by the county of Hills­borough, S. by Washington,and W. by Lempster and Unity, and contains 12,023 acres. Little Sugar river waters the north part of the town. Sunapee mountain lies between Goshen and Fishersfield. Croydon turnpike passes through the west part of the town to Con­necticut river. There is here 1 grain-mill, 2 saw-mills, 1 clothing-mill, – and 1 distil­lery.

GRAFTON COUNTY is bound­ed W. by the west branch of Connecticut river, S. by the counties of Cheshire and Hills­borough, E. by Strafford, and N. by Coos. Beginning at Connecticut river, at the west extremity of Dalton and run­ning on the west and south line of Dalton to Whitefield, thence on the west and south line of Whitefield to Bretton Woods, thence on the west and south line of Bretton Woods to the southeast extremity of Weare, thence south in a straight line across unlocated lands to the county of Strafford at the northerly corner of Tamworth, thence on the north and west line of Sandwich and on the south line of Holderness to Pemigewasset river, thence down that river to the N. E. extremity of New-Andover, thence on the northerly line of that town and on the northeas­terly line of New-London to the N. E. extremity of Spring­field, thence on the northerly line of Springfield, New-Gran­tham, and Plainfield to Con­necticut river, and thence by that river to the place first men­tioned. This county contains 35 town­ships and a large quantity of unlocated land. Its population by the last census was 28,462, of whom 4,837 were rateable polls. There are in this county 29 stud-horses, 3827 other horses, 286 four years old, and 998 more than two years old, 3522 oxen, 1308 four years old, 9981 cows, 50,084 three years old cattle, and 6107 over two years old. In 1812, there were also in this county 52 mules and 3 jacks, and 577 acres of orchard.
Grafton county contains 36 houses for public worship, 1 academy, 83 grain-mills, 118 saw-mills, 24 mills for dressing cloth, 35 carding-machines, 1 paper-mill, 49 trading-stores, 21 distilleries, and 1 oil-mill. The county prison is at Haver­hill, and the superior and infe­rior courts hold alternate ses­sions there and at Plymouth. The probate courts are holden at Haverhill, Plymouth, Han­over, Bridgewater, and En­field.

GRAFTON, a township in the county of that name, lies about 13 miles southeast from Dart­mouth college. It was incor­porated in 1773, and now con­tains 931 inhabitants. It is bounded N. E. by Orange, S. E. by Cushing’s Gore S.W. by the line of Cheshire county which separates it from Springfield, and N. W. by Enfield and a part of Canaan, and con­tains 21,993 acres. Branches of Smith’s river water the eas­terly part of the town, and Mascomy river its west part. There are here 2 baptist meeting-houses, 6 grain-mills, 6 sawn mills, 1 clothing mill, 2 card­ing-machines, 2 stores, and 1 distillery. That species of mineral, (lassis specularis) commonly called isinglass, is found in a state of great purity in Glass hill mountain in this town. It adheres in the form of lamina to rocks of white and yellow quartz. The usual size of these lamina is, about 6 inches square, but some have been found 18 inches. This glass when prepared is transported to Boston, and from thence large quantities are exported to England, probably for ship lanterns. It is found on the easterly side of the mountain, which is about 200 feet high. Many people are employed every summer in collecting it.

GREAT BAY. The western branch of Piscataqua river is formed by Swamscot river, which flows from Exeter, Winnicot river which comes from Greenland, and Lamprey river which divides Newmarket from Durham ; these streams empty into a bay 4 miles wide, called Great Bay. The water in its further progress is contracted into a lesser bay, and there re­ceives Oyster river from Dur­ham, and Black river from Do­ver. The Whole branch at length meets the main stream at Hilton’s point. The tide flows into all these streams as far as the lower falls in each, and forms a very rapid current, especially at the seasons of the freshets, when the ebb contin­ues about two hours longer than the flood. Piscataqua bridge is thrown over the lower extremity of Little bay. New­ington lies on the eastern shore of this bay, Stratham and Greenland on the southern, and Durham on the northern shore.

GREAT ISLAND. (See New-Castle.)

State of the State 1817–Part 2 of 7

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Taken from The New Hampshire Gazetter 1817

CHESTERFIELD, a township in Cheshire county. It was incorporated in 1752, and in 1810, its population amounted to 1830. It is situated on Connecticut river opposite to Dummerston in Vermont. It is bounded N. by Westmore­land, S. E. by Swansey and a part of Keene, S. by Winchester and Hinsdale, and W. by Connecticut river. This town contains a pond of 526 acres, called Spofford’s pond, and in the S. W. part of the town is a part of West riv­er mountain. The soil of this town is of various qualities, and its surface is rough. It produces different kinds of grain, and is well suited to grass, pasturing, etc. The Rev. Abraham Wood, a con­gregational minister, was or­dained in this town Dec. 31st, 1772, and is still settled there. This town contains a baptist society, which however is des­titute of a public house of wor­ship. The village here is small, but it contains an academy, which is supported by its tui­tion money, subscriptions, and yearly donations. Its aver­age number of students is 40. There is also a cotton factory in this town, which was incor­porated in 1809, and has in op­eration 844 spindles. Besides this, there are 2 distilleries, 4 grist-mills, 7 saw-mills, 2 mills for dressing cloth, 2 carding-machines, 5 shops, and 10 school-houses. West river mountain, which is partly in this town, is of some note. In the year 1730, the garrison at fort Dummer was frequently alarmed by ex­plosions heard from this moun­tain, attended by the emission of columns of smoke. Simi­lar phenomena have been no­ticed at various subsequent pe­riods. There are two places about this mountain where the rocks bear evident traces of having been heated and calcin­ed.

CHICHESTER, a township in Rockingham county, is bound­ed N. E. by Pittsfield and Ep­som, S. W. by Pembroke, and N. W. by Loudon and a part of Concord. It was incorporat­ed in 1727, and contains 11,978 acres and 951 inhabitants. Suncook river flows through the easterly part of this town, into which river a small stream falls from the western side of the town. In this town are water mills. The New-Hamp­shire turnpike passes through here to Concord. The settle­ment of this town was com­menced by Mr. Paul Morrill in the year 1758. The soil of Chichester is excellently adapted to the cultivation of rye, corn, and wheat. The only high ground of importance here is Bear hill, situated in the N. part of the town, the sides of which are covered with a rich and cultivated soil. In 1801, a turnpike was cut through the woods which then covered this spot. There were at that time no houses here, nor had agriculture com­menced its progress. Since that time 12 dwelling-houses have been erected within the space of 2 miles. The land is now divided into lots and fenced,and a large portion of it is al­ready improved and well cul­tivated, There is only one re­ligious society in this town, and of this the Rev. Josiah Carpenter is the minister. He is a congregationalist and was ordained in 1791, and is the only minister ever settled here. Besides the meeting-house there are 5 school-houses. In various parts of the town are still to be seen traces of Indian settlements. Marks of corn plantations, and the ruins of wigwams were easily discov­ered on the banks of Suncook river, and several Indian hatch­ets were ploughed up near the present site of the meeting­house by one of the first set­tlers, captain Samuel Langmaid.

CLAREMONT, a township on Connecticut river in the coun­ty of Cheshire. It was incor­porated in 1764, and in 1810, it contained 2,094 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Cornish, E. by Newport, S. by Unity and Charleston, and W. by the river. There are here 2 ferries across the Connecticut extend­ing to Weathersfield in Ver­mont, called Ashley’s and Sumner’s ferries. Hubbard’s isl­and, just below Ashley’s ferry is 240 rods long and 40 wide. Sugar river passes through this town and supplies many valuable mill seats, on which are erected 3 grain-mills, 3 saw-mills, and 3 mills for dressing cloth, 1 carding-ma­chine, 1 paper-mill, and 1 oil-mill. The second New-Hampshire turnpike passes from Amherst through this town. There is 1 congregational and 1 episcopalian society in this place, over the former of which Rev. S. Farley, and over the latter Rev. C. Barber are ordained. Their predecessors were the Rev. G. Wheaton, A. Hibbert, and R. Cassit. Be­sides these two societies, the methodists have here a public house of worship.

CLEAR STREAM RIVER ris­es in the mountains on the W. side of the town of Dixville, near the northerly extremity of Millfield. Passing thence through the centre of the town of Er­rol, it falls into Andriscoggin river three miles S. of Umbagog lake.

COCHECHO or DOVER-RIVER has its source among a number of small ponds in the town of New-Durham. It thence takes a southerly direction through the towns of Farmington and Rochester, where it unites with its southern branch, called Is­inglass river. From this place the main stream passes through Dover, where it falls into Newichawannock or Salmon falls river, thence to Hilton’s point where the southern branch meets it. From this junction to the sea, which is 8 miles distant, the course of this river is rapid and never freez­es.

COLEBROOK, a township in Coos county. It was incorpo­rated in 1770, and now contains 325 inhabitants. It lies on Connecticut river 40 miles N. of Lancaster. It is bound­ed N. by Stewartstown, E. by Dixville, S. by Columbia, and W. by the river, and contains 25,056 acres. This town is watered by Mohawk river and Beaver brook. It has 1 meet­ing-house and an ordained minister. It contains a grain-mill, a saw-mill, 2 mills for dressing cloth, 1 carding-ma­chine, 1 oil-mill, a distillery, and 1 retail store.

COLD RIVER. rises in Cold-pond in Acworth, whence its most northerly branch flows, and its most southerly flows from Alstead. These branches unite in Walpole, where the main stream falls into Connect­icut river.

COLLEGE LANDS, a tract of land granted to the trustees of Dartmouth college by the state legislature in 1789. It lies on Connecticut river N. of Stewartstown and contains 40,960 acres. Two streams called Dead water and Cedar stream pass through this tract. It lies 130 miles N., 9° W. from Portsmouth. In 1807, the legislature made to the college another grant of land lying on the easterly border of the state containing 23,040 acres, equal to 6 square miles. This tract lies N. 5° W., 123 miles from Portsmouth.

COLUMBIA, a township in Coos county. Bounded N. by Colebrook, E. by Dixville and Erving’s location, S. by unap­propriated lands and Stratford, and W. by Connecticut river. It contains 32,800 acres. Sims stream and Cole brook rise in this town and empty themselves here into Connecticut river. Roaring brook falls into the same river near the lower extremity of this town. There are here several mountains of a considerable size, and a num­ber of small ponds. This town contains 1 grist-mill, 2 saw­mills, 1 mill for dressing cloth, 1 trading store, and 1 distillery. This place was formerly called Cockburn.

CONCORD is in Rockingham county. It lies on both sides of Merrimack river, was in­corporated in 1765, and now contains 2,393 inhabitants. It is bounded as follows, begin­ning at the junction of the Sun­cook and Merrimack, it runs up the Suncook to Loudon, thence N. 47° W. 810 rods, and N. 211° W. 700 rods to Canterbury, thence on the same course 191 rods, thence S. 72°, W. 1370 rods across the junc­tion of the two rivers, and by Boscawen to Hopkinton, thence S. 20° W. 2279 rods to Bow, thence on the same course binding on Bow 32 rods,thence N. 70° E. 1222 rods to Merri­mack river, thence down said river to the boundary first mentioned. It contains 40,919 acres, 1710 of which are wa­ter. There are four ponds in this town, Turkey pond, the source of Turkey river, containing about 1000 acres, Long pond containing about 420, Turtle pond containing about 240, and Horse-shoe pond con­taining about 50 acres, the wa­ters of which fall into the Mer­rimack. The Rev. Timothy Walker was ordained in this town in 1730, and died in 1782, aged 78 years. The Rev. Israel Evans was ordained here in 1789, and removed soon af­terwards. The Rev. Dr. Asa McFarland is the present min­ister. Concord is pleasantly situated on the banks of the Merri­mack about 8 miles above Hookset falls. The state legis­lature have for many years held all its sessions here, and from its central situation and thriving back country, Concord will probably be made the per­manent capital of the state. Proposals are already made for erecting a state house here. One handsome toll-bridge across the Merrimack connects this town with Pembroke, an­other crosses the river near the northerly extremity of the town, over which the N. H. turnpike passes. The Indian name of this town was Penacook. When granted by Massachusetts it was called Rumford. The compact part of the town which lies principally on the main-street contains about 200 dwelling houses, a spacious meeting­house, 3 printing-offices, 20 stores, and several mechanics shops. The village in the N. E. part of the town contains 28 dwelling-houses, 2 stores; a distillery, and several mills. The whole town contains 5 grain-mills, 8 saw-mills, 4 mills for dressing cloth, 2 carding-machines, and a nail-factory. The N. H. state prison is in this town. It is strongly built of stone, and in November 1816, it contained 30 prisoners. The first settlement of this town commenced in 1685. Jonathan Tyng with 19 other persons purchased of the In­dians a tract of land on both sides of the Merrimack river, 6 miles in breadth from Souhegan river to Winnipiseogee lake, and, Mason by deed confirmed the purchase. In August of the same year the Indians gathered their corn and removed their families. By this conduct they gave considerable alarm to their English neighbours. In 1746, a party of Indians lay in ambush in this town with an intention to attack the people while at public worship, but observing them go armed to their devotions they waited till the next morning, at which time they killed 5 and took 2 prisoners. In 1747, July 28th, the In­dians again appeared in this place and made some depreda­tion among the cattle. They were pursued by 50 of the En­glish, and they retreated with great precipitation,leaving their packs and blankets behind them. One man, only was wounded in the arm. About the same time a person was killed there who had just returned from Cape-Breton after an absence of two years.
On the 20th of March, 1772, died in this town Benjamin Rolfe. He was one of the first who adventured their lives in a land of savages with the intention of forming an En­glish settlement at Concord, then called Penacook and at a distance of nearly 40 miles from any civilized habitation. Benjamin Thompson (bet­ter known to the world under the title of Count Rumford) set­tled in this town in the early part of his life. The town was then called Rumford. Here he married Miss Rolfe. In 1775, he went to England, and was employed as clerk in the office of lord George Germaine, who was then one of the secre­taries of state, and who eventu­ally procured for him a colo­nels commission. While serv­ing in the British army he dis­covered such talents for pro­jecting military improvements, so much mental activity and enterprise, and such acute dis­cernment in practical philoso­phy, that his celebrity extend­ed through foreign countries, and attracted the attention of the reigning duke of Bavaria, who offered Col. Thompson a preferment in his service, which he accepted in 1784. Raised by this prince-to the rank of Lieut. Gen. of horse he soon signalized himself by introducing a new system of discipline and economy among the troops under his com­mand. During a residence of sever­al years in Bavaria, he was conspicuous for his unwearied and successful efforts to ame­liorate the condition of the poor and particularly to annihi­late the evil of common begga­ry by providing the beggars, (a class of people with which that country swarmed) with em­ployment and the cheapest ali­ment. All this time his active and sagacious mind suggested a variety of improvements fa­vourable to manufactures, do­mestic economy, and comfort. He particularly improved the construction of chimneys and stoves, and made many inter­esting and beneficial experi­ments on heat, cookery, and food. On his leaving the German service the duke of Bavaria created him a count, his title by his own choice, was taken from the town (Rumford) where he spent his youth. After leaving Bavaria count Rumford passed most of his time in Great Britain, where he received the honour of knight­hood and enjoyed an uncom­mon share of public and pri­vate respect. By steadily di­recting his extraordinary tal­ents to the promotion of the daily comfort and general wel­fare of the human family he made every civilized being his debtor, and, while he has reflected signal honour upon his native land, his well merited fame has extended itself over a large portion of the globe. He died in Autencil in France in the year 1814, aged sixty.

CONCORD in Grafton county, was incorporated in 1768, and was formerly called Gunthwait. It is a flourishing town. Its population has nearly doubled within the last 10 years, and in 1810, it amounted to 1126. The value of property here has increased with the same rapidity. It is bounded N.E. by Littleton and Bethlehem, S. E. by Franconia, S. W. by Landaff, and N.W. by Lyman, and contains 29,130 acres. There are here several ponds, viz. Minks, Straters, etc. Two branches of the Great Amonoosuck meet in this town and pass through it. An iron fac­tory lies on the eastern border of the town, adjacent to Fran­conia. Large quantities of lime-stone are found here, and large kilns are already erected, in which are burnt 400 hogs­heads yearly. All the iron ore, which supplies two furnaces, is dug from a quarry situated in the S.E. part of the town, about 4 miles distant from the furnaces. There are in this town 1 meeting-house, 3 corn-mills, 5 saw-mills, 1 mill for dressing cloth, and an oil-mill. There is here a freewill baptist church, over which Elder J. Quimby was ordained Septem­ber, 1800.

CONNECTICUT RIVER has its source among the high lands, which separate the United States from Lower Canada. One of the princi­pal parent streams of this river is called Indian stream, which runs nearly in a straight line from its source to its junction with the main branch. The most northerly branch is call­ed Hall’s stream, which, with Perry’s stream and several others from the west, form in conjunction one grand river near the 50th degree of N. lati­tude on land granted to Dart­mouth college. It has been surveyed about 30 miles be­yond the 45th degree of N. lat­itude to the head of its north­western branch, and is settled nearly all the distance to its source. Its general course S. S.W. along the western border of New-Hampshire, (between that state and Vermont) about 170 miles, it then passes into Massachusetts. Connecticut river in its course between New-Hamp­shire and Vermont from the 45th degree of latitude passes between Stewartstown in New-Hampshire and Canaan in Ver­mont, thence between Cole­brook and Lexington. Here the river bends considerably to the E. as if to give place to Monadnock mountain, which lies on Lexington shore in Vermont. It receives Mo­hawk river opposite to this mountain, and Jacob’s brook a few miles below. Here the river again takes a westerly inclination and flows between Columbia and Minchead to Stratford opposite Brunswick in Vermont. At this place Nohegan river falls into the Connecticut from the upper ex­tremity of Brunswick, and Pauls stream from the lower corner of the same town. The river here bends to the east on the border of Northumber­land, where it receives the up­per Amonoosuck, at a great bend opposite the lower ex­tremity of Maidstone. From this point its course is very crooked to the upper part of Lancaster, where there is a bridge leading to Guildhall in Vermont. Five or six miles below this, Israel river emp­ties itself, passing from Lan­caster village falls, 3 miles a­bove the Catbow. At Catbow the river inclines to the west, and passes between Dalton to Lunenburgh, where the 15 miles falls commence. At this place John’s river empties it­self from Dalton, and Neal’s brook from Lunenburgh. Here the river makes a westerly bend, receiving Mile’s river and passing between Littleton and Concord, where there is a bridge built over the falls. It has thence a southerly course between Bath and Rigate, where the Great Amonoosuck empties itsalf at the lower ex­tremity of Bath opposite the mouth of Wells river, which passes from Newbury, Ver­mont. Between Haverhill and Newbury, the river is crooked, passing under three bridg­es, and receiving Oliverian river from the east and a small stream from the west at the Great Ox-bow. As it thence flows between Piermont and Bradford, it receives two large mill-streams and Wait’s river from the latter place, and two small mill-streams from the former. It thence passes on through Orford and Fairlee, Lyme and Thelford to Grant’s island near the line of Windsor county, Vermont. A bridge over the falls just below Dart­mouth college unites the towns of Hanover and Norwich, and another bridge four or five miles below, near the mouth of Mascoma river from New-Hampshire and White river from Vermont, connects the towns of Lebanon, N. H. and Hartford, Vt. Between Plain­field and Hartland is a small island called Hart’s island, where Queechy river and Lull’s brook empty themselves from Vermont. From Hart’s island the river keeps nearly a straight course between Cornish and Windsor, till it reaches the mouth of Sugar river at Clare­mont. Two very good mill­streams empty themselves from Windsor and several from Weathersfield opposite Clare­mont. The mouth of Sugar river is several miles below Ascutney mountain. As the river flows on between Charles­ton and Springfield, it receives Black river from the’ latter town and Williams river from Rockingham. It thence passes between Walpole and the lower part of Rockingham, where the great falls commence, now known by the ap­pellation of Bellows’ falls. The width of the river above them is at some point 22 rods, at others not more than 16. The average depth of the channel is about 25 feet, and is gener­ally well supplied with water. It is said, however, that in September, 1792, after a severe drought, the waters of this riv­er passed within a space of twelve feet wide and two and a half feet deep. A large rock here divides the stream into two channels, each about nine­ty feet wide. When the water is low, the eastern channel is dry, being crossed by a bar of solid rock. At such times the whole stream falls into the western channel, where it is contracted to the breadth of fifteen feet, and flows with as­tonishing rapidity. There are several pitches within the dis­tance of half a mile above each other, the largest of which is that, where the rock divides the stream. Not withsonding the violence of the current here, the salmon pass up the falls and are taken many miles above, but the shad do not pass beyond the falls. In 1784, a bridge of timber, constructed by Col. Hale was projected over these falls 365 feet in length. This bridge was sup­ported by the great central rock, and under it the highest floods pass without doing injury. The river from this place flows along the lower extremi­ty of Walpole, front which town Cold river empties it­self, and from Westminster, which lies opposite, Sexton riv­er falls in with several other small streams. It thence pass­es “Westmoreland which lies opposite to Putnam and Dummerston, thence it flows by Chesterfield situated opposite to Brattleborough, where it re­ceives Wantoostilqueck or West river. Between Hins­dale in New-Hampshire and Hinsdale in Vermont is a re­markable bend, where Ashuelot river empties itself. The Connecticut a few miles below this point passes over. the S. line of New-Hampshire into Massachusetts. Its passage through the county of Hamp­shire waters some of the most pleasant towns in the common­wealth, such as Springfield, Hadley, Northampton, etc. It thence enters the limits of Connecticut, passes over En­field falls, thence to Windsor, where it receives Windsor fer­ry river, thence to Hartford, where it meets the tide and flows in a crooked channel into Long Island sound. At the distance of 130 miles from its mouth, its width is from 80 to 100 rods. The whole length of this beau­tiful river is bordered on each of its banks with some of the most flourishing towns in the United States. Throughout its whole course, it preserves a distance of between 80 and 100 miles from the sea. The whole distance of this magnificent stream from its mouth to its source is above 300 miles. The celebrated American poet, Barlow, thus compliments it; No watery gleams through happier villas shine—Nor drinks the sea a lovelier wave than thine.

CONTOOCOOK, a very consid­erable river in Hillsborough county. Its most southerly branch has its rise near the Great Monadnock mountain in Jaffrey and Rindge, and its most northerly branch flows from Danbury, Wilmot, etc. at a dis­tance of more than fifty miles from each other. These streams after receiving tribute from almost every pond and spring in Dublin, Peterborough, Nelson, Stoddard, Washing­ton, Fishersfield, Bradford, Hillsborough, Antrim, War­ner, Sutton, New-London, Salisbury, Boscawen, and sev­eral other towns, form a junc­tion in the northerly corner of Hopkinton. The main stream passing easterly from this place 8 or 9 miles falls into the Merrimack between Concord and Boscawen. The Contoocook is a very rapid river and at a distance of 10 or 12 miles from its mouth is 100 yards wide. Just before it empties itself into the Merrimack it branches itself and forms an island, which has some celebri­ty as being the spot where a Mrs. Dustin performed a very heroic exploit. This woman had been captured by the In­dians in Haverhill, Massachusetts, and carried to this island. The Indians, 8 or 10 in num­ber, being fatigued and appre­hending no danger laid them­selves down to sleep. The woman seized one of their tomahawks and with it killed and scalped the whole party, took their canoe and returned down the river to Haverhill. She afterwards carried the scalps to Boston and was liber­ally rewarded.

CONWAY, a township situat­ed in the N. E. corner of Straf­ford county. It was incorpo­rated in 1715, and 1810 it contained 1080 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Chatham and Bartlett, E. by the line of the District of Maine, which sepa­rates it from Fryburgh, S. by Eaton, and W. by Burton and Hale’s grant, containing 34,728 acres. It was called by the In­dians, Pigwacket. A small part of Walker’s pond and Lit­tle Pigwacket pond lie in this town. The latter is about 175 rods in diameter. Saco river passes through this town, where it receives Swift river and several other small streams. The Rev. Mr. Porter was ordained here in 1778, and still continues the minister of the place. Conway has 3 religious societies and 2 meeting-houses. It contains 4 corn-mills, 5 saw-mills, 1 mill for dressing cloth, 2 card­ing-machines, 3 distilleries, and 3 retail stores.

COOS County is bounded S. by the counties of Grafton and Strafford, E. by the. District of Maine, N. by Lower Canada, and W. by Connecticut river. It is composed of 22 towns, 5 locations, and a large tract of unlocated land. In 1810 it contained 3,991 in­habitants, of which 628 were rateable polls. It contained at that time 262 horses, 37 four years old, 47 three years old, 49 two years old; 503 oxen, 231 four years old, 1,383 cows, 637 three years old cattle, and 674 two years old; 13 males, and 1 jack. This county com­prises 128,662 acres of land and water S. of latitude 45° and N. of that latitude it con­tains 160,353 acres. Lancaster is the shire town of this county, and was incor­porated as early as 1763. The county prison is here, and an academy which was incorpo­rated in 1808. Coos county has 12, meeting-houses, 20 grist anills, 27 saw­mills, 5 mills for dressing cloth, 3 carding machines, 11 stores, and 6 distilleries, etc. It sends 27 members to the state legislature. The superi­or court for the county of Grafton and this county is held at Haverhill and Plymouth al­ternately on the 4th Tuesday of December, and the court of common pleas is held at Lancaster on the 4th Tuesday of May.

CORNISH, a township in Cheshire county was incorpo­rated in 1763, and its popula­tion in 1810, amounted to 1600. It is bounded N. by Plainfield, E. by Croydon, S. by Claremont, and W. by Connecticut river, which sepa­rates it from Windsor in Ver­mont. It contains 23,160 a­cres. A bridge crosses the Connecticut from this town to Windsor. The line adjoining Croydon passes over Croydon mountain. Governor’s moun­tain is situated nearly between the bridge and the road to Croydon. In this town are a congrega­tionalist, baptist, and episcopalian society, and a meeting­house for each. In 1768, the Rev. J. Welman was ordained here and removed in 1785. The Rev. J. Rowel and P. Kindreck are the present min­isters. This town contains 4 grain-mills, 10 saw-mills, 2 mills for dressing cloth, 2 carding-machines,and 4 stores.

COVENTRY, a township in Grafton county, bounded N. by Landaff, E. by Peeling, S. by Warner, and W. by Haver­hill, containing 33,290 acres. It was incorporated in 1764, and its number of inhabitants in 1810, was 162. Moose-hillock and Owl-head mountains are in this town. Branches and Oliverian brook, Baker’s river, and Wild Amonoosuck take their rise here. Cov­entry contains 2 grist-mills and 1 saw-mill.

CROYDON, a township in the county of Cheshire, was in­corporated in 1713. Its num­ber of inhabitants is 862. It is bounded N. by New-Gran­tham and a corner of Spring­field, E. by Springfield and Wendall, S. by Newport, and W. by Cornish, and contains 26,000 acres. Croydon mountain extends in a northeasterly direction through this town from its southwestern extremity. On this mountain are two small ponds. Its soil is moist and rocky, and produces excellent grass, besides wheat, rye,corn, etc. The principal articles which this town sends to mar­ket, are beef, pork, butter, cheese, etc. Croydon turnpike passes nearly through the cen­tre of this town. There are several small ponds in this town, which supply some of the minor branches of Sugar river, on which streams are e­rected 4 corn-mills, 5 saw­mills, 1 mill for dressing cloth, and a carding-machine. There is in this town a house of pub­lic worship in which a congre­gational minister officiates.

DALTON, a township in Coos county, containing 235 inhabit­ants. It is bounded N.W. by Connecticut river at the great falls opposite Lunenburgh in Vermont, N. E. by Lancaster and Whitefield, S.E. by White-field, and S.W. by Littleton or the Grafton line. It contains 16,455 acres. John’s river crosses the northerly part of the town, and Blake’s pond forms its E. cor­ner bound. Dalton contains a meeting-house, 3 corn-mills, 2 saw-mills, and 1 mill for dress­ing cloth.

DANBURY, situated in Graf­ton county 6 or 8 miles from Merrimack river. It was in­corporated in 1795, and contains 315 inhabitants. It is bounded N.E. by Alexandria, S. E. by New-Chester, S. W. by the line of Hillsborough county which separates it from Wilmot, and N. W. by a cor­ner of Orange. It contains 19,031 acres. Smith’s river waters this town and the Graf­ton turnpike leads through its western extremity to Orford bridge.

DEERFIELD, a township in Rockingham county, incorpo­rated in 1766. In 1810 it contained 1851 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Northwood, S. by Candia, E. by Notting­ham, and W. by Allenstown and Epsom, and contains 23, 254 acres. Pleasant pond is situated in the northerly part of this town and is about a mile in length and half a mile in width. There are here sever­al other smaller ponds, one of which is the source of the wes­tern branch of Lamprey river, the northern branch of which passes from Northwood and unites with the western near the centre of Deerfield. The soil of this town is for the most part fertile, producing the va­rious kinds of grain and grass in abundance. Eliphalet Smith was the first ordained minister in this town and removed soon after the re­volutionary war. His success­or was the Rev. Timothy Up­ham, who died in the year 1811, and was succeeded by the Rev. Nathaniel Wells. There is also a baptist church increasing in numbers under the pastoral care of Elder Peter Young. Each of these socie­ties has its house of public worship. At the part of this town called the parade there is a pleasant village of 15 or 20 houses, a small academy, sev­eral stores, mechanics shops, etc. Deerfield contains 4 grain-mills, 4 saw-mills, 2 mills for dressing cloth, 1 carding-ma­chine, 1 oil-mill, and 13 school­houses. The average yearly number of deaths in this town since 1802, has been about 20. The present year an epidemic fever prevailed of which about 20 persons died. Formerly, moose were plen­ty in and about this town. In 1767, Mr. Josiah Prescott kill­ed four within a short time near the same spot.

DEAD RIVER rises in the northerly part of a tract of land granted to Gilmanton and Atkinson academies. After passing through those lands in a number of streams and also through lands granted to Dartmouth college, it unites with Dimond river and falls in­to the Margalla way river on the easterly side of the state, near the S. E. extremity of Wentworth’s location.

DEERING, a township in Hillsborough county, incorpo­rated in 1779. Its population in 1810 was 1363. It is bounded N. by Henniker and Hillsbor­ough., E. by Weare, W. by the southerly branch of Contoocook river which divides this town from Antrim, and S. by Francestown and Green­field. It contains 20,057 acres. Pecker’s pond, in this town, is 180 rods long and 50 wide and forms the source of the norther­ly branch of Piscataquog river. The 2d New-Hampshire turn­pike passes through the south­westerly part of this town. The Rev. William Sleigh is the set­tled minister of the place. There is here 1 meeting-house, 2 corn-mills, 1 saw-mill, 1 clothing-mill, 2 carding-ma­chines, 1 distillery, and 2 trad­ing shops.

DIMOND RIVER. Its wes­terly branch has its rise in a pond of that name in Stewartstown. Thence its course is through Dixville, and after re­ceiving some tributary streams from the lands granted to Dart­mouth college, it empties itself into Dead river which flows from the easterly part of those lands.

DIXVILLE, a township in Coos county, incorporated in 1805, and in 1810, containing 12 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by the college lands and lands granted to Gilmanton and Atkinson academies, E. by the second grant to Dartmouth college and Wentworth’s loca­tion, S. by Millsfield and Erving’s location, and W. by Columbia, Colebrook, and Stewartstown. It contains 31,023 acres. Near its western bor­der is a ridge of mountains, from which flow several ponds forming the sources of two riv­ers, viz. Clear stream and Di­mond river. This town contains a grist-mill and a saw-mill.

DORCHESTER, a township in Grafton county, incorporated in 1761, and containing 537 in­habitants. It is bounded N. by Wentworth, E. by Groton, S. by Dame’s Gore,which sep­arates it from Canaan , and W. by Lyme, and contains 23,617 acres. There are two large ponds in this town, viz. Slown’s pond, which is 500 rods long and 450 wide, and Fowler’s pond, which is 300 rod’s long and 250 wide. The southerly branch of Baker’s river flows through the eastern part of this town, and a branch
of the Mascoma passes its western part. A large mountain lies near its S.E. extremi­ty, and another called Smart’s mountain in the N. W. part of the town. Dorchester contains 3 mills.

DOVER, a considerable town­ship in Strafford county, situated at the head of the tide on Cochecho. It was incorporated in 1633, and in 1810 it con­tained 2,228 inhabitants. It is bounded N. E. by Somers­worth, S.E. by Piscataqua riv­er, S.W. by Madbury, and N. W. by Rochester and a corner of Barrington ; it comprises 15,112 acres. Cochecho river flows through the whole length of this town, and Bellamy bank through its S. E. extremity. A turnpike road passes from the compact part of this town through Somersworth to Ber­wick in Maine. The Indians called this place Winichahanat and Cochecho, and the first settlers named it Northam. Its public build­ings consist of two houses for public worship, one for congregationalists and one for quakers, a court-house, print­ing-office, and a bank, which was incorporated in 1803. There is a handsome village, containing about 70 houses, 18 stores, several offices, and mechanic shops. A packet boat, while the river is open, passes from this town to Portsmouth, every day except Sundays. Dover contains 3 grain-mills, 2 saw-mills, 2 mills for dressing cloth, 2 carding-machines, an oil-mill, and a woolen factory. The Revs. John Reyner, John Pike, Nicholas Seaver, Jonathan Cushing, Jeremiah Belknap have suc­cessively been the ministers of this place. The Rev. J. W. Clary is their present pastor. Edward and William Hil­ton came over from London and commenced the settlement of this township in 1623. In 1630, they obtained a patent from the council at Plymouth conveying to them that place on the Piscataqua, known by the name of Hilton’s point, to­gether with a tract 3 miles wide extending up the S. side of the river as far as Swamscot falls (now Exeter.) Within this tract are now comprised the towns of Dover, Durham, Stratham, a part of Newing­ton and Greenland. In 1633, that beautiful neck of land (now Dover) was surveyed and incorporated. A meet­ing-house was at the same time erected there and surrounded with intrenchments, the traces of which are still visible. In the year 1675, immediate­ly after the invasion of Dur­ham, a large body of the east­ern Indians negotiated a peace with Maj. Waldron at Dover, but, as the war had not ceased in the south, many of the In­dians from that quarter min­gled with their brethren of the east, and under the false ap­pearances of friendship con­trived to sow the seeds of fresh hostilities. In a short time captains Joseph Syll and Wil­liam Hawthorne were ordered to march eastward in pursuit of these insidious enemies. On their march they arrived at Dover on the 6th of September, 1676, where they found 400 In­dians assembled at the house of Maj. Waldron, most of whom were of the peace party and they regarded him as a benefactor and friend. The two captains would have attacked this body immediately, having orders to seize all Indians who had joined in the war. Maj. Wal­dron dissuaded them from this, and planned the following stratagem. He proposed to the whole Indian party a train­ing and sham fight after the English custom. He then formed another party consist­ing of his own men and those under Capt. Frost of Kittery. Having diverted the Indians a short time and permitted them to fire the first volley, he made a dexterous movement and before they could un­derstand his intentions sur­rounded their whole body, seized and disarmed them without shedding blood on ei­ther side. They were imme­diately separated. Wonolancet, with the Penacook tribe who had made peace the preceding win­ter, were amicably dismissed, but the strange Indians (as they were called,) to the num­ber of 200 were secured and sent to Boston. Seven or eight of them who had been guilty of former murders were hanged, and the rest were sold as slaves in foreign parts. The Indians who were discharged by Wal­dron, regarded his conduct as a breach of faith and swore a­gainst him eternal and implac­able revenge. In 1689, after a lapse of 13 years since Waldron’s strata­gem, during which time the 400 Indians who were dismiss­ed had not suffered their rage against him to cool, and many of those, who had been sold’ in­to slavery, having escaped and returned home with a burn­ing thirst for revenge, enter­ed into a confederacy to surprise the major and his neigh­bours, with whom the former party had been living on terms of peace and friendship. In that part of Dover situat­ed near the first falls in the river Cochecho, there were five garrisoned houses, Waldron’s, Otis’, and Heard’s, the two others (Coffin’s and his sons) were on the south side of the river. These houses were sur­rounded with timber walls, the gates of which as well as the doors of the houses were se­cured with bolts and bars. The Indians, as they passed through the town, trading with the inhabitants, scrutinized with attention those wooden fortifications. Some intima­tions of mischievous plots had been given by certain squaws, but in such an ambiguous man­ner as not to be comprehended. Many of Waldron’s men had early apprehensions, but he laughed at their fears and told them to ” plant their pumpkins and he would take care of the Indians.” The ve­ry evening before the alarm he was informed by a young man, that the town was full of In­dians and the people very un­easy, but he answered,” that the Indians behaved very well and that there was no dan­ger.” The plot which was concert­ed was, that two squaws should go to each of the garrisoned houses and ask leave to lodge by the fire, and that in the night, when all the men were asleep, they should open the doors and gates and give the signal by, a whistle, upon which the strange Indians, who were within hearing were to rush in and gratify their long meditated revenge. The plan having been thus arranged, on the evening of the 27th of June two squaws ap­plied to each of the garrisons for lodging, as was not unusual in time of peace, and they were admitted to all but young Coffin’s house. They were taught by their own request how to open the doors in case they should wish to go out during the night. Mesandowit was then in Waldron’s garri­son and hospitably entertained there as he had often been be­fore. The squaws told the major that a number of In­dians were coming to trade with him the next day; and Mesandowit, while at supper, in his usual familiar manner said, ” Brother Waldron what should you do, if the strange Indians should come.” The major carelessly replied that he would assemble one hundred men by the motion of his hand. In this unsuspecting confid­ence the family retired to rest. In the stillness of midnight the gates were opened and the signal was given. The Indians immediately entered, station­ed a guard at Waldron’s door, and rushed into his apartment, which was one of the inner rooms. Awakened by the tu­mult the major sprang from his bed, and though now bur­dened with the weight of 80 yearns. he retained so much of youthful vigour as to drive them with his sword through two or three doors, but as he was returning for his other arms, they levelled him with a blow from behind which left him senseless. Having drag­ged him into his hall, they placed him in an elbow chair upon a long table, and insult­ingly asked him, ” who shall be the judge of Indians now.” They then compelled the peo­ple in the house to provide them food, and when they had finished their repast they cru­elly inflicted gashes on differ­ent parts of Waldron’s body, saying,” we thus cross out our account;” till at last exhaust­ed with loss of blood he was falling from the table, when one of the Indians, holding his own sword under him, in this manner relieved him from his sufferings. They also put to death his son in law Abraham Lee, but made captive his daughter and several others, and then having plundered the house set it on fire. Otis’ garrison,which was next to Waldron’s, met the same fate. Otis himself with
several others were put to death, and his wife and chil­dren were taken prisoners. Heard’s garrison was saved by the barking of a dog at the moment the Indians were en­tering. Elder Wentworth was awakened by the noise. He repelled those who first enter­ed, and falling upon his back, he kept the door closed with his feet, till he had given the alarm. Two balls were fired through the door, but missed him. Coffin’s house was also attacked, but as the Indians had no particular enmity a­gainst him they spared him and his family and contented themselves with pillage. Hav­ing found a bag of money they compelled him to throw it in handfulls on the floor, while they amused themselves in a scramble for it. They then proceeded to the house of his son who had refused to admit the squaws, and promising him quarter they summoned him to surrender. He withstood their offers and resolved to defend his house, but the Indians brought forward his father and threatened to put him to death. Filial affection overwhelmed his courage and he surrender­ed. They put both families into a deserted house, intend­ing to make prisoners of them, but they all escaped while the Indians were engaged in their work of plunder. In this affair 23 people were killed and 29 made captive. Five or six dwelling-houses together with the mills were burned, and so rapid were the Indians in their operations, that they escaped with their prisoners and booty before the people could collect from the town to oppose them; as they passed by Heard’s garrison in their retreat, they fired upon it, but the people within having resolved to defend it, and the enemy being in haste it was saved. The preservation of its owner was still more re­markable. Elizabeth Heard with her three sons and a daughter and several other per­sons were returning in the night from Portsmouth. They passed up the river in their boats unperceived by the In­dians who then had possession of the garrisons. Apprehending danger from some noise, which they heard, they landed and bent their steps to Waldron’s garrison, where they observed lights, which they supposed were held out to those who were seeking refuge. They knocked and entreated admission, but no answer be­ing given, one of the party as­cended the wall, and to his as­tonishment and alarm, saw an Indian stationed with his gun at the door of the house. Mrs. Heard in the agony of fright lost all power to escape, but she implored her children to flee and save themselves, they left her with heavy hearts. She soon recovered herself and crept into some bushes and there lay concealed till day­light, at which time she per­ceived an Indian approaching toward her with a pistol in his hand, who looked in her face and went away. He immedi­ately returned and looked at her again. She then spoke to him, but without making any answer, he went off and she saw no more of him. She continued in her concealment till the conflagration was over and the Indians were gone. She then went to her house and found it safe. This won­derful preservation of Mrs. Heard was a remarkable dis­play of the power of grati­tude in an Indian. At the time of Waldron’s stratagem in 1675, a young Indian es­caped and took refuge in her house. In return for her kind­ness in concealing him he promised that he would never in any future war, injure her or any of her family. This Indian was known to be the one who found her concealed on this eventful night. On the 25th of January, 1691, a young man in the woods near Dover was fired upon by a party of Indians. Lieut. Wilson immediately as­sembled a body of 18 men and went in pursuit of the aggress­ors. He succeeded in his search and killed or wounded the whole party except one. This caused a temporary ter­ror among the Indians, but its effects soon ceased. On the 26th of July, 1696, the people of Dover were at­tacked as they were returning from public worship. Three of them were killed and three carried to Penobscot, who af­terwards escaped and returned home. In August, 1704, a man by the name of Giles was killed, and the people were a­gain waylaid on their return from meeting. In 1706, Wil­liam Pearl and Nathaniel Tibbets were killed, and in 1710, Jacob Garland met the same fate. In the spring of 1711, this town was again attacked by the Indians, and several people as they were returning from meeting fell into an ambush. John Horn was wounded and Humphrey Fass. was taken prisoner; but by the resolute courage of Lieut. Heard he was recovered from the hands of the enemy. In Apri1,1712, ensign Tuttle was killed, and in the July following an am­bush was discovered, but the enemy escaped. While the people were absent in pursuit of them, two children of John Waldron’s were taken and we re cruelly put to death. Al­though there was no man at the time in Heard’s garrison, a woman who was stationed as guard called for help with such a resolute and commanding voice that the Indians supposed the men were near and they therefore departed without do­ing farther mischief. On the 29th of August,1723, the Indians again made their appearance at Dover, where they surprised the house of Jo­seph Ham, whom they put to death, and three of whose chil­dren they carried off. In May, 1724, a party of 13 Mohawks marked the house of a Quaker by the name of Han­son for plunder, and they lay several days in ambush wait­ing for the favourable moment of attack. While Hanson with his eldest daughter were absent at a Quaker meeting and his two eldest sons were working in a distant field, the Indians entered his house, killed and scalped two small children, and made captive his wife, her in­fant and its nurse, two daugh­ters and a son. The next spring Hanson redeemed his wife, the three young children_ and the nurse, but could not obtain his daughter, although he was permitted to visit her. He made a second attempt in 1727, but died at Crown Point on his journey to Canada. The girl afterwards married a Frenchman and never return­ed. In September, 1725, while the people were absent at work in a neighbouring field, a party of Indians concealed themselves in a barn in preparation for an attack. Two women passed by the barn at that moment, and had just arrived at the gar­rison, when the Indians com­menced firing. They killed two men of the name of Evans and wounded another slightly in his breast. The Indians, supposing from the copiousness of his bleeding that he was dead, proceeded to strip and scalp him. He bore this operation without betraying any signs of life, and thus he continued the appearance of death while they struck him many blows with their guns and departed, supposing that they had despatched him. He then arose and walked back naked and bleeding to the garrison. Fainting with his wounds, he dropped at the feet of one of his friends who met him and who carried him to his house: He recovered and lived fifty years afterwards. The Indians also at that time carried off to Canada a lad of the name of Evans, who was afterwards re­deemed. A female of the name of Christina, who was born at Dover in the year 1688, was carried captive with her mother to Canada soon after the des­truction of Dover by the In­dians. In Canada she was edu­cated in the Roman Catholic faith, and she was there marri­ed. Upon the death of her husband she became very anx­ious to revisit the land of her nativity, and an exchange of prisoners taking place in 1714, she returned and married Capt. Thomas Baker, then of North­ampton. She renounced the Catholic religion and removed to Dover, where she lived a bright example of piety, and died on the 23d of Februa­ry, 1773. The number of her posterity of three generations was 72, of whom 57 survived her. On the 25th of June, 1773, died the Hon. George Guage in the 72d year of his age. Having distinguished himself as a philanthropist and patriot in the most important public stations, he received the high­est honours in the gift of his country. He was several times a member of the general as­sembly of the province, and a colonel of the 2d regiment of militia, which was particularly exposed during the war. On the establishment of the coun­ty of Strafford, he was appoint­ed the first judge of probate a few months before his death. In May, 1770, died Friend Joseph Estes in the 74th year of his age, who for a period of 40 years was a public speaker in the quaker meet­ings at Dover and elsewhere. He was universally respected and lamented. In 1772, died Howard Hen­derson at the advanced age of more than 100 years. He was present at the capture of Gib­raltar from the Spaniards in 1704. The annual average number of deaths in this town front 1767 to 1815, has been 19. The largest number was 50 and the smallest 8. During the above period thirty died be­tween the ages of 70 and 80, six between 90 and 100, and one over 100.

DUBLIN, a township in Ches­hire, incorporated in 1761, and now containing 1184 inhabi­tants. It is bounded N. by Nelson and Hancock, S. by Jaffrey, E. by Peterborough, and W. by Marlborough and a part of Roxbury, and contains 26,560 acres, 600 of which are water. Centre pond, a few rods S. W. of the meeting-house, is 300 rods in length and 160 in width. Worth pond is about 400 rods long and 140 wide. There are also several smaller ponds in this place. A branch of the Ashuelot river and two branches of the Contoocook have their rise in Dublin. The form­er falls into the Connecticut, and the latter into the Merri­mack. In the southerly part of this town is situated the grand Monadnock mountain. Dublin has 6 corn-mills, 8 saw­mills, 1 mill for dressing cloth, 1 carding-machine, a- distille­ry, and 11 school-houses. The first minister here was the Rev. Joseph Farrar, a con­gregationalist, who was ordain­ed on the 10th of June, 1772, and dismissed in June, 1776. Rev. Edward Sprague, the pre­sent minister, was settled over the same church in1777. There is also a baptist church here, over which Elder Elijah Wil­lard was ordained in 1794. Each of these societies has a meeting-house. Dublin is com­posed of two small villages be­sides many scattered houses. Dummert, a township in Coos county. It was incorporated in 1773, and now contains only 20 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Millsfield, E. by Cam­bridge, S. by Paulsburgh, and W. by Kilkenny and some un-granted lands, and contains 27,562 acres. The Ameris-coggin and Amonoosuck riv­ers both pass through this town. There is here 1 saw-mill and 1 grist-mill.
DUMMER FORT. (See Hins­dale.)
DUNBARTON, a township of an elevated situation in Hills­borough county, bounded N. and N. E. by Hopkinton and Bow, E. by Merrimack river, S. by Goffstown, and W. by Weare, containing 20,966 a­cres. It was incorporated in 1765, and in 1810 its popula­tion was 1256. There are here four small ponds, viz. Purga-tory,Woodbury, Long, and Gor­ham ponds ; the waters of all which fall into the Merrimack. This town is connected with Chester by a bridge thrown over the Isle of Hookset Falls, by which the Londonderry turnpike passes the river. The Rev. W. Harris was ordained here in 1789, and is the present minister. There arc in this town 1 meeting-house, 2 grist­mills, and 7 saw-mills.
DUNSTABLE,B township lying in the southeasterly extremity of Hillsborough county. It was incorporated in 1746, and in 1810 it contained 1049 in­habitant’s. It is bounded N. by Merrimack, E. by Merri­mack river, which separates it from Nottingham West, S. by the state line, which divides it from Dunstable in Massachu­setts, and W. by Hollis, and comprises 18,878 acres. At this place Nashua river emp­ties itself into the Merrimack, forming an island and the place called Nashua mouths. Pennychuck brook constitutes the northern boundary of the town. The former ministers in this place have been the Rev. Messrs. Swan and Kidder. At present the Rev. Mr. Sper­ry is settled here. The princ­ipal village consists of 8 or 10 dwelling-houses and 2 stores. About a mile below at the place called the harbour there are nearly as many more build­ings. In former years this town among others suffered from the Indian parties, who were prowling upon our frontiers. Two men having been missed from this town, a scouting par­ty consisting of 11 were de­spatched in search of them. They were attacked by the Indians and 9 of them were killed, and the surviving 2 escaped badly wounded. At a subsequent period another party from this town fell into an ambush, but the enemy not having an equal force retreated leaving 1 killed and 4 wounded. In 1724, a volunteer company under the command of Capt. Lovell was raised from this town and became alike re­markable for its success and its misfortunes. Its first ex­pedition was to the northward of lake Winnipiseogee where they killed 1 of the enemy and made 1 prisoner. In 1725, Capt. Lovell marched from Dunstable with the design of attacking the villages of Pigwacket on the upper part of the river Saco, where a formidable tribe had once inhabited and now occasionally resided. Lov­ell had with hires 46 men includ­ing a chaplain and a surgeon. Two of them having lamed themselves, returned home,and another falling sick,his compan­ions built a stockadefort on the west side of the great Ossipee pond and left him at this place with the surgeon and 8 others for a guard. The remaining 34 now pursued their march northward about ’22 miles from the fort to a pond,.on the east side of which they encamped. Early the next day, while at their morning devotions, they, heard the report of a gun and discovered a single Indian more than a mile distant stand on a point of land which pro­jected into the pond. They had been alarmed the preced-_ ing night by noises, which they supposed came from the ene­my, and their suspicions were now confirmed. They believ­ed that the Indian they saw was stationed to decoy them, and that the body of his com­panions was in their front. A consultation was held and they resolved to march forward, and by surrounding the pond to command the point where they observed the Indian. In pre­paration for action they threw off their packs and were oblig­ed to leave them without a guard. In their march they crossed a carrying place, through which two parties con­tinuing 41 Indians, commanded by Paps and Waha, who had been scouting down Saco river and were now returning to their lower village. Having discovered Lovell’s track, they followed it till they came to the packs, which they seized, and upon counting them found the force of their enemies to be smaller than their own. They accordingly stationed them­selves in ambush in prepara­tion to attack. The Indian, who had been seen on the point and was now returning to the village by another path met Lovell’s party and was fir­ed upon. He returned the fire and wounded Lovell ‘and one of his companions- with small shot. Lieut.Wyman then lev­elled at him and killed him and took his scalp. Discover­ing no other signs of the ene­my, Lovell’s party then return­ed to the spot where they had left their packs. While they were searching for them, the Indians rose from their ambush and rushed upon them with a frightful yelling. A brisk fir­ing then ensued en both sides. Capt. Lovell with eight others were killed, and Lieut. Farwell was wounded. Several of the Indians fell also ; but as they were superior in number to Lovell’s party and their inten­tion being discovered, the lat­ter retreated with the hope of sheltering themselves behind a rocky point and a few large trees on the shore. In this forlorn condition they took their station. On their right was a brook at that time unfordable ; on their left was the point of rocks ; their front was partly covered by a deep bog, and the pond was in their rear. The enemy immediately open­ed a galling fire upon their front and flanks, and could they have used this advantage skil­fully they might have killed or captured the whole of our par­ty, who were destitute of pro­visions and cut off from re­treat. Under the command of Lieut. Wyman they con­tinued their fire and retained their courage the whole day, in the course of which their chaplain,Jonathan Erie, ensign Robbins, with one other per­son were mortally wounded. The Indians made signs to them to surrender by holding up ropes, endeavouring at the same time to intimidate them by horrid yells. Our people were resolved to die rather than surrender, and by a welt directed fire the ranks of the enemy were thinned and their yells became fainter. At the close of the day the Indians abandoned their advantageous ground carrying with them their killed and wounded and leaving the bodies of Lovell and his companions unscalped. The surviving remnant of our brave countrymen found three of their number unable to move from the spot and eleven oth­ers of the wounded, who had still strength enough to march, and nine only who were unin­jured. It was an agonizing necessity to abandon their dy­ing companions, but there was no alternative. Ensign Rob­bins desired that his gun might he left charged by his side, so that if the enemy should re­turn, he might sacrifice at least one more of them to his re­venge. On the rising of the moon they departed from this fatal spot and directed their march toward the fort where the surgeon and the guard had been left. To their astonishment they found the place de­serted. On the commencement of the action, one man, (whose name has not been suffered to disgrace the history of this af­fair) fled to die fort,where in the language of Job’s messenger, he informed the guard of Lovell’s death and the defeat of his party, upon which they made the best of their way home, leaving behind them a quantity of provisions which was a seasonable relief to the retreating survivors. Lieu­tenant Farwell and the chaplain who kept the journal of the march, perished in the woods from an unavoidable want of attention to their wounds. The remaining few after a long se­ries of hardships, arrived at their homes at different times. They were received with joy and recompensed for their suf­ferings and their valour by public gratitude and affection. A generous provision was made for the widows and chil­dren of the slain. Capt. Tyng of Dunstable, immediately collected a com­pany, marched to the place of the engagement, and having found the bodies of the killed, buried them and carv,d thNir names on the surrounding trees. The Indians, among many oth, ers, lost Pagus their chief. The place where the action was fought was Pigwacket, now the south part of the town of Fryburgh.
DURAND, a small township in Coos county containing 62 inhabitants. Bounded N. by Mainsboro’, E. by Shelburne, S.by the White mountains, and W. by Kilkenny. It contains 25,672 acres. One branch of Moose river and several branch­es of the Amonoosuck and Isra­el rise in this town.

State of the State 1817–Part 1 of 7

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Taken from The New Hampshire Gazetter 1817

A TOPOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION OF EACH COUNTY, TOWN, OR TOWNSHIP, AND LOCATION IN THE STATE; AND ALSO OF ITS LAKES, RIVERS, PONDS, AND MOUNTAINS, TOGETHER WITH MANY OTHER SUBJECTS.

ACWORTH, a post-township of Cheshire county, bounded on the N. by Unity, E. by Lempster, S. by Alstead and Marlow, W. by Charleston and Langdon, containing 24,846 a­cres. It was incorporated in 1776, and has 1523 inhabitants. Cold-pond, extending about a mile on the line of Unity, from 60 to 100 rods in width, and Mitchell’s pond, 120 rods long and 80 wide, are its only ponds of note. Cold river takes its rise and name from one of the above mentioned pools in the N.E. corner of this town. Ac­worth has two religious socie­ties ; 1 meeting-house for the congregational order, 1 grain-mill,, 5 saw-mills, 2 mills for dressing cloth, 2 carding ma­chines, and 1 trading store. Rev. Thomas Archibald was settled in the ministry here in 1789. Rev. Phinehas Cook is the present minister of the gos­pel. Charleston turnpike road passes through here. Acworth is 73 miles N. W. by W. from Portsmouth.

ADAMS, a township of Coos county, situated on the E. side of the White Mountains; bounded N. by unlocated lands, E. by Chatham, S. by Bartlett, and W. by said mountains, con­taining 31,968 acres of land and water. In 1800, its population was 180, and in 1810, 250 souls. Two branches of Ellis’ river pass through this town, coming from the N. and uniting on its S. border near Spruce moun­tain so called. Mountain pond brook crosses the S. E. corner of Adams, taking its rise from a pool in Chatham, and falling into the Saco river in the town of Bartlett. Black, Boldface, and Thorn mountains are its three elevations of note. It has 1 grain and 2 saw-mills.

ALEXANDRIA, a township of Grafton county, incorporated in 1782, and containing 409 in­habitants, is bounded on the N. W. by Orange ; N. E. by Bridgewater, S. E. by New-Chester, and on the S. W. by Danbury. Its N. corner is sit­uated in Newfound pond on He­bron line. It contains about 14,000 acres of land. Smith’s river flows through the S., and several smaller streams cross the N. end of this town. Pri­or to 1790, Rev. Enoch Whip­ple was settled here. At pres­ent there are two religious societies without an ordained minister. It has 1 grain-mill, 4 saw-mills, and 1 mill for dressing cloth.

ALLENSTOWN, in Rocking­ham county, situated on the E. side of the river Suncook, has 346 inhabitants. It is bounded N. by Epsom, E. by Deerfield, S. by Chester, and W. by Suncook river. Its W. corner is on the river Merri­mack, 52 rods opposite the township of Bow. The Sun­cook is the line of division between Allenstown and Pem­broke, the former of which ex­tends over an area of 12,225 acres of land, its growth of wood principally pine, the soil being light and weak ; there are, notwithstanding, some excellent farms here. Cata­mount hill or mountain is the highest land in this town. Allenstown has 2 grain-mills and 4 saw-mills. Buckstreet bridge connects this town with Pembroke. Allenstown, hitherto, has been destitute of a settled minister or meeting-house. A house of public worship, how­ever, has been recently erect­ed. It has 3 school-houses, and winters 536 sheep.

ALSTEAD, a township of Cheshire county, incorporated in 1763, with a population at present of 1644 souls, is bound­ed N. by Acworth and Langdon, E. by Marlow, and S. by Walpole and Langdon, con­taining 24,756 acres, of which 300 are water. There are 2 meeting-houses for congregationalists and 1 for baptists ; 15 school-houses, 5 saw and 3 grain-mills, 1 paper and 1 oil-mill, a mill for dressing cloth and a carding machine. The soil is strong and succulent, producing flax, wheat, etc. in exuberance. Fruit trees thrive well here. Cheshire turnpike intersects the. S. W. part, and the road from Hale’s Bridge passes through the centre of the town. The largest body of water here is Warren’s pond, 250 rods in length and 150 in width, Cold river traverses the N. E. angle of Alstead, where it re­ceives the waters of Warren’s pond. Several branches of Ashuelot river have their sources in this town. Rev. Jacob Mann was ordained here over the congregational church in 1782 ; dismissed in 1789. Rev. Samuel Mead settled in the same parish 1791; dismissed 1797; since which time this parish has had no ordained minister. Rev. Levi Lankton still continues in the East par­ish where he was settled in 1792. Elder Jeremiah Hig­bee has the pastoral care of the baptist church in this town. The average number of deaths in Alstead from 1807 to 1811, was 21 per annum.

ALTON, a township in Straf­ford county, about 25 miles N.W. from Dover, was incor­porated 1796, and reckons 1279 inhabitants. This town has Winnipiseogee lake and bay for its N. boundary, E. it is bound­ed by New Durham, S. by Barnstead, W. by Gilmanton and Gifford. Its surface 35,783 acres. Wolfeborough joins Alton on the N. E. corner 1 mile and 216 rods. Merry-meeting bay has a S. declina­tion of 1800 rods into Alton, where it receives an excellent stream, on which Barker’s and Wiggin’s mills are erected. This bay is about 200 rods in width. Half-moon pond, be­tween Barnstead and Alton, is 300 rods, long, and 150 wide. It has several ponds of less note. Its soil is hard and
rocky, adapted to corn and wheat. White and red oak, beach,maple, pine, and hemlock are its principal growth. The inhabitants are, for the most part, of the baptist order. El­der John Page was ordained here 1811. Here are 2 grain-mills, 6, saw-mills, and 1 mill for dressing cloth. Alton win­ters about 250 sheep.

AMHERST, formerly called Souhegan West, was originally granted by Massachusetts and is a pleasant township in Hills­borough county, incorporated in 1762. Its present popula­tion consists of 1554 inhabit­ants. Bounded by the river Merrimack on the E., S. by Hollis, W. by Milford, and on the N. by Mount Vernon and New Boston, in lat. 42° 54′ N. containing 22,435 acres, 350 of which are water. Babboosuck pond, of 300 acres extent, lies in the N. E. corner of this town. English pond to the N. W. is 160 rods in length and 100 in width, its waters falling into the Babboosuck. Souhegan river flows through Am­herst on the S. and receives the waters of Beaver brook coming from Mount Vernon. Milford and Mount Vernon were for­merly component parts of Am­herst, from which they were severed, the former in 1794, and the latter in 1803. The centre of the town is a level plain of about a half a mile’s extent, equidistant from the four cardinal points, on which a very pleasant village is erected. Here are a meeting-house, a court-house, jail, school-house, several good mill sites, on which are 3 corn-mills, 5 saw­mills, 1 mill for dressing cloth, 4 trading stores, 3 cotton and wool manufactories, and 1 print­ing establishment. The Aurean Academy, discontinued for lack of funds, was incorporated here in 1790, and was an useful and flourishing institution. A public school was commenced here 1807, and, with intervals, has continued ever since. The town is divided into 9 school-districts having 8 school-hous­es. That which is central is situated near the meeting-house and is a large and commodious building. The first settlers of Amherst were from Billerica and Middletown, (Mass.) 1734. In 1752, it had 7 garrisoned houses resorted to by the in­habitants in times of difficulty and danger. The first ordained minister was Rev. D. Wilkins, who visited this place when it consisted of only 14 families. He was settled in 1741, his be­ing the third ordination in the county of Hillsborough. Mr. W. died 1783. The present pastor, Rev. Jeremiah Barnard, was settled March 3d, 1780. The number of deaths here for 33 years subsequent to his ordi­nation was 529. The follow­ing instances of longevity have occurred within these last 20 years. Deacon Joseph Boutelle, aged 90 years, and Rebecca, ag­ed 91, died in 1795. In 1803, died widow Grace Town, aged 96; in 1805, widow Hannah Lovejoy in the 102d year of her age, leaving descendants to the number of 330. In 1806, widow Sarah Burdet, aged 94 ; in 1808, widow Hannah Boutelle, 95 ; in 1809, widow Sa­rah Stuart, aged 92 ; in 1811, widow Lucy Ellsworth in the 90th year of her age. Since the year 1803, have died twen­ty-five persons, the aggregate of whose ages amount to 2041, making an average of more than 81 years to each. The oldest native of the town now residing here, was born in the year 1742. So prompt was this town in furnishing men for the military service of the United States that previous to the first of April 1777, 120 persons had engaged, of whom were 2 colo­nels, 1 major, 5 captains, and 9 subaltern officers. The second New-Hamp­shire turnpike passes from Claremont to this town.

AMONOOSUCK, an Indian name given to two rivers in N. Hampshire : the one is called Upper Amonoosuck, passing through a tract of excellent meadow. It rises near the N. end of the White Hills, runs northerly about 15 miles, where is a carrying place of about 3 miles to Amariscoggin river. From thence the river runs S. W. and W. nearly 18 miles, and empties into the Connecti­cut at Northumberland, near the Upper Coos. The other is called Great or Lower Amonoosuck, which rises on the west side of the White Mountains. It falls into the Connecticut just above the town of Haverhill, in Lower Coos, by a mouth 100 yards wide. About 2 miles from its mouth it receives Wild Amonoosuck, 40 yards wide, from Franconia and Lincoln Moun­tains. Two or three hours rain raises the water in this last men­tioned river several feet, and occasions a current so furious as to put in motion stones of a foot in diameter, but its vio­lence soon subsides.

ANDROSCOGGIN, or AMERISCOGGIN RIVER, has its sourc­es 35 miles N. of Errol in this state and N. of latitude 45°. Its most northerly branch is called Margalloway. Its course is S. for nearly 30 miles. This river enters the state near the S. E. corner of the second grant to Dartmouth college, where it also receives Dead river, passing thence through Wentworth’s Location into Er­rol where it mingles with the waters flowing from Lake Urnbagog, about one mile from its outlet. From this juncture the confluent stream bears the name of Androscoggin. Its course is S. till it approaches near to the White Mountains, from which it receives Moose and Peabody rivers, entering the District of Maine N. of Mount Moriah. It then turns to the E. and then to the S. E., in which course through a fer­tile country it passes within two miles of the seacoast, and then turning N. runs over Pejepscot or Brunswick-falls into Merry-Meeting-Bay, a few miles from Bowdoin college, and forms a junction with the Kennebeck, 20 miles from the sea. In its course through Paulsburgh and Mainsborough it passes within 2 or 3 miles of the Upper Amonoosuck river.

AMUSKEAG FALLS, in N. Hampshire, are on Merrimack river, 16 miles below the ford, and 7 below Hooksett Falls. It consists of three pitches, one be­low the other, so that the water falls about 48 feet 3 inches in the course of half a mile. The second pitch, which may be seen from the roads on the W. side is truly majestic. In the middle of the upper part of the fall, is a high rocky island, on the top of which, are a number of pits, made exactly round, like barrels or hogsheads, some of which are capable of holding several tons; formed by the cir­cular motion of small stones, impelled by the force of the de­scending water. At the foot of the rapids, half a mile below the principal fall, is a bridge, 556 feet in length, and 20 in breadth, consisting of 2000 tons of timber, and made passable for travelers 57 days after it was begun. A canal has been formed around these falls, through which boats pass with ease and safety. Prior to 1670, these falls were much visited by the aborigines. The sachem Wonolanset resided here. The son of Wonolanset, engaged in hunting here about the middle of March, discover­ed 15 Indians on the other side who called to him in an un­known language, upon which he fled, while they discharged nearly 30 muskets at him with­out effect.

ANDOVER, a township in Hillsborough county, incorpo­rated 1779, with a population of 1259 inhabitants, is bounded N. W. by New Chester, N. E. by Merrimack river which disunites it from Sanbornton, S. E. by Salisbury, and S. W. by Wilmot with an area of 29,883 acres. It has several ponds of water, the largest of which is Chance pond, in extent 230 rods and 130 in width. Black Wa­ter, a branch of Contoocook river, flows through the S. W. part of this town. Ragged Mountain is partly in this town, the N. line of both town and county passing over its summit. The 4th New-Hampshire turn­pike leads through the S. W. part of Andover where Grafton turnpike meets it. Its soil is of almost every variety, for the most part broken and stony, but generally good, producing good crops of grain and English grass. On the Pemigawasset and Black rivers are excellent tracts of intervale land. Rev. J. Babcock was ordained here 1782. Here are a meeting-house, 10 school-houses, 2 grain-mills, 6 saw-mills, 1 mill for dressing cloth, i carding-ma­chine, and 5 trading stores. Here were wintered last season 4000 sheep. Agreeably to a bill of mortality furnished by Rev. J. B. there have died in Ando­ver since the year 1782, under 70 years of age, 287 persons, over 70, 18 persons, over 80, 15, over 90, 2.

ANTRIM, a township in’ Hillsborough county, was in­corporated 1777, and, in the year 1810, contained 1277 souls. Bounded N. by Wind­sor and Hillsborough, E. by the river Contoocook, which severs it from Deering, S. by Hancock, and W. by Stoddard and a part of Nelson, of an area of 21,784 acres. Gregg’s pond 400 rods long and 150 wide, lies in the S. part of the town. Its waters fall into Contoocook river. The soil of Antrim dis­plays great inequality of sur­face, but is generally produc­tive. This town annually win­ters about 2000 sheep, and cat­tle in proportion. The second N. H. turnpike bisects the N. angle of Antrim. Reverend J. M. Whiton is their minister. Here are a meeting-house, 4 grain-mills, 4 saw-mills, 2 mills for dregSing cloth, 1 carding-machine, and 3 trading stores. In 1813, 45 persons died of the prevailing fever.

ASHUELOT or ASHWILLET RIVER has a number of branches, the most remote of which is S. of Sunapee moun­tain in the township of Goshen, thence running S. through Alstead, Marlow, Washington, Stoddard, etc. to Swansey, where it joins with a large stream of, water from Keene, another from the S. line of the state, etc. Below Winchester it runs W. by N. and at length empties into Connecticut river in the lower part of Hinsdale.

ATKINSON, a township in Rockingham county, incorpo­rated 1767, containing 556 inhabitants and 6,839 acres. Bounded N. by Hampstead., N.E. by Plaistow, S. by Haver­hill, (Mass.) and W. by Salem. Atkinson was formerly a part of Haverhill, separated from it by the state line of demarca­tion. Its soil is prolific, and its situation highly pleasant. It is 30 miles from the mari­time town of Portsmouth, and has an academy which was founded in 1789, by Hon. Nathaniel Peabody of Exeter, who endowed it with 1000 a­cres of land. John Vose, A.M. is the preceptor. Here are a handsome congregational meet­ing-house, 1 grain-mill, and 1 saw-mill. ” In this township is a large meadow wherein is an island of 6 or 7 acres, which was formerly loaded with val­uable pine timber and other forest wood. When the mea­dow is overflowed, by means of an artificial dam, this island rises with the water, which is sometimes 6 feet. In a pond in the middle of the island, there have been fish, which, when the meadow has been overflowed have appeared there, when the water has been drawn off, and the island settled to its usual place. The pond is now almost covered with verdure. In it a pole 50 feet long has disappeared, without finding bottom.

BAKER’S RIVER.–Its most N. branch has its source in Coventry, and its most S. in Orange and Coventry. These branches unite in Wentworth, flowing thence E. through Rumney and emptying into the river Merrimack at Plymouth village.

BARKER’S LOCATION bounded N. by Lancaster, E. by Jefferson, and S. and W. by Kilkenny, and contains 3,090 acres.

BARNSTEAD, a pleasant lev­el township in Strafford county, incorporated 1727, and bound­ed as follows, viz. N. E. by Alton, N. W. by Gilmanton, S. W. by Pittsfield, and S. E. by Barrington, containing 26, 000 acres. Here are two ponds known by the name of Suncook, lying contiguous to each other, one 400 rods and the other 300 long ; also Bundle pond 250 rods in extent. Each of these in width will, average their me­dium length. Halfmoon pond lies on Alton line, its centre about equidistant from the two towns, 300 rods long and half as wide. These ponds all discharge, their waters into Suncook river which traverses the town. Beaty’s, Pink, Ad­am’s, and Jacob’s are small and nearly circular pools about 100 rods in diameter. The origin­al growth here is pine, oak, beech, maple, and hemlock. The soil is hard, but not very rocky, well adapted to the in­crease of corn and grain. Barnstead reckons 1477 souls for its population. Here are a congregational and baptist so­ciety. Elder David Knowl­ton was ordained here in 1804, and died in 1809. Enos George was ordained by a congre­gational council 1804, and is their present teacher. Barnstead has 2 houses for public worship, a number of excel­lent sites for water machinery, and already mills of various kinds.

BARRINGTON, a township in Strafford county, incorporated 1722, and bounded N. E. by Farmington and Rochester, S. E. by Madbury and Dover, S.W. by Nottingham and Northwood, and N. W. by Barnstead. This town is thirteen and a half miles long and half as wide, containing 58,400 a­cres. It had in 1810, 3,564 inhabitants. Here are a large number of ponds, some of whose streams afford excellent mill sites. Bow pond the larg­est, is situated in the S.W. part of the town, in extent a­bout 650 rods and 400 rods in width. Its waters empty into Isinglass, a principal source of Dover river. Besides this are Chesley’s Round, Mendum’s, Long, Ayer’s, and Trout ponds, W. of the Blue Hills. The waters of these ponds discharge into Suncook river. The first ridge of Frost hills, commonly call­ed Blue hills, and one of the three inferior summits of Agamenticus, is continued through this town. The N. part of Barrington is hilly and broken, but the soil, for the most part is excellent, yielding corn, grain, flax, cider, etc. in abundance. Cattle and sheep are raised here in large numbers. In 1814, were wintered here 5,162 sheep. Chrystal spar, plumbago, or black lead, iron ore, alum, and vitriol are found here. On the S.E. side of the town is a cave commonly call­ed the Bear’s Den. Its mouth is 18 inches wide. The first course is an angle of descent of about 20 degrees, then press­ing through a narrow passage of about 4 feet in length and descending the same track a­bout 9 feet, you enter an apartment 21 feet in length, 31 in width, and 12 in height, in which you find a natural table 2 feet square,smooth and level, and about high enough to stand and write upon. Stepping up a few feet you then enter an­other room, 16 feet long, 4 wide, and 10 in height, encircled on each side by a regular wall of stone. The rocks form­ing the bottom of this cave so exactly correspond with the roof, that one needs no further evidence that they were once united. About a mile S. W. from this spot, on the margin of a pond, is a rock of 150 per­pendicular feet above the face of the water. Here are 3 houses of public worship, 18 school-houses, 14 grain-mills, 2 mills for dress­ing cloth, 3 carding-machines, and 4 trading stores. The ma­jor part of the inhabitants are of the baptist order, having on­ly one society of a different denomination in town. Rev. Joseph Prince was settled over the congregational church 1755, removed 1760. Rev. David Tenney was settled 1771, re­moved 1778. Rev. Benjamin Balch was settled 1784, and died 1814. Elder Smith Bab­cock, Micajah Otis, and Jo­seph Boody are the present or­dained preachers in this town. This town, from its first settle­ment, has been very healthy. Several of the first settlers liv­ed to an advanced period of more than 100 years.

BARTLETT, a township in the county of Coos, incorporat­ed in 1790, situated at the S.E. angle of the White Hills, boun­ded N. by Adams, E. by Chat­ham, S. by ungranted land and Conway, and W. by Chadbourn’s and Hart’s locations. Its surface is 13,500 acres. Saco river and the 10th N. H. turnpike road pass through this town. Kearsarge mountain lies on its E. line.

BATH, a pleasant township in Grafton county, situated on the E. side of Connecticut riv­er opposite Rygate in Ver­mont, 35 miles N. by E. from Dartmouth college ; is bound­ed N. E. by Littleton, E. by Landaff, S. W. by Haverhill, and W. by Connecticut river, containing 24,827 acres. It was incorporated 1769, and has a population of 1316 souls. Great Amonoosuck passes the N. E. corner of Bath and falls into the Connecticut at its S.W. corner, near which it first receives the waters of the Wild Amonoosuck. The Bath turn­pike leads through the town, and, where the river and turn­pike intersect, is a very hand­some village. Rev. D. Southerland is their ordained minis­ter. Bath has 1 meeting-house, 3 corn-mills, 6 saw-mills, I mill for dressing cloth, 1 distil­lery, and 3 trading stores.

BEAR CAMP RIVER, whose W. branch rises in Sandwich and Burton mountains and Bear Camp pond, and whose W. branch in Eaton. In Ossipee these two branches unite and fall into Great Ossipee pond on its W. side.

BEAVER BROOK, has its source from a pond in Unity, and, running W. 8 miles, falls into Connecticut river in the upper part of Charleston.

BEAVER RIVER, rises from Derry pond and several other small ponds in Londonderry, and passing S. through Pel­ham, falls into Merrimack riv­er in Dracut, opposite the mouth of Concord river in Massachusetts.

BEDFORD, in Hillsborough county, situated on, the W. side of Merrimack river, in­corporated in 1750, with a pop­ulation in 1810, of 1296 souls. Bounded N. by Goffstown, E. by Merrimack river, S. by Merrimack and Amherst, and W. by Amherst and New-Bos­ton. It contains 20,660 acres. Piscataquog river falls into the Merrimack at the N.E. corner of Bedford. Here is a socie­ty of congregationalists, over which Rev. D.M’Gregore was ordained pastor 1804. Rev. J. Houston was their former min­ister. Here is also a society of baptists. Near the ferry from Manchester to Bedford, in the spring 1760, were taken 2500 shad fish at one draught of a net. Here are a meeting-house, a cotton-factory, 6 grain-mills, 8 saw­mills, 1 clothier’s mill, 1 card­ing-machine, and 5 trading stores.

BELLAMY BANK RIVER ris­es in Chelsey ponds,in Barrington, and, meandering through the N. part of Madbury, falls into Piscataqua river on the W. side of Dover neck.

BETHLEHEM, a township in Grafton county containing 422 inhabitants, bounded N. by Coos county line, which sepa­rates it from Whitefield, E. by Bretton Woods and ungranted lands, S. W. by Franconia and part of Concord, N. W. by Littleton, containing 28,608 a­cres. This town is very moun­tainous, well watered, and was formerly known by the name of Loyd’s Hills. The N. branch of Great Amonoosuck passes through the N. part, and the S. branch waters the S. part of the town.

BISHOP’S BROOK, rises in and waters a considerable por­tion of Stewartstown and emp­ties into Connecticut river.

BLACKWATER RIVER. The most north branch called North brook rises in Danbury, another branch rises in Wil­mot, and a third proceeds from Pleasant pond in New-Lon­don. The streams unite in Andover and flowing through Salisbury and Boscawen fall into Contoocook river near the N. angle of Hopkinton.

BLIND WILL’S NECK, is formed by the confluence of Cocheco and Isinglass rivers. Sometime in March, 1677, a party of friendly Indians, of whom Blind Will was one, were all surprised together by a party of Mohawks, and two or three only escaped. Blind Will was dragged by his hair until he perished of his wounds on this neck of land which still bears his name.

BLOODY POINT, is on New­ington side of Piscataqua river. It was called Bloody Point
from a quarrel between the a­gents of the two companies of proprietors about a point of land convenient for both, and, there then being no govern­ment established, the contro­versy had well nigh ended in blood.

BOSCAWEN, a township in the county of Hillsborough, incorporated 1760, having in 1810, a population of 1829 souls. Bounded N. by Salis­bury, E. by Merrimack river, which separates it from Canter­bury and Northfield, S. by Con­cord and Hopkinton, and W. by Warner, containing 32,230 a­cres. The largest pond in this town is called Long pond, 350 rods in length and averaging 50 rods in width. Great pond, near the centre of the town, is 250 rods long and 20 wide, its waters falling into Black Water river on the N. edge of War­ner. Black Water river flows through this town from Salis­bury to Hopkinton, where it meets the Contoocook. Warner river crosses the extreme S. W. corner. A toll bridge unites Boscawen with Canter­bury. The 4th N.H. turnpike leads through the N.E. corner of this town. Here are 28 mills for grinding, sawing, full­ing, carding, etc. Their first ordained minister was Phineas Stevens, who was succeeded by Nathaniel Merrill in 1775. At present there are two societies, Rev. Messrs. Wood and Price pastors. Here are 2 meeting-houses, and at the bridge near the river a handsome village with about forty dwelling-houses, and five stores. In 1746, two persons were killed and several taken captive and carried to Canada from this town.

BOW, a township in Rock­ingham county, incorporated 1729, containing 729 inhabit­ants. Bounded N.E. by Mer­rimack river which divides it from Pembroke, S.E.and S.W. by Dunbarton, and N. W. by Concord and part of Hopkin­ton, containing 15,753 acres. Turkey river empties into
Merrimack river at Turkey falls near the N. E. part of Bow. About a mile below Turkey are Garvin’s falls, now passable by locks on Bow side. The Londonderry turnpike leads from Concord through the E. part of this town, di­rectly to Boston. Here is a house for public worship and an ordained minister of the regular baptist order. Here are 2 grain-mills, 5 saw-mills, and 1 carding-machine.

BRADFORD, a township on the W. side of Hillsborough county, incorporated 1760, with a present population of 1034. Bounded N. by Warner, S. by a part of Henniker and Hills­borough, W. by Cheshire coun­ty line, adjoining Washington, E. by Fishersfield and a cor­ner of Sutton, containing 18,919 acres, 469 of which are water. At the E. end of this town is a pleasant pond 500 rods long and 150 wide. A part of Todd’s pond lies in this town and the other part in Fishersfield. These ponds are the most W. source of Warner’s river. Sunapee and other mountains border on the W. part of this town. Rev. Caleb Burge is settled here in the ministry. Here are two religious socie­ties, 1 house for public wor­ship, 2 corn-mills, 2 saw-mills, 1 carding-machine, and 2 trad­ing stores.

BREAKFAST HILL, in the township of Rye, is memora­ble on account of the following circumstances. Early in the morning of June 26th, 1696, a large body of Indians made an attack on 5 houses on Portsmouth plains, by which 14 persons were killed on the spot, 1 scalped and left for dead, and 4 taken prisoners. The enemy, having plundered the houses of what they could car­ry off, set them on fire and made a precipitate retreat through the Great Swamp. A company of militia under Capt. Shackford and Lieut. Libbey pursued and discovered them cooking their breakfast at a place ever since called Break­fast Hill. The Indians were on the furthermost side of the hill and had placed their cap­tives between themselves and the summit, that, in case of an attack, they might first receive the fire. Lieut. Libbey urged to go round the hill and come up­on them below and cut off their retreat, but the Capt. fearing in that case they would kill the prisoners, rushed upon them from the top of the hill, by which means he retook the cap­tives and plunder, but the In­dians escaped.

BRENTWOOD, a township in Rockingham county, incorpo­rated 1742, contained, in 1810, 905 inhabitants. Bounded N. by Epping, E. by Exeter, S. by Kingston, and W. by Pop­lin, of a surface of 10,465 a­cres. Exeter river, on which are many good mill-privileges, passes through this town. Here, at what are called Pick pocket falls, is a cotton factory with 800 spindles in operation. Though situate in the edge of Brentwood it is called the Ex­eter factory. There are two religious societies in this place, congregationalists and baptists, beside a considerable number of friends. Each order has its respective house of public wor­ship. Nathaniel Trask was ordained here 1752, and died 1780, aged 67. He was suc­ceeded by Rev. E. Flint, who died 1812 ; their present min­ister is Rev. C. Colton; who was settled 1815. Elder S. Shephard, recently deceased, had the care of the baptist church with several others. Here are 3 corn-mills, 6 saw­mills, 1 carding-machine, and a trading store. Vitriol is found here, combined in the same stone with sulphur.

BRETTON WOODS, a town­ship in Coos county, situated 8 or 10 miles S. E. from Con­necticut river, incorporated 1772,having but 20 or 30 inhab­itants. It is bounded N. by Whitefield and Jefferson, E. by ungranted land, S. by the county line and Nash and Sawyer’s Location, and W. by the county line which separates it from Bethlehem, containing about 24,978 acres. john’s and Israel’s rivers receive sev­eral branches from this town. The Jefferson turnpike crosses the E. part, and Pond Cherry mountain is on the N. side next to Jefferson. Here is 1 corn-mill and 1 saw-mill.

BRIDGEWATER is situated on the W. side of Pemigewasset river in Grafton county, in­corporated ‘1788, and contain­ed in 1810, 1104 inhabitants. Bounded N. by Hebron and Plymouth, E. by the county line dividing it from New-Hampton, and W. by New­found pond, dividing it from New-Chester. Bridgewater has 19,785 acres. The turnpike passes near New­found pond, through the W. part of the town. Here is a meeting-house, and, at the N. part a village with a number of mills.

BROOKFIELD, a township in Strafford county, about 30 miles from Dover, incorporat­ed in 1795, with a present population of about 657. It is bounded N. W. by Wolfeborough, E. by Wakefield, S.E. by Great Moose mountain, and W. by Alton, containing 13,000 acres. Cook’s pond is about SOO rods long and 50 wide,and is the source of the W. branch of Salmon Falls river. Smith’s river rises near the former seat of Gov. Wentworth, which is in the S.W. part of the place, near the upper line of Brookfield.

BROOKLINE, a township in Hillsborough county, incorpo­rated 1764, with a population agreeable to the census of 1810, of 538 souls. Bounded N. by Milford, E. by Hollis, S. by Massachusetts state line, and W. by Mason. Its area is 12,664 acres, 240 of which are water. Nissitisset river pass­es through this town from the N. W. to S. W. and falls in­to Nashua river in Pepperell, Massachusetts. Potanipo pond, through which this river pass­es, is near the centre of the town, and about a mile long, and 120 rods wide. Here are a meeting-house, 3 corn mills, 5 saw mills, and 2 trading stores. Rev. L. Wadsworth, their present pastor was or­dained 1797.

BURTON, a township in the N. W. corner of the county of Strafford, incorporated 1766. Its population, conformable to the census of 1810, was 194 souls. It is bounded E. by Conway, N.E. by Eaton, S. by Tamworth, W. by Grafton county line, and N. by the line of Coos county. The White mountains lie N. and White­face mountain W. Swift river passes through Burton from W. to E.

CAMBRIDGE, an uninhabited township in Coos county, situ­ated at the S. end of lake Umbagog and bounded N. by Er­rol, E.by the District of Maine, S. by Paulsburgh and Success, and W. by Dummer. Incorporated 1773, containing 23,160 acres. Androscoggin riv­er passes through the W. part of this town.

CAMPTON, a township in Grafton county, situated on Pemigewasset river, incorpo­rated 1761,and containing 873 inhabitants. Bounded N. by Thornton, E. by Sandwich, S. by Holderness and Plymouth, containing 27,892 acres. Two small ponds here give rise to Mad river, also to Bether river which falls into the Pemigewasset, which latter passes the cen­tre of the town from N. to S. Crotchet mountain lies on the W. and Northern mountain on the E. part of the town. Camp­ton has a public meeting-house, and an ordained minister ; 3 grain-mills, 3 saw, and 1 oil-mill, 2 mills for cloth dressing, and 2 carding-machines.

CANAAN, a township in Graf­ton county, of an area of 16,049 acres, was incorporated 1761. Its number of inhabit­ants is 1094. Bounded N. by Dames Gore, E. by Orange and Grafton, S. by Enfield, and W. by Hanover. Hart’s pond, situated nearly in the middle of the town, is about 400 rods long and 100 wide. On the W. shore of this pond is the house of public worship and a pleasant village, through which the Grafton turnpike leads. Goose pond, lying near Hano­ver line is about as large as Hart’s pond, also Mud pond 300 rads in length and one third in width lies near En­field. Mascoma river from Dorchester passes through this town. On it are 12 mills of various kinds. Elder Thomas Baldwin was settled here in the ministry 1783, and remov­ed to Boston 1790. Elder Wheat is their present pastor, and was settled here 1813.

CANDIA, Rockingham coun­ty, was incorporated 1763. Its whole population was, in 1810, 1290 souls. Bounded N. by Deerfield, E. by Ray­mond, S. by Chester, and W. by the same ; its area 17,734 acres. A branch of Lamprey river passes through the N. corner and the Chester turn­pike through the S. W. part of the town. It has 2 houses of public worship, one of which was erected in 1814, and bears the name of liberty union meet­ing house. Here are 3 grain-mills, 6 saw-mills, a mill for dressing cloth, and a carding-machine. Rev. David Jewett was ordained here 1771, and removed 1780. Their late minister, Rev. Jesse Reming­ton, was ordained in 1790, and died March 1815. Elder Mo­ses Bean has been ordained here several years over a free­will baptist society.

CANTERBURY, a township in Rockingham county, incorpo­rated 1727, contained in 1810, 1526 inhabitants. Bounded N. E. by Gilmanton, S. E. by Loudon, S. by Concord, and S. W. by Merrimack river which separates it from Boscawen. This town has 26,245 acres. The soil of this town is generally good, producing corn, flax, and cider in abundance. A bridge over Merrimack riv­er connects this town with Boscawen village. A small branch of Suncook river cross­es the N.E. corner, and a num­ber of small ponds and streams water the W. part of the town. Here are two houses of public worship exclusive of the qua­ker church. Their present minister, William Patrick, is of the congregational order. A. Foster and F. Parker have been their former pastors. El­der Young, several years since, was settled here in the free­will baptist order. On the S.E. side of the town near Loudon, is the Shaker’s village, and as the head of their family has furnished the compilers of this work with a particular account of their concerns, we take plea­sure in giving it in his own words. The believers, (or people commonly called sha­kers,) in Canterbury have been in the faith we now profess up­wards of 30 years, and have had one Lord and one baptism, which is a crucifixion and death to the nature of sin, and unites the soul in the spirit and power of the resurrection of life. We have united our temporal interest in one for more than twenty years ; ex­cept some, who have since mis­-believed, or those who did not choose so to do; as there is no compulsion with us in such a case: we live together in love and union, as brothers and sis­ters in the spirit and not in the flesh; and as we believe car­nal or self-pleasing gratifica­tions are of, and from the man of sin, who is now revealed, and is consumed, by the spirit and brightness of this present, second, and last appearing of Christ, in which we believe; by which our former heavens are dissolved, and our former fleshly elements do melt with fervent heat, (See 2d Pe­ter, iii. 10th.) And we do rejoice in their destruction, and by believing and obeying this faith and revelation of Christ, we are saved from our sins, and constantly say Christ is our Saviour; and by wear­ing his cross, our motives are changed and our heaven and earth becomes new; (2 Peter, iii. 13.) and in this manner of life we know in whom we be­lieve, and who and what is of this world, (John vii. 17.) As to marriages, we are all married to one, even to Christ, who is in, and is the head of his body, the church. (Eph. v. 30-32.) But external mar­riages, for the purpose of grat­ification, or for begetting or conceiving in sin, of being shapen and brought forth in iniquity, we have not any. It is the children, of this world, who have the marriages. Luke xxii. 34, etc.; but we labour to be of those who are duly qualified. (See Rev. xiv. 14. Yet we have a plenty of the young of the flock ; and that scripture is fulfilled which faith, more are the children of the desolate, than of the mar­ried wife. (See Isa. liv. 1. Psa. cxiii. 7, 8. Luke xxiii. 29, etc. Death —The souls who are in Christ, do not die; and to the faithful soul, who departs this life there is no sting; nor does the departing this life separate us in spirit nor in dis­tance; for heaven is where Christ is, and he is in his church, and that is terrestrial bodies joined and united to celestial bodies. (See Heb.xii.22.) But to answer your mind concern­ing deaths.— Within 30 years, 30 persons, old, and young, have departed this life in our society here, for whom we do not mourn, believing they have the fruits of their labours. We have generally consist­ed of from 200 to 300 souls in this village. We have one meeting-house, open at all times for public worship, for all civil, discreet, candid, and well behaved people; but all who are otherwise minded, we wish them in better employ than to come among us. We have 7 dwelling-houses, 1 deacon’s of­fice, and a number of work­shops, both for brethren and sisters, and several mills, etc. on an artificial stream. We occupy upwards of 1000 acres of land which is conse­crated to the Lord, to all which we hold a lawful and constitu­tional right to govern and pro­tect from all abuse; and in that we are assisted by the ministers of the good civil au­thority to which we have re­spect, and from whence we de­rive support. We manufacture many art­icles for sale, which we endea­vour to make worth what the consumer gives for them, such as linen and woolen wheels, measures, seives, candlesticks, brooms, wooden ware, boxes of wood, whips, cooper set work, cards for wool and cotton, rakes and sneads, leather of different kinds, etc. we also raise garden seeds, in which we take pains to propagate the best kind. For several years we have not made use of spirituous li­quors except for sickness or in­firmity seeing the evil it brings on the human race; and to es­cape another obvious evil we have not made it a practice of trusting or being trusted. We believe the above sketches to be supportable in truth, and if it will answer your purpose ye will insert it without vary­ing the sense. Ye are also welcome to our names. In union and behalf of the people called shakers in Canterbury. Canterbury, where they were entertained in a friendly man­ner for more than a month. At their departure they forced a­way two negreos, one of whom made his escape and returned. The other was carried to Crown-Point and there sold to an officer. The next year Sabatis with another indian Plowsawa came again to Canterbu­ry, where being reproached for misconduct respecting the negroes, he and his companion behaved in an insolent manner. Several persons treated them freely with strong drink, and one pursued them into the woods, and taking advantage of their situation killed them and with the help of another person buried them, but, so carelessly that their bodies were discovered by beasts of prey and their bones lay on the ground. The two men that killed Sabatis and Christi were apprehended and carried to Portsmouth. A bill was found against them by the grand jury and they were con­fined in irons, but on the night before the day appointed for their trial, an armed mob from the country with axes and crows forced the prison and carried them off in triumph.

CENTRE HARBOUR, a town­ship in Strafford county, situ­ated on the N.W. end of Winnipiseogee lake and on the S. E. end of Squam lake, from which circumstance it has its appellation. It was incorporated 1777, and its whole population was, in 1810, about 349 inhabitants. Its boundaries are Moultonborough N. E., Meredith neck S.E., and the waters on the S.W., parting it from Meredith and New-Hampton, and N. by New-Holderness and Squam lake, having an area of 7,626 acres of land. There is a public house of worship for all orders of Christians, 1 saw-mill, and 1 trading store. Part of Measley pond lies in the south-west part of this town.

CHADBOURNE AND HART’S LOCATION, Coos county. Be­ginning at the S.W. corner of land granted to Mr. Vere Royse, at a birch tree, thence running N. 470 rods, thence W. 285 rods, thence nearly N. till it meets the Notch of the White Hills. Saco river finds a pass­age through this location, and a turnpike road crosses it. It contains 3000 acres of land, and is 75 miles N. W. from Portsmouth.

CHARLESTON, a township in Cheshire county, on the easterly side of Connecticut river, bounded N. by Clare­mont, E. by Unity, S. by Langdon, and W. by Connect­icut river; containing 24,100 acres. It was incorporated in the year 1753, and its whole population in the year 1810, amounted to 1501. A bridge denominated Cheshire bridge unites this town with Ver­mont. Nearly opposite to the town are Lovell’s Fort-rouger, and Haymoon islands. The principal settlement is about a half a mile from the river. It is handsomely built, and con­tains 50 dwelling houses, a court-house, meeting-house, and an academy. It contains two parishes, which are divid­ed by a line running from Ches­hire bridge, S. 87° E. to the corner of Unity and Acworth. The meeting-house is in the north parish, and through this parish runs the Cheshire and Charleston turnpike, which is continued over the river by Cheshire bridge. The former ministers in this town were the Rev. John Dennis, and B. Alcot. The Rev. J. Crosby is the present minister. Charles­ton contains 4 grain-mills, 6 saw-mills, 2 mills fur dressing cloth, 3 carding machines, 2 oil-mills, a distillery, and 6 re­tailing shops.
Charleston has been the scene, in former years of many Indian cruelties. In April, 1746, John Spofford, Isaac Parker, and Stephen Farns­worth were taken in this town by a party of Indians and car­ried to Canada. They after­wards returned to Boston with a flag of truce. In the course of the May following, a num­ber of women in this town, while employed in milking their cows, guarded by Maj. Josiah Willard and several sol­diers, were fired upon by sev­eral Indians who were conceal­ed, and who at this time kill­ed one of the number by the name of Putnam. While the Indians were scalping Putnam they were fired upon by Wil­lard and his party. Two of them were mortally wounded, and were carried off by their companions. Immediately af­ter these bloody affairs, the Massachusetts assembly sent to this town Capt. Paine with a body of men of whom about 20 fell into an Indian ambus­cade, while on their way to view the place of Putnam’s murder. The Indians fired, and endeavoured to cut off their retreat. Capt. Phinehas Stevens immediately came to their relief. A skirmish ensu­ed, in which 5 were killed on each side, and one of the Charleston men was taken. The Indians retreated, leaving some of their guns and blan­kets. In June of the same year, as captains Stevens and Brown, and some others were searching for their horses, their dogs discovered a party of In­dians lying in ambush. An­other skirmish ensued, in which the Indians were defeat­ed, carrying off with them sev­eral of their killed, and leav­ing on the ground a quantity of blankets, hatchets, spears, and guns. The other side lost only one man. In the same year a person by the name of Phillips was killed in this town by the Indians. In March, 1747, Capt. Phinehas Stevens, with a company of rangers, consisting of thirty men, came to this town and took possession of the fort, which they found in a good state of repair. In a few days they were attacked ‘by a large body of French and Indians, under the command of a Frenchman by the name of Debeline. The Indians took advantage of a high wind, and set fire to the surrounding log-houses and fences. In this way they encompassed the fort with flames. They also dis­charged into the fort a vast number of burning arrows. They could not however suc­ceed in setting fire to the fort, and after having carried on the siege for two days, ut­tering all the time their savage shouts and yells, they loaded a wheel-carriage with dry fag­gots, probably intending to set it on fire and push it to the walls of the fort. Before this attempt was made, Debeline demanded a cessation of arms till sunrise the next morning. This demand was granted. In the morning, Debeline present­ed himself before the fort, ac­companied by fifty men and a flag of truce. He requested and obtained a parley. A French officer then advanced with an Indian and a soldier, and proposed that the besieg­ed should bind up a quantity of provisions, with their blankets, lay down their arms, and be conducted as prisoners to Mon­treal, and that the two com­manders should meet and an immediate answer be given to this proposal. Capt. Stevens accordingly had an interview with Debeline, who without waiting for an answer, renewed his proposal, accompanying it with a threat, that if his terms should be rejected, or if any one of his party should be kill­ed, he would storm the fort and put all therein to death. Capt. Stevens answered that nothing but extremities should force him to accept such terms, that he was entrusted with the possession of the fort, and would not surrender it until he was convinced that the besieg­ers could execute their threats, adding, that he had no encour­agement to surrender if all his men were to be put to death for killing one of the enemy, when it was probable they had already killed many. Debeline replied, ” go and see if your men dare fight any longer, and give me an immediate answer.” Capt. Stevens accordingly put the question to his men, whether they would fight or surrender. They unanimously determined to fight. This was communicated to the enemy, who renewed and continued the attack all that day and the following night, accompanied with shouting and yelling. On the morning of the third day they requested another cessa­tion of arms for two hours. Two Indians came to Capt. Stevens with a flag of truce and proposed, that if he would sell them provisions, they would depart. Capt. Ste­vens answered, that to sell them provisions was contrary to the laws of nations, but offer­ed to pay them five bushels of corn for every captive for
whom they would give an hos­tage till the captive could be brought from Canada. After the communication of this an­swer, a few guns were fired, and the enemy departed. No lives were lost in the fort and only two men were wounded. Commodore Sir Charles Knowles was so high­ly gratified with the conduct of Capt. Stevens, that he pre­sented him with an elegant and valuable sword. From this circumstance relating to Sir Charles, the township was in­corporated by the name of Charleston. Before its incorporation it was called No. 4. The next spring Capt. Ste­vens was again appointed to command at No. 4. with a gar­rison of a hundred men. In the year 1749, near the close of this war and after the garrison was withdrawn, ex­cept 15 men, Obadiah Tortwell was killed, and a son of captain Stevens was captured and carried to Canada. At the expiration of the war he was set at liberty and sent home. This was in the year 1749. In the beginning of the year 1754, this devoted town was again visited by the savages. In Au­gust they broke into the house of James Johnson early in the morning before any of the fam­ily were awake. They seized upon him and his three sons. The Indians however tarried till the next day on account of the situation of Mrs. Johnson, who was then “delivered of a daughter, to whom the name of Captive was given. The whole family were then carried off with-out bloodshed. Mrs. Johnson was placed on a litter, and some­times on horseback. Provis­ions soon falling short the In­dians killed the horse, and even the infant was driven to horse-flesh for its nourishment. They proceeded to Montreal, where Johnson obtained leave to return home on a parole of two months. The assembly of New-Hampshire granted 150 sterling to purchase his ransom. The severity of the winter compelled him to defer his re­turn to Canada till the next spring. He was charged with breaking his parole, was de­prived of a large part of his money, and was cast into prison together with his fami­ly, where the small-pox at­tacked them. After eighteen months, Mrs. Johnson with her sister and two children were sent to England, and from thence they returned to Boston. Mr.Johnson was de­tained three years in prison, when he was released and went with his son to Boston. He there met his wife, and was again imprisoned, being suspected of treasonable de­signs against his country, but was soon discharged for want of evidence. His eldest daugh­ter was retained in a Canadian nunnery. Mrs. Johnson as­serts in her narrative that her eldest daughter Susan returned a few days before the surren­der of Montreal, and she ex­presses her gratitude to Miss Jasson’s who had treated her daughter with great kindness by adopting her as their child and keeping her at school. Her daughter Captive, who is still living, afterwards married Col. George Kimball, and Susan married Capt. Sam­uel Wetherbee. In 1755, a number of cattle in this town were killed by the Indians, and in 1760, the fam­ily of Joseph Willard were captured and carried to Montreal.

CHATHAM, a township in Coos county, incorporated in 1767, containing 201 inhabit­ants. Bounded N. by Gilman and Warner’s location and Mount Royce, E. by the state line, S. by Conway, and W. by Bartlett and Adams. It contains 2,856 acres. A pond in this town, called Mountain pond, is 200 rods long and 40 wide ; Kimball’s pond, in the S.E.part of the town, is about 250 rods long and 240 wide. Kearsarge mountain lies in the S.W. part of the town on. Bartlett line. This town contains 2 saw-mills, 1 mill for dressing cloth, 2 corn-mills, and a carding-machine. Chatham is about 10 miles in length from north to south, and four miles in width. Its direction from the White mountains is east, 8 miles dis­tant.

CHESHIRE COUNTY lies on the easterly bank of Connecti­cut river, and is hounded by the state of Massachusetts on the S., Grafton County on the N., and Hillsborough county on the E. It contains in land and water, 763,860 acres. Its number of townships is thirty-six, and its inhabitants a­mount to 41,042 of whom 7,478 are legal voters. It has 52 houses for public worship, 2 academies, 109 grain-mills, 155 saw-mills, 46 mills for dressing cloth, 9 oil-mills, 7 cotton and, 5 woolen factories, 23 carding-machines, 2 paper mills, 69 trading stores, and 15 distilleries. In 1813, this
county contained 28 stud-hors­es, 5,771 horses of 5 years old, 498 of 4 years old, 5,169 oxen of full growth, 2,930 of 4 years old, 14,317 cows, 9,632 cattle of 3 years old, and 1,891 acres of orchard land. The chief towns in Cheshire county are Charleston and Keene. The superior court and the courts of common please sit in these towns alternately, and the probate court holds three sessions in each of these towns every year. This coun­ty sends 35 representatives to the state legislature.

CHESTER, a township in Rockingham county, bounded N. and E. by Raymond, Candia, and Allenstown. E. by Poplin and Sandown, S. by ” Londonderry, and W.by Man­chester and Merrimack river. It contains 49,054 acres, of which 962 are water. Chester was incorporated in 1722 and contains 2,030 inhabit­ants. Massabesick pond, containing 1,512 acres is situated in the westerly part of this town, a portion of it however is in Man­chester. This pond is almost equally divided by a narrow strait, over which the London­derry turnpike passes. In Merrimack river, near the north-westerly part of this town, is situated the Isle of Hooksett falls. Beaver brook has its rise in this town and falls into Merrimack river. So also does one branch of Exeter river which passes into Hawke. Another branch of Exeter river passes the northeasterly corner of this town. Chester contains 23 mills of various kinds. It has a congregational meeting­house, an academy, 60 dwell­ing-houses, 6 retailing shops, and one edifice for presbyterian worship. The Rev. M. Hale, Flagg, and Wilson were formerly settled here. The Rev. N. Bradstreet is the pres­ent minister. Rattle-snake hill in this town is a great curiosity. Its diameter is ‘half a mile, its form is circular, and its height 400 feet. On the south side 10 yards from its base is a cave called the Devil’s den, in which is a narrow apartment, 15 or 20 feet square, the floor­ing and ceiling of which are formed by a regular rock. From the wall of this apart­ment there are depending nu­merous excrescences, bearing the form and size of pears, which upon the approach of a. torch throw out a sparkling lustre of innumerable hues.
On the 2d of July,1764, Mr. James Shirley of this town, while walking by the side of his horse, which was led by an­other person, was instantly killed by lightning. The flash was observed by persons at the distance of a number of rods to fall upon his head. It tore his hat into fragments, singed his hair, and entered his head just over his right temple. It is remarkable, that the money in his pocket was melted, and his buckles, which were of steel were broken. His horse was killed although the person who led him, escaped with slight in­jury. In the course of the year 1724, a party of 5 Indians en­tered Chester and seized upon 2 persons by the names of Thomas Smith and John Carr. When they had brought them off about 30 miles, they bound them and laid themselves down to sleep. The prisoners seiz­ed this opportunity to escape, and in three days arrived safe­ly at a garrison in London­derry.

New Hampshire in the early 1800’s

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Taken from The New Hampshire Gazette 1817

Literature & Science.—The only college in this state is in the town of Hanover. It was called Dart­mouth college from the Right Hon. William, Earl of Dart­mouth, who was one of its earliest and principal benefactors. Its charter was obtained in the year 1769. There is an institution annexed to the college, called Moore’s school, containing between 50 and 60 scholars.

The number of academies and incorporated schools in this state is about 20. One of the academies is in Exeter, and is called Phillips Exeter Academy. It was founded in 1781 ; its condition is very flourishing, and its reputation and useful­ness very extensive. There are also smaller academies at Gilmanton, New-Ipswich, Chesterfield, Atkinson, etc. For accounts of those institutions, the reader is referred to the de­scriptions of the towns where they are situated.

Banks.—There are four banks at Portsmouth, viz. the New-Hampshire Bank, incorporated 1792, N. H. Union Bank, in­corporated 1802, Portsmouth Bank, incorporated 1803, and the Rockingham Bank, incorporated 1813. There are also banks at Dover, Exeter, Haverhill, and Keene, all incorporated in 1803, and at Amherst and Concord, incorporated in 1806.

Insurance Companies.—Of these institutions, there are in New-Hampshire four, all of them at Portsmouth. They have pow­er to effect insurance upon vessels and their cargoes, as well as other goods and chattels. They insure also against lire upon buildings and merchandise, against captivity, and against loss of life.

Progressive Population.—The earliest census or authenticated estimate of the population of this state, which we have been able to find was made in 1680, when this territory was under the British government. The province, as it was then called, then contained only four towns, viz. Portsmouth, Dover, Exeter, and Hampton. The number of qualified voters at that time, were in Portsmouth 71, in Dover 61, in Hampton 57, and in Exeter 20, making a total of 209. No regular estimate of the whole population was made before the year 1749, at which time, the province was under the immediate government of Gov. Wentworth. The progressive population of the state since that time is as follows ; in 1749, it amounted to 30,000 ; in 1767, it was 52,000; in 1775, it was 82,000; in 1790, it was 141,000 ; in 1800, it was 183,000 ; and in 1810, it was 214,460, of whom 37,200 were legal voters. The advance of population therefore in ten years was 30,602. This must have been the natural increase, because New-Hampshire does not gain so much by emigration from her sister states as she loses by emigration to Vermont, New-York, and the western country. Where land can be obtained at so cheap a rate, and the means of subsistence are so easy as in the new settled parts of our state, much encouragement is nec­essarily given to early marriage, and indeed an unmarried man, of the age of thirty, is rarely to be found in our country towns.
Our young farmers, having cleared a small tract of land and provided the means of present accommodation, soon experience the truth of the old adage, that ” it is not good for man to be alone.” Having the prospect of immediate support before their eyes, they feel no dread of early connections. Indeed a fe­male soon becomes the indispensable partner of agricultural la­bour in our new settlements, where the land is brought to pas­ture and the business of a dairy has commenced, over which it is the province of women to preside, and with whom it is at once an object of interest and ambition.

Manufactories.—The manufacturing interests of New-Hamp­shire have been recently in a state of rapid progression. This state contains more than thirty incorporated factories in the branches of cotton and woolen, many of them on an extensive scale. There are also several others which are not incorpo­rated. Most of them have been established within five or six years past, and are, with few exceptions, now in operation. These establishments will be particularly mentioned in the accounts of the respective towns where they are situated, viz. Exeter, Dover, Peterborough, Milford, Lebanon, New-Ips­wich, etc. etc.

There is also the New-Hampshire Iron Factory Company, incorporated in 1805, the Haverhill and Franconian Iron Factory Company, incorporated in 1808, the N. H. Mineral Company, incorporated in 1811, the New-Boston Wire and Iron Factory Company, incorporated in 1812, the Bath Alum Company, in­corporated in 1812, and the N.H. Glass- Manufactory Company at Keene, incorporated in 1814.
There are also several furnaces for casting iron, hollow ware, etc. for rolling and slitting iron, casting brass cannon, and at Exeter there is a good manufactory of small arms. Carding and spinning machines, all kinds of cabinet work and turnery, wool and cotton cards, all kinds of articles in the cooper’s line, bricks, tiles, and potters wares, are manufactured in various parts of the state, as also ardent spirits and essences of various kinds, hats, shoes, boots, saddles, and harness, carriages of all sorts; tin, copper, and brass ware, clocks, bells, combs, mill­stones, ploughs, and all the implements of husbandry.

The earliest traffic that was known in this state was that of the fur trade with the Indians. The next trade was in fish, and the next in lumber. In former years the banks of the Piscataqua were covered with excellent pine timber, which was exported in various forms. The first settlers erected many saw­mills on the branches of the rivers, and a brisk trade in this branch was carried on for many years. When the lands adja­cent to the rivers were stripped of their first growth, it was sup­posed that the lumber business would decline. This however has not been the fact. From an interior circuit of 40 or 50 miles, timber is transported for exportation. During a period of several years after the revolution, the partial imposts and im­politic restrictions of our government excluded foreign vessels front our ports, while a deficiency both of capital and enter-prize, prevented the merchants of the Piscataqua from exploring the many new sources of commerce, which were opened by their national independence, and which their brethren in other seaports were improving with avidity. But the operations of the Federal government have introduced a more equal system of imposts and other regulations of trade by which the com­mercial interests of this as well as of other parts of the union have been rapidly advanced. The officers of the customs in New-Hampshire are appointed by the national executive, and the revenue arising from its commerce, goes into the national treas­ury. The salutary effects of the attention of congress to the navigation of New-Hampshire is evident from the situation of this as well as of some other states in the union.

New-Hampshire is situated in the bosom of Massachusetts, with only a narrow strip of sea coast and only one port belonging to her; her interior country is spread extensively along the borders of adjacent states in such a manner, as to compel her to a commer­cial connection with them. All her towns which lie on her southern border, and most of those which lie on her western border, find it more convenient to carry their produce to the mar­kets either of Newburyport, Boston or Hartford than to Ports­mouth. The towns situated on the Saco river and those on the northern part, of the Connecticut, will necessarily communicate with the markets in the District of Maine. The lumber, which is cut on the upper banks of the Merrimack, is rafted down that river and exported from Newburyport or Boston, while most of that which is cut on the Connecticut river is carried to Hart­ford. The largest and best part of New-Hampshire is there­fore cut off by nature from all commercial intercourse with her only sea port. Lumber being a bulky article, is always trans­ported to the nearest emporium, and when it is possible, by wa­ter carriage. All other heavy articles, such as pot and pearl ashes, beef, pork, cheese, butter, flax, etc. which require wagons or sleighs, as also live cattle, sheep, and swine will always be sent to the most advantageous market. These circumstances sufficiently explain the fact, that the government of New-Hampshire have never been able, either before or since the revolution, to concentrate within this state its proper commercial advantages, nor even to ascertain the value of its native produc­tions.

It is impracticable therefore to describe particularly the num­ber or value of the articles of trade which are produced in New-Hampshire and exported from the different ports of Mas­sachusetts and Connecticut. To confine the detail to the port of Portsmouth would give a very imperfect and indistinct idea of the productiveness of the state. Such facts and estimates however which have been obtained on this subject, will be de­veloped under their proper heads.

The staple commodities of New-Hampshire, may be said to consist of the following articles, viz. lumber, provisions, horses, neat cattle, fish, pot and pearl ashes, and flax-seed. The total value of the exportation from Portsmouth from October, 1789, to October, 1790, was $296,839,51 cents. In 1798, the total value in that year was $723,241. In 1810, it was only $234,650. This diminution was caused by the existing commercial restrictions. Since 1810, the commerce of Portsmouth has revived very slowly.

Free Masonry.—The grand lodge of New-Hampshire was incorporated December 30, 1805, for 20 years. There are a number of lodges in the state subordinate to this grand lodge, viz. Washington, St. John’s, Jerusalem, Franklin, Benevolent, etc. etc. Trinity Chapter of Royal Masons at Hopkinton, and St. Andrew’s Royal Arch Chapter at Hanover.

Societies.—The number and character of the societies in this state reflect honour upon the taste, intelligence and humanity of its inhabitants. There are two mechanical societies, viz. New-Hampshire and Walpole, both incorporated in 1805, two mis­sionary societies, the New-Hampshire and Piscataqua; a marine society, a bible society, two agricultural societies, and a medical society, which was incorporated in 1791. The medi­cal society is divided into districts, viz. the eastern, centre, and western. The eastern and centre districts contain the fellows and associates elected from the counties of Rockingham, Straf­ford, and Hillsborough; the western contains those elected from Cheshire, Grafton, and Coos. The annual meeting is held at Concord on the first Tuesday of June. There are several incorporated musical societies in this state, viz. Rockingham, Concord, Handellian, Londonderry, Plymouth, Central, etc. the professed objects of all which are the circulation of approved tunes, the diffusion of a classical taste, and the en­joyment of all the pleasures arising from the social cultivation of sacred harmony. There are library societies incorporated in every considerable township of the state. There is perhaps no mode of public improvement so practicable in a small community as that of social libraries. Of these establishments, New-Hampshire contains at least two hundred, comprising in the whole nearly 10,000 well selected volumes. There are al­so in this state a large number of societies for the distribution of religious tracts, several for the suppression of immorality, and several to promote the observance of the sabbath. Education receives as much encouragement in this state as in any part of the world. The legislature of New-Hampshire in 1808, passed an act making the following provisions, that the selectmen of the several towns and parishes, and places in this state be empowered and required to assess annually upon the inhabitants of their respective towns, parishes and places, ac­cording to their polls and rateable estates, and also upon im­proved and unimproved lands and buildings of non-residents, in a sum to be computed at the rate of seventy dollars for every one dollar of their proportion of public taxes for the time being, and so on for a greater or less sum, which sums when collected to be appropriated to the sole purpose of keeping an English
school or schools within the town or parish for which the same shall be assessed, for instruction in the various sounds and pow­ers of letters in the English language, reading, writing, En­glish grammar, arithmetic, geography, and such other branches as are necessary to be taught in an English school. And fur­thermore, no person to be deemed qualified to teach any such schools, unless he or she shall procure a certificate from some able and respectable English or grammar school-master, or learned minister of the gospel, or preceptor of some academy, or the president, professor, or a tutor of some college, that he or she is well qualified to teach such school, and likewise a cer­tificate from the selectmen or minister of the town or parish to which he or she belongs, that he or she sustains a good moral character; this certificate to be presented to the selectmen or committee for inspecting schools in the town or parish where such school is to be kept, previous to the commencement of such school. Also, that each town in the state shall at their annual meeting, appoint three or more suitable persons to visit and inspect the schools in their respective towns or parishes, at such time as shall be most convenient for the parties concerned, and in a manner they may judge most conducive to the progress of literature, morals, and religion.

State Prison.—The state prison of New-Hampshire is a hand­some stone building erected at Concord three stories high, containing thirty-six cells. The prison is connected with the keepers house, a building of four stories. The whole is en­closed by a wall fourteen feet in height. The workmanship of this edifice is not surpassed by any thing of the kind in the United States. The internal affairs of the prison are under the superintendence of three directors and a warden who officiates as the keeper. These officers are appointed by the
governor and council. The minister of the town officiates as chaplain. The business of the prison is regulated in a man­ner highly creditable to the immediate officers. At present there are about thirty convicts, most of whom are employed in the manufactory of wooden screws, of which article, nearly ten thousand gross were manufactured for the proprietors in less than twelve months. There are other articles fabricated here, such as door hinges and almost every description of smiths work. The employment of the prisoners is constant and sys­tematized, and their food plain and wholesome. These cir­cumstances, in addition to the regularity of their discipline, and the healthy situation of the prison, at once alleviate the pains of confinement and afford opportunity for reflection and amendment. This subject naturally leads to a cursory retrospect of the criminal laws of the state.

In 1792, the following crimes were punishable with death by the laws then existing ; murder, treason, rape, sodomy, burglary, arson, robbery, and forgery of public securities. In June, 1812, a bill was enacted by the legislature, making great alterations in this criminal code. By that and subsequent statutes, murder and treason only are made punishable by death, while other crimes, before considered cap­ital, are now made punishable by imprisonment for life in the state prison; for minor offences the term of confinement is proportionally shortened.

Northfield Factory Village

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Taken from History of Northfield 1780-1905 by Lucy R. H. Cross
The book can be downloaded from the UNH Library at History of Northfield, New Hampshire.

Northfield Factory Village, later known as Smithville, was so distinct a part of the town, I have recorded it entirely separate from • the other portion. It had great natural advantages and was early settled. Before 1800 a dam had been erected above the Sanborn Bridge, which was located somewhat farther up the stream. This dam was probably built by Mr. Folsom, of whom I can obtain no data save that he had a sawmill on the north end of it, which was carried down the river by an ice freshet. Jeremiah Sanborn, who had come from Hampton in 1778, rebuilt on the Northfield side. There was a road by the river bank extending quite a distance. A canal was cut through this road, later, from this dam to the Daniel’s Bridge, on which several industries were located. This Sanborn sawmill was afterward removed to the site of the Folsom mill.

Dam No. 2.—In 1821 Boston John Clark, who has been called an “unlettered genius,” who was, however, a born mechanic, built for Kendall 0. Peabody the next dam below, long known as the Aiken dam. He also erected a mill where Mr. Peabody soon began the manufacture of paper. Mr. Peabody had come from Peterborough a few years previous and established a bakery in the west village. He used to send out carts with his ginger¬bread, crackers and cakes and among other things rags were legal tender. A large accumulation of these, first suggested a new business. Robert Crane, a professional paper maker, became associated with him in the enterprise.

A paper mill, the first in the country, had just been established at Exeter and Daniel Herrick, a born inventor, mechanic and skillful machinist, was sent there, clad in the garb of a Quaker, to study the machinery. He returned and built the machines for the new mill. The work prospered and the mill was greatly enlarged. After five years, it is said, Mr. Peabody, with his brother James L., and Isaac, the brother of Mr. Crane, bought seven acres of land and the water privilege attached to dam No. 3 (of which we shall speak hereafter) and with the addition of Jeremiah F. Daniel, removed the business to the Peabody village, where it has ever since been the leading industry of the town. The old paper mill became a gristmill, owned and run by Mr. Darling for many years. This site is now occupied by Stevens’ mill.

SMITHVILLE FACTORY OR YELLOW MILL.

For many years a long stretch of waste land extended from the Sanborn Bridge down the river bank to the old stable and tavern kept long ago by a Mr. Hoyt and later by John H. Durgin. Next in line stood the Batting Mill and beyond, in the midst of a broad common was erected a cotton mill about 1821 by three Smith brothers and John Caliender, all of Peterborough. A store extending out into the street was built and a row of four double boarding houses erected on the river bank which are still there. The canal lay in front of them, on which the new mill was built for the manufacture of cotton cloth. They were all painted yellow and in later years were known as the “Yeller Mill” and “Yeller Row.” The grounds about were kept in fine condition, shade trees planted and a library established for the free use of their operatives and others for a nominal sum. This has ever since been in existence and was the precursor of the present Smith Library. A family named Annan, also of Peterborough, were engaged in the enterprise, all of whom were a power for good in the business, social and religious life of the little village. William Smith died at Smithvile ; Robert, who had studied law previous to coming. to Northfield, removed to St. Louis, Mo., and James, who married Persia Garland of Salisbury, also removed there and afterwards was honored by a seat in the United States Senate. The Peabody brothers afterwards owned this mill, which was used for various purposes until its destruction by fire in 1853.

BATTING.

Peter Goodnow was the proprietor of a mill in connection with the cotton cloth manufacture for the making of batting, of which. Mr. John Lewis had charge. It continued after the mill ceased. to be used for cloth.

STRAW BOARD.

Hiram Hodgdon and John Gould made straw board in the counting room of the old cotton mill for a time. Mr. Hodgdon sold to Mr. Gould, who, in turn, sold to J. F. and W. F. Daniell, who continued the business until the burning of the mill.

STRAW PAPER.

A. L. Fisher manufactured wrapping paper from straw in the old batting mill. This business eventually passed to Peabody & Daniells. The history of the sawmill on the canal has been given else-where, so we will pass on to Dam No. 3.

The site now occupied, by Subway’s Mill was early used for manufacturing purposes. Dearborn Sanborn built a dam here in 1818 and established his shingle mill. Thomas Elkins had a large sawmill on the Northfield end of it, where an immense business was done and large rafts taken down the river to better markets.

WOOLEN MILL.

It is said that Ebenezer Blanchard and Ebenezer Eastman had a woolen mill here, but no facts can be obtained. It probably antedated the Elkins sawmill. A double house stood next and then the open space to Rowe’s store. The Carlton house is the only remaining dwelling and the blacksmith shop, long since modestly retired to the rear, and the cooper shop became the Marsh shoe store. The long building called the Tontine, with basement on the north aide, was considered a fine house 75 years ago. Robert Crane built it when he came with his brother, Isaac, and others to begin the manufacture of paper. He occupied a part of it and James Lewis (see Mills), the other. After the departure of the Cranes it was used by the Welches as an extensive tailor’s shop. It was removed when the Franklin and Tilton Railroad was built. None of the fine churches were built in 1858 and the dwellers there sought church and extended school privileges at Franklin Village. All south of Main Street was an open pasture, extending to the south and east. On the south side of Central Street one has found nothing for many years but the little red schoolhouse, where a school was established in 1827, formed from several other districts. Here all the children from the Leighton, Cross, Gerrish, Heath, Hancock and Kezar families used to congregate and your historian, in 1851, and again in 1858, tried with varying success to urge some forty or fifty “tardy loiterers” up the rugged hill of science. This school was united with the one across Sanborn Bridge in 1858 and together occupied Lyceum Hall building. The old schoolhouse now does duty as a laundry and grain store. The Brockway and Carlton houses still exist in a changed condition, but the old-timer looking for familiar scenes would find but little in and around the railroad station and side hill to remind him of the old-time cow pasture and marsh land. A copy of the school register for 1851 is in existence, when Angeline T. Sweatt was teacher and every other name on the list was Kezar.

PRINTING OFFICES.

There was a job printing office established long ago on the site of the Sulloway Mills. The style of the firm was Peabody, Daniells & Co. and the Co. was Eliphalet Ayer. They had quite a business in printing Bibles, testaments and Worcester spelling books. It is known that three of the Bibles are now in existence. The office was in a yellow shop on the left, a little below the entrance to the Daniell’s Bridge. Charles P. Hill had a job printing office for many years, until his death in 1888, on Bay Street. He had a reputation for extra fine work. After his death the business was transferred to Tilton and became the property of H. A. Morse. Another office established by George W. Baker was in the upper story of the remodeled Whittier store, opposite the optical works. A shaft was extended underground from the dam across the street and thus power was obtained. It was destroyed by fire and never restored.

TELEPHONES.

The board of selectmen, March 11, 1903, voted the privilege to erect poles in the streets and highways of Northfield to the New England Telegraph and Telephone Company. Conditions were made and duly recorded on page 266 of the town records for that year. There are no country line exchanges in Northfield, except one on High Street.

CITIZENS’ TELEPHONE COMPANY.

This line came from Laconia and Henry Davis was first manager for Tilton and Northfield. Permission to erect poles has been, granted from time to time, until all the farming districts have been covered. The first machine was installed during the autumn of 1895 or 1896 and they now number 115. The present manager is Harry W. Muzzey.

History from The New Hampshire Gazetter 1623-1680

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Taken from The New Hampshire Gazette 1817

History.—Under this head it will only be attempted to ex­hibit some of the principal outlines of the history of this state. It will be observed that many of the events in the following chronology belong to this state only as an integral member of the union.

This territory was discovered in 1614, by Capt. John Smith, and received the name of New-Hampshire from Capt. Mason, the original patentee.

1623—In the spring of this year, Edward and William Hil­ton, fishmongers from London, with some other persons land­ed at Little Harbour, but not being satisfied with that place, they erected their stage eight miles higher up the river to­ward the N. W. on a neck of land which the Indians called Newichawaunat, which name was changed by the English to Northam, and afterwards to Dover.

1624—In the month of March of this year, Mr. Edward Winslow arrived at Plymouth in New-England. He convey­ed with him in his ship three heifers and a bull, which were the first neat cattle ever brought into this country.

1627—Mr. Allerton of the Plymouth company went to En­gland to procure patent for a trading place on the Kenne­bec river, the planters at Piscataqua having threatened to ob­tain an exclusive patent for the same ground.

1629—Some of the planters who were scattered over Mas­sachusetts, wishing to make a settlement in the neighbour­hood of the Piscataqua, and imitating the example of those at Plymouth, who had purchased their lands of the Indians, (as they conscientiously thought this necessary to give them a just title) procured a general assembly of the Indians at Swamscot Falls, (now Exeter) where a deed was obtained from four Sycamores.

1631—The whole plantation of New-Hampshire was this year divided into two parts. •Capt. Thomas Wiggin was ap­pointed agent for the upper and Capt. Walter Neal for the lower. The former of these divisions contained what is now called Dover, Durham, &c. and the latter contained Ports­mouth, Rye, Newcastle, Newington, and a part of Green­land. A house was this year erected at Strawberry Bank, called the Great House. Humphrey Chadbourne had the care of the saw mills at the upper plantations : the descend­ants of this man are to the present day persons of considerable Rote.

The proprietors this year sent over from England several pie­ces of cannon which they directed their agents to mount at some place most convenient for a fort. They accordingly stationed them on the northwest point of the great island which lies at the mouth of the Piscataqua harbour, and laid out the ground about a ” bow shot” distance from the water side to a high rock, on which, it was contemplated to build the principal fort.

1632—During this year the coast was alarmed by reports of a pirate, one Dixy Bull, who with a company of fifteen, being employed in the Indian trade at the eastward, had taken sever­al boats and dismantled the fort at Pemaquid : Capt. Neal, col­lecting a small band, equipped four pinnaces and shallops from the Piscataqua and manned them with forty men, which was all the force that could be spared from the plantations ; this fleet, after uniting with a barge containing twenty men from Boston, sailed for Pemaquid, but were forced by contrary winds and bad weather to return without meeting with the enemy. This was the first naval armament equipped from New-Hampshire. The pirates having proceeded further eastward, arrived after­wards in England, where Bull met with his just punishment.

1633—Neal and Wiggin joined in surveying their respective plantations, and in laying out the towns of Portsmouth and Northam, and another, which was afterwards called Hampton, although at this place no settlement had as yet been made.

1634—By this time Mason and Georges had become, either by purchase or common consent, the principal, if not the sole proprietors of this territory. These gentlemen, perceiving that as yet only five or six houses had been erected in both planta­tions, renewed their exertions and sent over a fresh supply of labourers and materials for carrying on the settlement. They appointed Francis Williams the FIRST GOVERNOR. He was a gentleman of sound sense and discretion, and ao acceptable to the people, that when they afterwards united in a body politic, they unanimously continued him their ruler. A meeting house was this year erected at Dover Neck, which was the first edi­fice of the kind in New-Hampshire.

1635—Sir Ferdinand Georges and Capt. Mason, having be­stowed upon these settlements more pains and expense than the other members of the grand council of Plymouth, and seeing no prospect of any equivalent reward, fearing also from the great clamour in England against monopolies, that they should soon be forced to resign their charter, entered this year upon a new project, which was to procure a general governor for the whole territory of New-England, to be immediately sent over, and to have jurisdiction from St. Croix to Maryland. In this plan however they did not succeed.

1636—This year one Burdet who had been, a minister of Yarmouth in England, came over to Dover, and continued for some time in high estimation with the people, until by artful in­sinuations he excited such a jealousy against Wiggin, the gov­ernor of the place, that they deprived the latter of his office and elected Burdet in his stead, who was in reality, a vicious and profane man.

1637—Several eminently pious persons this year removed in­to this colony from Massachusetts. That religious persecu­tion was the cause of their removal, is evident not only from Mrs. Hutchinson, but it appears from other public proceed­ings, that inquisition had been enforced over their private opin­ions as well as over their declarations and conduct, Toleration in rulers, had been preached against as a sin, which would bring down the judgments of heaven upon the land.

1638—This year John Wheelwright commenced his settle­ment at Exeter. His followers immediately formed them­selves into a church, and decreeing themselves beyond the ju­risdiction of- Massachusetts, they formed a separate political body, and made choice of Nicholas Needham, Isaac Grosse, and Thomas Wilson as their rulers for the first year. The laws were enacted by a popular assembly and formally sanctioned by the rulers. Treason against the country or the king, (who was styled the Lord’s-anointed !) were made capital crimes, and sedition was punished by a fine of ten pounds. This asso­ciation lasted about three years. At this time a settlement was formed at Winnecumet, which was afterwards called Hampton. The first house in this place was built by Nicholas Easton, and was called the bound-house, (See Hampton) Nicholas Easton afterwards removed to Rhode-Island, and ereoted the first house in Newport. Oxen were at this time sold at Hampton for twenty-five pounds sterling per head. This year was made memorable by a remarkable earthquake, which happened on the 2d day of June. Its approach was announced by a low rum­bling noise, similar to that of distant thunder. Its passage was from the northward to the eastward. As the sound increased, the earth began to shake so violently as to drive people from th( houses, nor could they stand without supporting themselves by posts and fences. About half an hour after this, anothershock commenced, was not so violent as the first, which was felt even a great distance at sea.

1639—This year Capt. John Underhill’ was made governor at Dover. As soon as he was fixed in authority, he proceeded to gather a church, over which Hanserd Knolleys was appoint­ed minister. He was a baptist of the antinomian order, and like the governor his patron, was a man of bad character. Be­fore the end of the year, Underhill was displaced and one Rob­erts was appointed in his stead.

1640—During this year the troubles at Dover increased. One Larkeham, a native of Lime in England, and formerly minis-

ter at Barnstead, came over ; possessing good talents as a preach-

er, he eclipsed Knolleys and was chosen in his place. On this

occasion a council was called, composed of Simon Broadstreet,

Esq. of Boston, the celebrated Hugh Peters minister of Salem, and Timothy Dalton, minister of Hampton. They travelled on foot to Dover but did not succeed in effecting a permanent ar­rangement. Underhill, Knolleys, and Larkeham removed out of the colony.

During all this period the people of Portsmouth, Dover, &c. had no right of self government delegated from the British

crown, but finding the necessity of some more determinate form

than they had as yet enjoyed, they combined themselves in sep­arate bodies politic, after the example of their neighbours at Ex-

eter. The inhabitants of Dover, by a written instrument, sub­scribed by forty persons, agreed to submit to the laws of England and to such other regulations as should be formed by a majority of their number, until the pleasure of the king should be known. The date of a similar association at Portsmouth is not known.

Mr. Hutchinson supposed the whole number of neat cattle in the colony of Massachusetts in 1640, to be 12,000, and the

sheep about 4000, and he says, that ” a cow, sold two years ago for 301. may now be purchased for 5 or 61.” It is proba­ble that there were in New-Hampshire at this time, about 1200 neat cattle and 300 sheep.

1641—At this tinle, all the settlements by a voluntary act submitted to Massachusetts and were comprehended in the county of Norfolk, which extended from the Merrimack to the Piscataqua. By a subsequent order, a very extraordinary

concession was made to the towns of Portsmouth and Dover,

which indicated a strong anxiety on the part of the govern­ment to retain these towns under their controul. The test,

whic’h had been established by law, was dispensed with in their favour. Their freemen were allowed to vote in town affairs, and their deputies to sit in the general court, although they were not church members. (Sept. 28th.)

1643—About this time, several persons at Boston were whip­ped, fined and banished for the crime of what was then called heresy. In this year also, Boston castle was built. The church at Boston refused the church at Exeter the privilege of set­tling a minister. Mr. Belknap remarks, that this stretch of pow­er, which would now be regarded ‘as an infringement of christian liberty, was then agreeable to most of the fathers of New-England.

1645—An union having now been formed between the set-dements on the Piscataqua and the colony of Massachusetts, their history for the succeeding forty years is of course in a great measure identified. In the year 1646, Mr. Winthrop was chosen governor, and Mr. Dudley, lieutenant governor. In 1647, an epidemic sickness passed through the continent. En­glish, French, Dutch, and Indians were indiscriminately the vic­tims of it. It was attended with a slight fever. Those, who resorted to bleeding or who used cooling medicines general­ly died. Its ravages extended to the West-Indies, where 5 or 6000 were destroyed by it. A similar contagion has passed over the country at several successive periods.

1648—This year, Rhode-Island requested admission into the New-England confederacy, but she was not received.

The first instance of an execution for witchcraft, was in June, 1748. Margaret Jones of Charlestown, was indicted as a witch, condemned and hung. She was charged with having such a malignant touch, that if she laid her hands upon any person in anger, the person was immediately seized with deaf­ness, vomiting or some other violent affection. After the exe­cution of this woman, her husband took passage for Barba-does in a ship which was well ballasted, and which had eighty horses on board. The vessel happening to roll on a sudden, in an alarming manner, an officer was ordered to apprehend this man and put him in confinement ; the ship was then said to roll no more. Such was the wonderful credulity and infatu­ation of that day. Happy would it have been for New-England if this had been the only specimen of those fol­lies.

1649—Early in this year died Gov. Winthrop, one of the fa­thers of New-England. He was succeeded by Endicot. Mr. Dudley remained deputy governor. It is asserted by some writers, that when Gov. Winthrop was on his death-bed, he was solicited by Mr. Dudley to sign a warrant for the banishment of one of those persons then called heretics. Winthrop refused, and observed that ” he had done too mach of that work al­ready.”

In every age, many actions indifferent in their nature, have been regarded as sinful and been classed among the greatest enormities. The text in the Apostle’s epistle to the Corinthi­ans against wearing long hair, led our ancestors to suppose that this of course must be a sin in all ages and nations. They treated long hair therefore as one of the enormities.

It is wonderful, that a certain text in Leviticus, ” ye shall not round the corners of your head,” was never urged the custom of short hair. It was the regulation at this period in New-England, that the hair should not be worn below the ears. This regulation was enforced with peculiar rigour upon clergymen. They were especially required to appear, “paten-tibus auribus.” A few years before this, the use of tobacco was prohibited by a heavy penalty. Some of the writers of that day compare the smoke of it to the smoke of the bottom­less pit. Some of the clergymen however, yielded to the sin of smoking, and tobacco was accordingly set at liberty by an act of the legislature. Beards as well as wigs were also prohibited by authority.

1650—Capt. Wiggins and Edward Gibbens were added to the council, and •Mr. Endicot was chosen governor for the years 1651-3, and Mr. Dudley, lieutenant governor. It was in this year, that the new District of Maine fell into the ju­risdiction of Massachusetts.

1652—This year a mint was established in Boston for coin­ing shillings, six-pences, and three-pences. The first pieces be­ing struck in 1652, the same date was continued upon all

money for thirty years after. The court ordered, that all the
coins should have a double ring, with the inscription of the word ” Massachusetts,” with a tree in the centre on one side, and New-England and the date of the year on the other. No oth­er colony in this country ever presumed to coist money.

1656—Ii this year, began, what is generally and properly termed, the persecution of the quakers. A fine of ten pounds was inflicted on any person, who harboured a quaker. In October of this year, eleven of the sect, received sentence of banishment ; and the mister of the ship) which brought them from England, was required to bind himself with sureties to the amount of 5001. to carry them all out of the country. (See Hutch. Vol. .I p. 97.) Mr. Hutchinson observes, that ” he could not find what law they had for this.”

In this month also, an act passed imposing a fine of 100/. upon any master of a vessel, who should bring a quaker into the colony, and that if a quaker should arrive, he should be immediately sent to the house of correction, receive twenty stripes, and be confined to hard labour until he could be transported. At the next session, an act passed, by which all persons were liable to a fine of forty shillings for harbouring a quaker one hour. After the first conviction under this act, the offender, if a man, was to lose one ear, and upon the third conviction, the other ; if a woman, she was for each offence to be whipped, and upon the fourth conviction, the offender, whether man or woman was to have the tongue bored through with a hot iron. In May, 1658, a penalty was inflicted upon every person, who should attend a quaker meeting. Under this act, a child only eleven years old, by the name of Pa­tience Scott, was tried and imprisoned. The imprisonment of such a child was as strange as any further severity would have been horrible.

1660—Two quakers, by the names of William Robertson and Marmaduke Stevenson, were executed on the 27th of Oc­tober. Several persons were fined to the amount of 101. for entertaining quakers at their houses, and one man, of the name of Wharton, for pilotting them from one port to another, was ordered to receive twenty stripes. Several others were executed, banished or whipped. Bishop says, ” they cut off the ears of Holden, Capeland, and Rouse in prison, and that others were whipped and banished upon pain of death.”

In this inquisitorial persecution, the clergy were the most active. The sufferings of the victims excited the compassion of the people, many of whom resorted to the prisons by day and night, so that the keepers were forced to establish a constant guard to restrain them. Wendlock Christopherson among oth­ers was sentenced to die. This man implored the court to con­sider, whether they gained any thing by the persecution. For the last man, said he, that was put to death, five rose up in his stead ; and although you have power to take my life, G,od can inspire the same principles into ten more of his servazts and send them among you, that you may have torment upon tor­ment: This man was executed June 13th, 1660. Some of his persecuted companions were tried at Hampton. May those unhappy days never return, when men suppose they are doing God service by sporting with the lives of his children.

1662—On the 26th of January of this year, there were two shocks of an earthquake, and on the 28th a third.

1664—The people of New-England were this year alarm­ed by the appearance of a very large comet, which continuedfrom the 17th of November, to the 4th of February. When it first appeared in the east it was without its tail. This ap­pendage however became visible when the comet was in the west.

1665—The first persecution of the anabaptists, found on re­cord, was in 1665. William Turner, Thomas Gould, Edward Drinker, and several others were accused before the governor and magistrates of the crime of ” gathering themselves into the form of a church, in opposition to the church of Christ estab­lished in the colony, and with intermeddling with those holy appointments of the Lord Jesus, which belong only to office trust.” Several of these men were afterwards imprisoned and banished. In this case, like all others, the severity against the sect made new converts to it, and it was therefore thought ex­pedient to desist from the persecution. These were not the first appearances of antipedo-baptism in the colony. Mr. Dun­stan, the president of the college joined that profession, and was on that account expelled from his office. Mr. Chaney his successor believed in the necessity of immersion. In Mr. Hooker’s time it appeared that the doctrine was gaining ground, and he expresses his belief that the converts to it would in­crease in number.

1666—In the course of this year the small-pox made its appearance in the colony.

The commissioners, sent over this year by the Xing prevail­ed on some of the people of New-Hampshire to sign a petition and complaint to his ,majesty of the wrongs they had suffered from Massachusetts in the usurpation of government, which that state had exercised over them. The inhabitants however, of Dover, Portsmouth, and Exeter, .assembled in their- town meetings, rejected this proposal and expressed their wish to be continued as they had been for many years, a part of Massa­chusetts colony.

1669—New-Hampshire had now remained in a quiet and peaceable condition ever since the year 1641, and were heart­ily united in all their civil and religious concerns,. with their sister colony.

1675—In September of this year the Indians made their first predatory incursion against New-Hampshire. They at­tacked the plantations on Piscataqua river, now constituting Durham, and hero killed two men: This species of hostility continued till the year 1678, when a treaty. was made with Squando and other chiefs at Durham. (For particulars of this war see Durham.)

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